VOLUME 157 SUBJECT INDEX

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A
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absolute age

volcanism, A:16-17
See also geochronology; radiometric age

abyssal plains

geology, A:5-10
See also Madeira Abyssal Plain

accumulation rates

biostratigraphy, B:501-520
datum levels, A:134, 384-385, 430, 479, 543
Mogān interval, B:262
organic matter, B:364
pelagic interbeds, A:164-165, 172
sediments, A:131-132
seismic units, B:495
Site 950, A:87, 89; B:509-510
Site 951, B:510
Site 952, A:164-165; B:510, 513-514
Site 953, A:372
Site 954, A:422-424
Site 955, A:468
Site 956, A:533-534
turbidites, B:626-627
See also sedimentation rates

accumulation rates, pelagic, Cenozoic, A:131-132

advanced piston corer, magnetization, B:47-56

aegirine

chemical composition, B:250
clastic mineral phases, B:234-235 photomicrograph, A:357, 416

aegirine crystals, photomicrograph, B:266

age

islands, A:14; B:99-114
turbidites, B:620
vs. pelagic thickness, A:94, 134, 172

age vs. depth

Gran Canaria, B:341
paleoclimatology, B:76
Site 950, A:94; B:509
Site 951, A:134; B:510, 512
Site 952, A:173; B:511, 513
Site 953, A:383; B:101, 104, 113-114, 122, 186, 339
Site 954, A:429; B:109, 113-114, 339
Site 955, A:478; B:111, 113-114
Site 956, A:542; B:112-114, 339

Aguimes Formation, placers, B:169

alginite, sediments, B:366

alkali amphiboles

photomicrograph, A:357-358
stratigraphy, B:231

alkali basalts, altered, photomicrograph, A:416

alkali feldspars, photomicrograph, A:356, 457, 524

alkalinity

interstitial waters, A:78, 123-124, 154-155, 355, 415, 457-458, 523; B:630
volcanism, A:21-22
vs. depth, A:78, 125, 157, 365, 419, 460, 526; B:563

alkan-2-ones, turbidites, B:593-595, 600-601

alkanes. See cycloalkanes; n-alkanes

alkanes, isoprenoid

turbidites, B:593
See also isoprenoids

alkenes

sediments, B:367
turbidites, B:593, 601

alkylbenzenes, turbidites, B:593-595, 601, 604

alkylcyclohexanes, sediments, B:367

alkylindenes, turbidites, B:593, 596-597

alkylnaphthalenes, turbidites, B:593, 596-597, 604

alkylphenols, turbidites, B:593, 596, 604

alkylthiophenes, turbidites, B:593-596, 601-602, 604

alteration

clinopyroxene, "placer sands," B:149-150
diagenesis, B:573-580
geochemistry, A:24
organic matter, B:581-589
textures, B:429-439, 455-456
volcaniclastics, B:189-190
See also diagenesis; hydrothermal activity; oxidation; reduction

aluminum

vs. magnesium, B:167
See also arsenic/aluminum ratio; chromium/aluminum ratio; cobalt/aluminum ratio; copper/aluminum ratio; iron/aluminum ratio; magnesium/aluminum ratio; manganese/aluminum ratio; nickel/aluminum ratio; potassium/aluminum ratio; scandium/aluminum ratio; selenium/aluminum ratio; silicon/aluminum ratio; sulfur/aluminum ratio; tin/aluminum ratio; titanium/aluminum ratio; vanadium/aluminum ratio; zinc/aluminum ratio; zirconium/aluminum ratio

aluminum logs, vs. depth, A:474, 541

aluminum oxide

vs. calcium oxide, B:150, 240-245
vs. depth, B:251, 565
vs. iron oxide, B:261-262
vs. magnesium number, B:380
vs. magnesium oxide, B:282-283, 384
vs. major oxides, B:165, 236-237, 239
vs. silica, A:362; B:192, 324
vs. zirconium, B:168, 171

ammonia

interstitial waters, A:78, 124, 155, 355, 415, 457-458
vs. depth, A:460; B:630
vs. sulfate, A:9, 157; B:629

amphibole crystals, composition, B:204

amphiboles

chemical composition, B:238, 307, 455
clastic mineral phases, B:232
geochemistry, B:164-166, 316, 318
photograph, A:118
photomicrograph, A:356, 416
"placer sands," B:149
sand fraction, B:302
volcaniclastics, B:189
See also alkali amphiboles

Anaga Massif, reflectors, B:27

anorthoclase

ash-fall layers, B:202-205, 334
ignimbrites, B:230-231
photomicrograph, B:266, 289, 291
resorbtion, B:212
stratigraphic plot, B:234-235
stratigraphy, B:231

anorthoclase phenocrysts, argon isotopes, B:132-133, 135-136, 138

antimony, post-oxic conditions, B:567

apatite, photograph, B:177

apophyllite

alteration, B:150
hydrothermal alteration, B:436
Raman spectra, B:434

aprons

geochronology, B:329-341
volcanism, A:16-17, 19-22; B:97-114, 293-294, 443-469
See also volcanism

aprons, clastic, drilling, A:11-25

aprons, volcanic

drilling, A:11-12; B:447-451, 453
evolution, B:141-181
formation microscanner logs, B:39-46
seismic reflection, B:3-9, 11-27

argon isotopes

anorthoclase phenocrysts, B:132-133, 138
geochronology, B:127-129, 329-341
plagioclase phenocrysts, B:131
argon-36/argon-40 ratio, vs. argon-39/argon-40 ratio, B:335-338
argon-39/argon-40 ratio, vs. argon-36/argon-40 ratio, B:335-338

arsenic, post-oxic conditions, B:569, 631

arsenic/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:569

ash bands, photograph, A:69-70

ash flows, islands, A:14-15, 19-22; B:282-283, 285, 465-467

ash-fall layers

correlation, B:262, 467
emplacement, B:201-218
geochemistry, B:315-328
geochronology, B:329-341
grain size, B:317-318
lithologic units, A:332
photograph, A:333, 405, 445, 510; B:290
Pleistocene, B:421-428
smear slides, A:333
thickness, B:273
turbidites, B:529-531
volcaniclastics, A:454, 456
volcanism, A:17
See also volcanic ash

Atlantic Ocean, geology, A:5-10

Atlantic Ocean N, paleoclimatology, B:76-77

augite

photomicrograph, A:357, 416
volcaniclastics, A:414-415

azimuth, vs. depth, B:46

Azulejos Member, geochronology, B:131-133

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barium, vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:169, 171, 192, 363

Barranco de Balos Formation, placers, B:169

basalt breccia

photograph, B:180
volcaniclastics, B:163-165

basalt clasts

alteration, B:150
lithologic units, A:406-407
major elements, B:155-156, 160
petrology, B:145
photograph, A:337, 511, 513; B:179
photomicrograph, A:416
volcaniclastics, A:454, 456

basalt clasts, microlitic, photomicrograph, B:313

basalt clasts, tachylitic, petrography, A:520-521

basalts

ash-fall layers, B:202-205
geochronology, B:129
islands, A:14-15
lithologic units, A:68, 406-407
photograph, A:514
volcaniclastics, B:189
volcanism, B:141-181
See also alkali basalts; breccia, basaltic; glass inclusions, basaltic; gravel, basaltic; hyaloclastites, basaltic; ignimbrite, rhyolite-basalt; lapillistone; lava flows; sandstone; tuff; volcaniclastics

basalts, coeval

submarine emplacement, B:211-212
vs. depth in ash-fall layers, B:211

basalts, holocrystalline, ash-fall layers, B:204-205

basalts, microcrystalline, ash-fall layers, B:204

basalts, plagioclase-phyric, photograph, A:67

basalts, submarine, composition, B:451-453

basalts, tachylitic

ash-fall layers, B:204
photomicrograph, A:524

basalts, vesicular, glass, B:212

basalts, vitric, ash-fall layers, B:204-205

basanites, petrography, A:353-355

basin infills

alteration, B:619-634
history, B:529-531

basins, evolution, A:23-24

bed thickness, vs. depth, B:483-485

bioclasts

ash-fall layers, B:204-205
genesis, B:213-214
petrology, B:273
volcaniclastics, B:189
vs. depth in ash-fall layers, B:212

biostratigraphic age, vs. sodium oxide+potassium oxide, B:325

biostratigraphy

ash-fall layers, B:318
calcareous nannofossils, B:501-520
Cenozoic, A:70-75, 114, 118-121, 147-152, 341-347, 407-412, 449-453, 515-520; B:97-114
time scales, A:23-24

biotite

photomicrograph, A:457
sand fraction, B:303
volcaniclastics, B:189

biotite phenocrysts, photograph, A:447

bioturbation

lithologic units, A:60-63, 443
photograph, A:64-65, 68, 117, 406, 447; B:175
See also burrows; Chondrites

black units, volcaniclastics, B:278

boreholes, correlation with seismic reflection, B:473-498

Bouma A, volcaniclastics, B:215-216

breccia

age, B:334
geochemistry, B:155-156
geochronology, B:134, 137
lithologic units, B:156, 161
units per core vs. depth, A:403
volcanism, A:22
See also basalt breccia

breccia, basaltic, photomicrograph, A:416

breccia, mud-clast

lithologic units, A:513-514
photograph, A:513

breccia, volcanic

downhole measurements, B:41-42
photograph, A:407

brecciation, photograph, B:312

Brunhes Chron

magnetostratigraphy, A:520
sediments, A:75-76

Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

magnetic polarity, B:57-69, 109
volcaniclastics, A:454

burrows

photograph, A:64-65; B:312
sediments, B:564
See also bioturbation; Chondrites

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cadmium, post-oxic conditions, B:567

cadmium/thorium ratio, vs. depth, B:568

calcarenite

lithologic units, A:65-66
photograph, A:67

calcium

interstitial waters, A:78, 124-125, 155, 358, 418-419, 459, 523; B:630
sediments, B:155
vs. depth, A:365, 420, 460, 527
See also magnesium/calcium ratio; manganese/calcium ratio; strontium/calcium ratio

calcium carbonate

lithologic units, A:112-113
volcaniclastics, A:354-355
vs. manganese oxide, B:556

calcium number logs, vs. depth, A:474, 541

calcium oxide

vs. aluminum oxide, B:165, 236-237, 239
vs. cerium oxide, B:320
vs. lanthanum oxide, B:320
vs. magnesium oxide, B:282-283, 384
vs. major oxides, B:150, 240-245
vs. silica, A:362; B:192, 325
vs. zirconium, B:168, 171

caliper logs

Site 950, A:54, 90, 96-100
vs. depth, A:177-178, 378-379, 473-474, 541

Canary Basin, geology, A:5-10

Canary Channel S, organic matter, B:361-372

Canary Islands

drilling, A:11-25
volcanism, B:444-445, 464
See also Fuerteventura; Gran Canaria; Tenerife

capture cross section logs, vs. depth, A:90

carbon

sediments, A:79-80, 126-127, 157, 358-359,420
volcaniclastics, A:461, 523, 525

carbon, elemental, cores, A:462, 528

carbon, organic

carbonate content, B:577
cores, A:462, 528
diagenesis, B:574-576
mineral surface area, B:587
oxidation, B:569
sediments, A:159; B:363, 583-584, 600-604
vs. depth, B:565, 585
vs. mineral surface area, B:589
vs. nitrogen-15, B:578
vs. total nitrogen, B:586
vs. total sulfur, B:365

carbon, organic/sulfur ratio, vs. depth, B:565

carbon, total, organic, vs. depth, A:80, 126, 158, 173, 366, 461, 527, 545; B:364

carbon/nitrogen ratio

diagenesis, B:574-576, 632
sediments, A:166; B:583
vs. carbonate content, B:577
vs. depth, A:160, 462; B:585
carbon-13
diagenesis, B:575-576, 584-587, 632
vs. nitrogen-15, B:578, 586

carbon dioxide

interstitial waters, A:419
mafic magmas, B:411-420
parental magmas, B:389-390
vs. water, B:417

carbonate compensation depth

history, A:9; B:529-531, 587
lithologic units, A:113
preservation, B:122-123
turbidite infill, B:525-529
turbidites, A:7, 68-70; B:620-621, 623

carbonate content

foraminifers, B:116
lithologic units, A:138, 143
mineral surface area, B:587, 632
percentage, B:576-577
sediments, B:363-365, 564-565
vs. age, B:623
vs. carbon/nitrogen ratio, B:577
vs. depth, A:9, 63, 67, 114, 147, 332, 372, 403, 426, 445, 508; B:364, 526, 528, 546-553, 565, 588, 623
vs. organic carbon, B:577
vs. total nitrogen, B:577

carbonate index logs, vs. depth, A:90

Cenozoic

biostratigraphy, B:97-114
deposition, A:113-114
sediments, A:68-70
See also Neogene; Paleogene; specific epochs

cerium

vs. depth, B:454
vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:192

cerium oxide

vs. calcium oxide, B:320
vs. titanium oxide, B:320

chalk, clayey, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:67-68, 333-334

chalk, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:403, 405
photograph, A:405-406; B:312

Charis Fracture Zone

geology, A:5-6
seismic units, B:495
turbidites, B:627

chemical stratigraphy

glass shards, B:258-260
sideromelane, B:260
subaerial deposits, B:243-245, 256
turbidites, B:535-558
volcaniclastics, B:256, 258

chevkinite

clastic mineral phases, B:239
inclusions, B:455
chevkinite crystals, photomicrograph, B:266

chloride, interstitial waters, A:77-78, 123, 154, 355-356, 417, 458, 523

chlorine

inclusions, B:403-410
sideromelane, B:423, 425
vs. magnesium oxide, B:283, 406, 426
vs. phosphorus, B:407
vs. potassium oxide, B:283, 427
vs. sulfur, B:407

chlorinity, vs. depth, A:365, 419, 460, 526

chlorite, photomicrograph, A:358

Chlorophyceae, kerogen, B:599

Chondrites

sediments, B:564
See also bioturbation; burrows

chromium

vs. depth, B:454
vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:169, 171
chromium/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:554

chromium number

vs. forsterite, B:382
vs. magnesium number, B:381
chromium oxide, vs. calcium oxide, B:150, 240-245

Chron C1n, magnetostratigraphy, A:520

Chron C1r, sediments, A:121

Chron C1r.1n

sediments, A:75, 121
volcaniclastics, A:349

Chron C2An

sediments, A:76, 122

volcaniclastics, A:413

Chron C2An.1, sediments, A:76

Chron C2An.1r, volcaniclastics, A:413

Chron C2n

sediments, A:121
volcaniclastics, A:349
Chron C2n/C2An, magnetostratigraphy, A:520

Chron C2r.1, sediments, A:75, 122

Chron C2r, sediments, A:122

Chron C3Ar, volcaniclastics, A:413

Chron C3r, diachronism, B:122

Chron C4An, volcaniclastics, A:413

Chron C4r, volcaniclastics, A:413

Chron C5n, volcaniclastics, A:413

Chron C5n.1n, diachronism, B:121-122

chronostratigraphy

Miocene/Pliocene, B:127-140
See also geochronology

chrons

ages and correlated core intervals, A:351
magnetic polarity, A:75

clastic sediments. See sediments, clastic

clasts

petrography, A:353-355
petrology, B:145-148, 268, 270-273, 282-283
photograph, A:336-339, 511, 513-514
photomicrograph, A:457-458; B:313
sediments, A:407
vitroclasts, B:268, 270-271
vs. depth, B:146-147, 304
See also basalt clasts; bioclasts; breccia, mud-clast; ignimbrite clasts; lithoclasts; mud clasts; phonolite clasts; pumice clasts; sideromelane clasts; tachylite clasts; vitroclasts

clasts, rip-up photograph, A:148, 514

clasts, volcanic

photograph, A:407
photomicrograph, A:416

clay, photograph, A:68-69, 148

clay, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:67-68, 108, 329-332, 445, 511-514
photograph, A:69

clay, red

lithologic units, A:67
photograph, A:68-69

claystone, lithologic units, A:405

claystone, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:333-338, 447-448, 510
photograph, A:514

clinopyroxene

alteration, B:150
ash-fall layers, B:203-204
chemical composition, B:246-249, 305-307, 380
clastic mineral phases, B:234
composition, B:150
composition vs. P-T conditions of crystallization, B:389
geochemistry, B:161-162, 394-395
inclusions, B:375-401, 403-410, 416
mineral chemistry, B:379
photograph, B:177
photomicrograph, A:356; B:149, 199, 416, 457
"placer sands," B:149
sand fraction, B:302
volcaniclastics, A:520-521; B:187

clinopyroxene crystals, composition, B:205

clinopyroxene glomerocrysts, photomicrograph, B:148

clinopyroxene phenocrysts

photograph, B:178
volcaniclastics, B:148-149, 455

cluster analysis, paleoclimatology, B:75-82

cobalt, post-oxic conditions, B:567-569

cobalt/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:568

Cobb Mountain Subchron, volcaniclastics, A:349

color banding, photograph, A:337, 512

comendite. See also ignimbrite, comendite; ignimbrite, comendite-pantellerite; ignimbrite, subalkalic-comenditic rhyolitic

compaction, vs. depth, B:44-45

compressional wave velocity

sediments, A:127, 159-160, 165, 359, 362, 374, 463-464, 469, 527, 529, 537
vs. depth, A:367

Concepcion Bank, drilling, A:12-13

concretions, lithologic units, A:507

convolute bedding

lithologic units, A:507
photograph, A:446

copper

post-oxic conditions, B:567-569
vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:192
copper/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:568

cores, depth correction, B:615

coring

magnetic polarity, B:57-69
magnetization, B:47-56

correlation

ash-fall layers, B:203-204, 262, 452
seismic profiles, B:480-482
Sites 950 and 952, A:162

Cretaceous, sediments, A:13

cross bedding, photograph, B:177

cross laminations, photograph, A:69-70, 334

Cruiser Fracture Zone

deposition, A:68-70; B:627
geology, A:5-6
seismic units, B:495

Cruiser Seamount

deposition, A:68-70
turbidites, A:7
See also Hyčres/Cruiser/Great Meteor seamount chain

Cruiser Turbidite, carbonate content, B:529-530, 627

crust

evolution, B:447
See also lithosphere
crust, oceanic, Mesozoic, A:13

crystal inclusions, phenocrysts, B:379-381

crystallization, parental magmas, B:388-389, 407-408, 416-417

crystallization, post-entrapment, glass inclusions, B:382-384

crystals, clasts, B:271-272

currents, reflectors, B:26-27

cyanobacteria, sediments, B:367

cycloalkanes, sediments, B:367

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Dacia Seamount, basins, A:13

datum levels, accumulation rates, A:93, 134, 171, 543; B:509, 510-511

datum levels, diachronous, age vs. depth, B:121-122

datum thickness, vs. age, B:511-512

debris, volcaniclastics, B:193

debris avalanches, volcaniclastics, B:278

debris flows

clasts, B:145, 148
deposition, A:514-515
felsic sediments, B:30-31
landslides, B:174, 449
lithology, B:173, 459-460
photomicrograph, B:148, 181
reflectors, B:23-26
sediments, A:13, 22-23
transport, B:165-166
turbidites, A:7; B:529-531
volcaniclastics, A:448-449; B:163-165
vs. depth, A:147
See also gravity flows; landslides

debrites

formation microscanner, B:35
geochronology, B:133-134
source areas, B:166-168

deformation, vesicles, B:212-213

degassing, magmas, B:407, 419-420

demagnetization

cores, B:49-50, 52
remanent magnetization, A:76; B:51
sediments, A:153-154; B:48-49
Zijderveld diagrams, B:60-67

demagnetization, alternating-field, Zijderveld diagrams, A:354

dendrites, photograph, A:67

density

vs. depth, A:80, 82-86, 128, 160, 367-371, 373, 421-425, 463, 465-467, 528, 530-533; B:486
vs. gamma rays, A:425, 466, 533
vs. magnetic susceptibility, A:422, 425, 466, 533
vs. magnetic susceptibility and velocity, A:423

density, bulk

sediments, A:126-127, 359, 527
vs. depth, A:85-86, 89, 133, 164, 168-169, 373, 427, 467, 475, 536

density correction logs, vs. depth, A:177-178

density, dry, vs. depth, A:85-86

density, grain, vs. depth, A:84-86, 133, 164, 373, 428, 467, 536

density logs

debrite, B:36
Site 950, A:54, 99-100
vs. depth, A:378, 473, 540
See also gamma ray-density-porosity logs

density, matrix, sediments, A:371

density, matrix/grain, vs. depth, A:380

deposition

cycles of ash fall, B:213
history, A:113-114, 339-341, 407, 448-449, 514-515; B:349-354, 624-628
lithologic units, A:147
sediments, A:407
sequences, B:297
turbidites, A:68-70
volcaniclastics, B:260-261, 263

depth maps, seismic facies, B:478-479, 484, 487-490

diachronism, age vs. depth, B:121-122

diagenesis

alteration, B:150, 619-634
geochemistry, A:24
kerogen, B:591-607
mineral surface area, B:57
organic matter, B:581-589
oxidation, B:573-580
photograph, A:68
sediments, A:8-9; B:367
silica, B:630
turbidites, B:559-571
volcanism, A:16-17
See also alteration; hydrothermal activity; oxidation; reduction

diatoms, silica, B:609-612

Diego Hernandez Formation, lithology, B:320

dikes, islands, A:14-15

disconformities, biostratigraphy, B:513

dissolution, foraminifers, B:116

dolomite, lithologic units, A:402

downhole measurements

Gran Canaria, B:39-46
Site 950, A:81-87
Site 953, A:363, 365-372
Site 955, A:464-468
Site 956, A:530-533

drill moments, simulation of magnetic effects, B:53-54, 56

drilling, effect on magnetization, B:47-69

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East Canary Debris Flow, reflectors, B:25

East Canary Ridge, reflectors, B:27

edenite, stratigraphy, B:231

edenite phenocrysts, photomicrograph, B:218

El Tablero Formation, geochronology, B:134, 137

electrical conductivity, vs. depth, B:44-45

Eocene

biostratigraphy, B:505
turbidite infill, B:523-531

epiclastic deposits

geochronology, B:133-134
photomicrograph, B:217
subaerial deposits, B:268, 458

erosion

mass balance, A:7-8
reflectors, B:26-27
volcaniclastics, B:163, 305-307, 460-462

eruptions

islands, A:14-15; B:280-281, 459
magnitude, B:212
rate vs. age, A:15

eruptions, explosive, Miocene, A:20-21

eruptions, submarine, volcaniclastics, B:161, 163, 418

ethane

headspace samples, A:158
sediments, A:79, 156-157
volcaniclastics, A:459-461, 523
See also methane/ethane ratio

Eustimatophyceae, kerogen, B:599

event stratigraphy, tephra, B:219-291

explosions, volcanism, B:214-215, 459

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Fataga Formation. See Lower Fataga Formation; Middle Fataga Formation; Upper Fataga Formation

Fataga Group

deposition, A:514-515
evolution, B:103, 453
geochemistry, A:521, 523; B:306
geochronology, B:133-134, 140
islands, A:14-15
photomicrograph, A:356-357
sedimentation, A:468
sediments, A:414
volcaniclastic units, B:228-291
volcanism, A:17, 19-23, 340, 456-457

wireline logs, B:29-37

fatty acids, sediments, B:367-368

fecal pellets, photograph, A:66

feldspar crystals

composition, B:204, 455
vs. depth in ash-fall layers, B:212

feldspars

ash-fall layers, B:203-204
chemical composition, B:233, 316, 318-319
clastic mineral phases, B:231-232
crystal-size distribution, B:206, 208, 210
photograph, A:118
photomicrograph, B:199, 289
sand fraction, B:303
volcaniclastics, B:187
See also alkali feldspars; anorthoclase; basalts, plagioclase-phyric; oligoclase; plagioclase; sand, foraminifer-feldspar-quartz

felsic particles, microcrystalline, significance, B:213

felsic rocks

formation, B:260-261, 263
geochronology, B:129
lithologic units, A:66; B:268

felsic sediments, potassium logs, B:30-31

felsic tephra, composition, B:453

fiamme, photograph, A:511

flame structures, photograph, A:406

flank collapse, volcaniclastics, B:163-165, 459-460

fluid inclusions

hydrothermal activity, B:429-439
olivine, B:381
phenocrysts, B:381

fluids, parental magmas, B:389-390

fluorine

inclusions, B:403-410
phosphorus, B:407
sideromelane, B:425-426
vs. aluminum oxide, B:236-237, 239
vs. magnesium oxide, B:283, 406, 426
vs. potassium oxide, B:283, 409, 437
vs. silica, B:409

folds, photograph, A:406, 512

foraminifer zones

abundance and preservation, A:74; B:97-114
vs. depth, A:71, 119, 149, 152

foraminifers

ash-fall layers, B:205
preservation, A:121; B:116
zonation, A:348-349, 408, 412, 450, 452, 517-518
See also sand, foraminifer; silt

foraminifers, benthic

depth zones, B:298-299
turbidity currents, B:307-309

foraminifers, planktonic

biostratigraphy, A:73-75, 118, 121, 151-152, 346-347, 409, 411-412, 450, 453, 519-520; B:115-124
first and last occurrences, B:105
paleoceanography, B:73-82
photograph, B:178, 291
preservation, B:122-123
vs. depth, B:78, 82

foraminifers, vs. depth, B:308

formation microscanner logs

debrite, B:35
microresistivity, A:476
sediments, A:86-87
volcanic aprons, B:39-46
vs. depth, A:92; B:44-45

forsterite

vs. chromium number, B:382
vs. iron ratio, B:382

fragmentation, volcaniclastics, B:161, 163-165

Fuerteventura

basins, A:13; B:461
reflectors, B:26-27
sandstone, B:168-169

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gamma ray-density-porosity logs

Site 950, A:99-100
Site 953, A:391-394
vs. depth, A:486-489, 549-551

gamma ray-resistivity-sonic logs

Site 950, A:96-98
Site 953, A:388-390
vs. depth, A:482-485, 547-548

gamma rays

sediments, A:359, 527
vs. density, A:425, 466, 533
vs. depth, A:367, 424-425, 464-466, 529-533
vs. magnetic susceptibility, A:422, 425, 466, 533
vs. velocity, A:422, 466, 533

gamma-ray logs

debrite, B:36
vs. depth, A:88, 96-102, 167, 169, 175-178, 377, 472, 490-493, 539, 552-554

Gauss Chron

paleoclimatology, B:77
sediments, A:75-76, 122, 153
volcaniclastics, A:413

geochemical logs

felsic sediments, B:30-31
vs. depth, A:90, 103-104, 377, 472, 494-496, 539, 555-557
See also potassium logs; thorium logs; uranium logs

geochemistry

ash-fall layers, B:315-328
organic matter, B:361-372
pore water, B:628-632
sediments, B:150-157
sideromelane, B:421-428
volcaniclastics, A:354-355, 414-415, 456-457, 521, 523

geochemistry, inorganic

Madeira Abyssal Plain, B:630-631
Site 950, A:77-78
Site 951, A:123-125
Site 952, A:154-156
Site 953, A:355-358
Site 954, A:415, 417-419
Site 955, A:457-459
Site 956, A:523

geochemistry, organic

Madeira Abyssal Plain, B:631-632
Site 950, A:78-80
Site 951, A:125-126
Site 952, A:156-157
Site 953, A:358-359
Site 954, A:419-420
Site 955, A:459-461
Site 956, A:523, 525

geochronology

abyssal plains, A:7
islands, A:14
Pleistocene, B:329-341
volcanism, B:127-140
See also absolute age; chronostratigraphy; radiometric age

geology, islands, A:14-15

glaciation

carbonate compensation depth, B:525-529
lithologic units, A:113-114

glass, vitrophyre, chemical composition, B:241-243, 254, 256

glass fragments, photomicrograph, B:218

glass inclusions

geochemistry, B:381-384, 403-410
photomicrograph, B:414
See also melt inclusions

glass inclusions, basaltic, infrared spectra, B:415-416

glass rim, vesicular, photomicrograph, B:218

glass shards

ash-fall layers, B:318, 320
chemical stratigraphy, B:257-260
classification, B:426
clasts, B:268, 270-273
geochemistry, B:175, 326-328
lithologic units, A:112, 443, 448
petrography, A:520-521
photograph, A:67, 118, 445; B:178
photomicrograph, A:458, 524
sand fraction, B:303
See also basalts, vitric; volcanic glass

glass shards, deformed, significance, B:212-213

glass shards, felsic

chemical composition, B:240-243, 255
geochemistry, B:421-428

glass shards, pantelleritic, photomicrograph, B:265, 289

glass shards, rhyolitic, photomicrograph, B:266, 287

glauconite

photograph, A:118, 149
sediments, B:350-352

glomerocrysts. See clinopyroxene glomerocrysts

gmelinite, hydrothermal alteration, B:436

grain size

sediments, B:357-358
volcaniclastics, B:297, 300-302

Gran Canaria

alteration, B:429-439
ash-fall layers, B:201-218, 315-328
biostratigraphy, B:83-124
chronostratigraphy, B:127-140, 329-341
deposition, A:514-515
drilling, A:11-25
evolution, B:445, 448-450, 456-459, 466-467
formation microscanner logs, B:39-46
inclusions, B:375-401, 403-410
magnetization, B:57-69
magnetostratigraphy, B:97-114
map smear slides and thin sections, A:305-313
organic matter, B:361-372
paleoceanography, B:73-82
seismic reflection, B:11-27
volatiles, B:411-420
volcaniclastics, B:29-37
volcanism, B:141-181, 443-469
See also Canary Islands

gravel, basaltic, petrography, A:520-521

gravity flows

deposition, A:339-341
sedimentation, B:184
ternary diagrams, B:190
thickness, B:186
thickness vs. depth, B:186
volcaniclastics, B:193-194
See also debris flows

Great Meteor Seamount

deposition, A:68-70
turbidites, A:7
See also Hyčres/Cruiser/Great Meteor seamount chain

Guajara Formation, lithology, B:320

Guigui Formation, geochronology, B:137

H

hastingsite, sand fraction, B:302

hauyne

geochemistry, B:316, 318
geochronology, B:134, 137
photomicrograph, A:416

heavy minerals

exotic sandstone, B:168-169
photograph, B:177
hexacosenoic acid, sediments, B:368

hiatuses

deposition, A:514-515
islands, A:14-15; B:98-114, 349-354
lithologic units, A:406
Miocene, A:21-22; B:529-531
Miocene/Pliocene boundary, B:293-313
timing, B:114
volcaniclastics, A:454, 456
See also disconformities; unconformities

Hierro, basins, A:13

Hogarzales Basin

drilling, A:13
sandstone, B:169

Hogarzales Formation

argon isotopes, B:131
geochronology, B:137
hopanes, sediments, B:367

hyaloclastites

alteration, B:150
chemical stratigraphy, B:260
deposition, A:339-341, 514-515; B:279-282
geochemistry, B:155-156, 416
lithologic units, A:513-514
magmas, B:419-420
petrography, A:353-355
photograph, A:338-340
photomicrograph, B:200, 291
reflectors, B:23, 25
source areas, B:166-168
See also tuff

hyaloclastites, basaltic, inclusions, B:403-410, 416

hyaloclastites, submarine shield stage, inclusions, B:375-401

hydrocarbons

pyrolysis, B:365-366
sediments, A:358
See also ethane; hopanes; methane

hydrocarbons, nonaromatic

chromatograms, B:372
sediments, B:369

hydrocarbons, volatile

sediments, A:79, 125-126, 156-157, 420
volcaniclastics, A:459-461, 523

hydrogen index

hydrocarbons, B:366
sediments, A:166
vs. oxygen index, A:173, 545; B:365

hydrothermal activity

alteration, B:429-439
evidence, B:433, 435
fluid inclusions, B:429-439
timing, B:435
See also alteration; diagenesis; oxidation; reduction

hydrothermal alteration, volcanism, A:16-17

hydrothermal circulation, fluid inclusions, B:433

hydrothermal solutions

composition, B:436
mineral precipitation, B:436

Hyčres/Cruiser/Great Meteor seamount chain, turbidite sources, B:624-628

Hyčres seamount chain, turbidites, A:7

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igneous particles, ash-fall layers, B:204-205

ignimbrite

geochronology, B:127-129
mineralogy, B:230-231
Miocene, A:20-21; B:457-458
units, A:340; B:268, 282
volcaniclastics, A:454, 456

ignimbrite, comendite, geochronology, B:131

ignimbrite, comendite-pantellerite, geochronology, B:131

ignimbrite, comendite-trachyte, geochronology, B:131

ignimbrite, high-grade, ash-fall layers, B:201-218

ignimbrite, pantellerite-trachyte, geochronology, B:131

ignimbrite, rhyolite-basalt, geochronology, B:129

ignimbrite, subalkalic rhyolite, geochronology, B:129

ignimbrite, subalkalic-comenditic rhyolitic, geochronology, B:129, 131

ignimbrite, trachyphonolitic, geochronology, B:133-134

ignimbrite, trachyte, geochronology, B:131

ignimbrite, welded, photograph, A:511

ignimbrite A, photograph, A:447

ignimbrite clasts, photomicrograph, B:313

ignimbrite-lava flow, comendite-trachyte, geochronology, B:131

inclusions

phenocrysts, B:375-401, 403-410
photomicrograph, B:414
See also crystal inclusions; fluid inclusions; glass inclusions; melt inclusions

index properties, sediments, A:81, 129-130, 132, 158-159, 165, 362, 373, 421-422, 428, 463, 468, 527, 529, 536

inertinite, sediments, B:366-367

interstitial water. See pore water

intraplate volcanism. See volcanism, intraplate

iron

inclusions, B:381
oxic conditions, B:565-567

iron/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:554, 567

iron/sulfur ratio, vs. depth, B:567

iron index logs, vs. depth, A:90

iron oxide

vs. aluminum oxide, B:261-262
vs. calcium oxide, B:150, 240-245
vs. depth, B:567
vs. magnesium oxide, B:282-283, 384
vs. silica, A:362; B:192, 324
vs. titanium oxide, B:259-260, 320
vs. zirconium, B:168, 171

iron ratio, vs. forsterite, B:382

iron-titanium oxides

clastic mineral phases, B:237
inclusions, B:379
scanning electron microscope image of shard, B:194
volcaniclastics, B:189

islands

drilling, A:11-25
volcanic aprons, B:463
See also ocean islands; volcanic islands
islands, submarine, seismic structure, B:20-21
isopach maps, seismic facies, B:478-479, 484, 491-494

isoprenoids

turbidites, B:593-594, 597-604
See also alkanes, isoprenoid

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Jaramillo Subchron

sediments, A:75-76, 121, 153
volcaniclastics, A:349

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Kaena Subchron

sediments, A:75-76, 153
volcaniclastics, A:413

kaersutite

clastic mineral phases, B:232
sand fraction, B:302

kerogen

diagenesis, B:591-607
pyrolysis, B:365-366
See also alkan-2-ones; alkanes, isoprenoid; alkenes; alkylbenzenes; alkylcyclohexanes; alkylindenes; alkylnaphthalenes; alkylphenols; alkylthiophenes; fatty acids; isoprenoids; lipids; n-alk-1-enes; n-alkanes; phenols; thiophenes

Kilauea, glass inclusions, B:415-416

King diagram, remanent magnetization, A:121-122

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La Calderilla Formation, geochronology, B:137

La Gomera

sandstone, B:168-169
source area, B:278-279

La Palma, basins, A:13

laminations

lithologic units, A:108
photograph, A:117, 337, 404-405
volcaniclastics, B:43-44

landslides, debris flows, B:174

lanthanum, vs. zirconium, B:192

lanthanum oxide, vs. calcium oxide, B:320

lapilli

photograph, A:509-510
See also pumice lapilli

lapilli clasts, petrology, B:145

lapillistone

age, B:334, 457
geochemistry, B:155-156
lithologic units, A:333-339, 402, 509-514; B:156, 161
lithostratigraphy, B:43
petrography, A:353-355
photograph, A:335, 404-405, 511, 514; B:176
photomicrograph, A:357, 416; B:148, 179-181
volcaniclastics, A:414-415
volcanism, A:22
welded glass, B:273

lapillistone, basaltic

petrography, A:520-521
photomicrograph, A:524

lapillos, photomicrograph, B:148-149

Las Caņadas caldera wall

ash-fall layers, B:315-328, 458-459
lithology, B:320

Las Palmas Formation, geochronology, B:134, 136

laumontite, alteration, B:150

lava

geochronology, B:127-129
islands, A:14-15
shield volcanoes, A:13

lava deltas, volcaniclastics, B:163

lava flows

geochronology, B:133-134, 137
volcaniclastics, B:163, 268, 278
See also basalts; ignimbrite

lava flows, basaltic, geochronology, B:131

lava fragments, felsic, petrology, B:273

lava, subalkalic rhyolite, geochronology, B:129

lava, trachyphonolitic, photomicrograph, A:457

lignin, turbidites, B:584-587

lipids

diagenesis, B:593
sediments, B:368

liptinite, sediments, B:367

lithium

interstitial waters, A:356-358, 417
vs. depth, A:365, 419

lithoclasts, petrology, B:272-273

lithofacies, petrology, B:450

lithologic units

Site 950, A:55, 59-70
Site 951, A:108, 112-113
Site 953, A:329-341
Site 954, A:398, 402-407
Site 955, A:437, 443-448
Site 956, A:501, 507-514
thickness, B:274
Unit I, A:55, 59-65, 108, 112-113, 138, 143, 147, 329-332, 398, 402, 437, 443-444, 501, 507-508
Unit II, A:65-66, 332, 402, 444-445, 508-511
Unit III, A:66-68, 332, 402-405, 445, 511-512
Unit IV, A:68-70, 332-336, 406-407, 445, 447-448, 512-513
Unit V, A:336-338, 448, 513-515; B:156, 456-457
Unit VI, A:338; B:156
Unit VII, A:338-339; B:156

lithology

downhole measurements, B:40-42
seismic structure, B:11-27
seismic units, B:476-478
synthetic seismograms, B:5
vs. depth, B:98, 110

lithology-log units, sediments, A:83-84, 161-162

lithosphere

volcanism, A:17; B:450-451
See also crust; mantle

lithostratigraphy

ash-fall layers, B:203-211, 271, 448
seismic profiles, A:386
Site 950, A:55, 59-70
Site 951, A:108, 112-114
Site 952, A:138, 143-147
Site 953, A:320, 329-341; B:156
Site 954, A:397-398, 402-407; B:161
Site 955, A:437, 443-449
Site 956, A:501, 507-515; B:161
tephra, B:219-291
turbidites, B:624-628
volcaniclastics, B:43-44

Llanos de la Paz Formation, geochronology, B:137

load casts

photograph, B:312
sedimentation, B:304-305

Los Listos Formation, geochronology, B:137

Lower Fataga Formation, geochronology, B:133-134, 136

Lower Mogān Formation

geochronology, B:129, 131, 137
volcaniclastic units, B:226-227

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Madeira Abyssal Plain

biostratigraphy, B:501-520
chemostratigraphy, B:535-558
deposition, A:68-70, 340
diagenesis, B:573-580
geology, A:5-10
organic matter, B:581-589, 591-607
oxidation fronts, B:559-571
post-cruise correction of core depths, B:615
sedimentation, B:523-531
seismic facies, B:473-498
silica, B:609-612
turbidites, B:619-634

mafic magmas. See magmas, mafic

magma density, vs. pressure, B:418

magmas

degassing, B:407, 427
volcanism, A:16; B:321, 462

magmas, mafic, water and carbon dioxide, B:411-420

magmas, parental

composition, B:407-408, 416-418
melt inclusions, B:387-390

magnesium

interstitial waters, A:78, 124-125, 155, 358, 418-419, 459, 523; B:630
vs. aluminum, B:167
vs. depth, A:79, 125, 157, 365, 420, 527

magnesium/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:555

magnesium/calcium ratio

sediments, A:8-9
vs. depth, A:9, 79, 125, 157, 365, 420, 460, 527

magnesium number

vs. aluminum oxide, B:380
vs. chromium number, B:381-382
vs. titanium oxide, B:380-381

magnesium oxide

volcaniclastics, A:354-355
vs. calcium oxide, B:150, 240-245
vs. chlorine, B:283, 406, 426
vs. fluorine, B:283, 406, 426
vs. major oxides, B:282-283, 384-385
vs. phosphorus, B:406
vs. phosphorus oxide/titanium oxide ratio, B:385
vs. potassium oxide/titanium oxide ratio, B:385
vs. silica, A:362; B:192, 324
vs. sulfur, B:283, 406, 426
vs. water, B:387
vs. zirconium, B:168, 171

magnetic declination, vs. depth, A:153; B:48

magnetic domains

mineral grains, B:58
vs. paleointensity, B:59-60

magnetic field logs, debrite, B:36

magnetic fields

Matuyama/Brunhes transition, B:60-67
measurement, B:50-51
See also paleofield; paleointensity; virtual
geomagnetic poles

magnetic inclination, vs. depth, A:75, 122; 153, 350, 413, 455, 522; B:48

magnetic intensity

vs. depth, A:76, 122, 154, 352, 414, 455, 521
vs. magnetic susceptibility, A:154

magnetic polarity

chron ages and correlated core intervals, A:351
chron ages and correlated cores, A:414
chrons, A:75, 122

marine sediments, B:57-69

magnetic susceptibility

sediments, A:126, 359, 525, 527
vs. anhysteretic remanent magnetization, A:122, 456; B:59
vs. depth, A:76, 81-83, 122, 128, 131, 154, 161-163, 367-371, 421, 423-425, 464-466, 528, 530-533
vs. gamma rays, A:422, 466, 533
vs. magnetic intensity, A:154
vs. remanent magnetization, A:353
vs. velocity, A:466, 533
vs. velocity and density, A:422-423

magnetization, coring-induced, advanced piston corer, B:47-56

magnetization, radial, cores, B:50

magnetostratigraphy

Cenozoic, A:454, 520; B:97-114
Miocene, A:152-153
sediments, A:121-122

major elements

basalt clasts, B:155-156, 160
glass inclusions, B:381-385, 396-401, 404-405
sideromelane, B:423-425
turbidites, B:561, 577, 580
volcaniclastics, A:354-355, 417, 458; B:148, 151-155, 191-192, 252-253
welded ignimbrite, A:525
whole-rock samples, A:360-361

manganese, oxic conditions, B:565-567

manganese/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:556

manganese/calcium ratio, vs. depth, B:556

manganese oxide

vs. calcium carbonate, B:556
vs. calcium oxide, B:150, 240-245
vs. depth, B:556

mantle, evolution, B:447

mantle sources

volcanism, A:16
water, B:418-419

mass accumulation rate. See accumulation rates

mass balance, erosion, A:7-8

mass wasting, reflectors, B:23-26

maturity, sediments, A:166; B:369

maturity index, vs. depth, A:173

Matuyama Chron

sediments, A:75-76, 122, 153
volcaniclastics, A:454
See also Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

melt inclusions

phenocrysts, B:381-382, 384, 454
photomicrograph, B:148, 265, 289
See also glass inclusions

Mesa de Junquillo Formation, geochronology, B:137

Mesozoic. See Cretaceous

metals, lithologic units, A:108

methane

headspace samples, A:158
interstitial waters, A:458
sediments, A:79, 156-157, 358, 420
volcaniclastics, A:459-461, 523
vs. depth, A:9, 80, 126, 157, 365, 461; B:629-630

methane/ethane ratio, vs. depth, A:158, 461

micas

geochemistry, B:167, 170
See also biotite

microconductivity, downhole measurements, B:39-46

microcrystalline particles, formation, B:213

microfaults

lithologic units, A:443-444
photograph, A:446, 512

microfossils, lithologic units, A:138, 147

microlites

photograph, B:179
photomicrograph, B:199, 291
volcaniclastics, B:189

microresistivity, formation microscanner, A:476

microthermometry, fluid inclusions, B:378, 432

Middle Fataga Formation, geochronology, B:134, 136, 138

Middle Mogān Formation

geochronology, B:131
volcaniclastic units, B:227

Miliolina, turbidity currents, B:307-309

mineral chemistry

clinopyroxene, B:379
olivine, B:378-379

mineral precipitation, hydrothermal solutions, B:436

mineral surface area

carbonate content, B:588
vs. organic carbon, B:589
mineralogy
clastic sediments, B:298, 302-304
sediments, A:77, 124, 156, 351, 353-354
volcaniclastics, A:414-415, 454, 456, 520-521; B:230-239

Miocene

biostratigraphy, A:73, 121, 151; B:503-505, 507-508
calcareous nannofossils, A:346, 449-450, 517-519; B:87-96
chemostratigraphy, B:535-558
deposition, A:339-340; B:449-450
foraminifers, A:411-412
geochronology, B:129-140
hiatuses, B:529-531
isopach maps, B:493-494
lithologic units, A:138, 143, 147, 333-339, 406-407, 445-448, 512-514
nannofossils, A:409, 411
planktonic foraminifers, A:347, 453, 519-520
rhyolites, A:20-21
sedimentation, B:343-360
sediments, A:68-70; B:350-353
turbidite infill, B:523-531, 631
volcaniclastics, B:229-230, 457
See also Miocene/Pliocene boundary

Miocene, upper, epiclastic sedimentation, B:293-313

Miocene/Pliocene boundary

biostratigraphy, A:149; B:120-121
chronostratigraphy, B:127-140
volcaniclastics, A:448-449

mixing, felsic and basaltic shards, B:281-282

mobilization, trace elements, B:569

modal data

volcaniclastics, B:188-191
vs. depth, B:191

Mogān Formation

geochronology, B:129, 131
See also Lower Mogān Formation; Middle Mogān Formation; Upper Mogān Formation

Mogān Group

ash-fall layers, B:202-205
evolution, B:103, 306
geochronology, B:129-133
magnetism, A:350
Miocene, A:21-23
petrography, A:521
photomicrograph, A:357-358
sediments, A:414
volcaniclastic units, B:226-291
volcaniclastics, A:448-449, 456-457
wireline logs, B:29-37

Montaņa Horno Formation, geochronology, B:131-133, 140

mottling

lithologic units, A:444-445
photograph, A:68

mud, lithologic units, A:60-63

mud clasts, lithologic units, A:444

mud, nannofossil, azimuth, B:46

N
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n-alk-1-enes, turbidites, B:593-594, 603-604

n-alkanes

sediments, B:366-368
turbidites, B:585, 593-594, 597-604

nannofossil zones

abundance and preservation, A:72; B:97-114
vs. depth, A:71, 119, 149-150

nannofossils

matrix, B:273
preservation, A:120
zonation, A:408, 410, 450-452, 516, 518
See also chalk, clayey, nannofossil; chalk, nannofossil; clay, nannofossil; claystone, nannofossil; ooze; sediments, nannofossil

nannofossils, calcareous

biostratigraphy, A:71, 73, 114, 118, 149-151, 341-346, 409-411, 449-453, 515-519; B:83-96, 501-520
first and last occurrences, B:106-107

natrolite, hydrothermal alteration, B:436

Neogene

geology, A:5-10
organic matter, B:361-372
paleoceanography, B:73-82
turbidites, B:619-634

neutron capture logs, vs. depth, A:474, 541

nickel

post-oxic conditions, B:567-569
vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:169, 171, 192

nickel/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:568

niobium

vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:169, 171, 192
See also zirconium/niobium ratio

nitrogen

sediments, A:79-80, 157-158, 358-359, 420
Site 951, A:126
volcaniclastics, A:461, 523, 525
vs. depth, A:80, 126, 158, 366, 461, 527
See also carbon/nitrogen ratio

nitrogen, total

diagenesis, B:574-576
vs. carbonate content, B:577
vs. depth, B:585
vs. nitrogen-15, B:578
vs. organic carbon, B:586
nitrogen-15
diagenesis, B:575-576, 584-587, 632
sediments, B:583
vs. carbon-13, B:578, 586
vs. organic carbon, B:578
vs. total nitrogen, B:578

O
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ocean islands, drilling, A:11-25

Olduvai Subchron

sediments, A:75-76, 121, 153
volcaniclastics, A:349

Oligocene

biostratigraphy, B:505
turbidite infill, B:523-531

oligoclase, resorbtion, B:212

olivine phenocrysts

photomicrograph, B:149, 313
volcaniclastics, B:148-149, 455

olivine pseudomorphs, petrography, A:521

olivines

alteration, B:150
composition vs. P-T conditions of crystallization, B:389
geochemistry, B:163, 316, 318, 394-395
inclusions, B:375-401, 403-410
lithologic units, A:406-407
mineral chemistry, B:378-379
petrography, A:355
photomicrograph, A:358, 416; B:291
See also forsterite

ooze, photograph, A:117

ooze, clayey nannofossil, lithologic units, A:63, 108

ooze, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:108, 112, 138, 143, 507
lithology, B:173, 464
photograph, A:333, 405

ooze, nannofossil clayey, lithologic units, A:329-333

organic carbon. See carbon, organic

organic matter

geochemistry, A:24; B:361-372, 628-630
loading, B:587
Neogene, B:361-372
origin, A:166
oxidation, B:569, 581-589, 591-607
postdepositional oxidation, B:601-604
pyrolysis, A:165-166
quality, B:365-366
Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:534-535
sediments, A:8; B:577
See also inertinite; kerogen; lignin; liptinite; pyrolysates; pyrroles; steranes; sterenes; stereoisomers; sterols; triterpanes; triterpenes; triterpenoids; vitrinite

orthopyroxene

chemical composition, B:249-250
clastic mineral phases, B:234

oxidation

diagenesis, B:573-580
intervals, B:576
sediments, A:68-70
See also alteration; diagenesis; hydrothermal activity; reduction

oxidation fronts

organic matter, B:581-589, 591-607, 630-632
photograph, A:64-65
turbidites, B:559-571
See also redox

oxygen fugacity, sulfur speciation, B:408-409

oxygen index

sediments, A:166
vs. hydrogen index, A:173, 545; B:365

P
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P1 layer

ash-fall layers, B:202-205, 211-213, 275
genesis, B:213-214
photomicrograph, B:217
volcaniclastics, B:215-216

paleobathymetry, volcanism, A:17

paleoceanography

carbonate compensation depth, B:122-123
Neogene, B:73-82
volcanism, A:17

paleoclimatology

Neogene, B:73-82, 349-354, 449, 557
volcanism, A:16-17; B:460-462

paleoenvironment, volcanism, A:17

paleofield

Matuyama/Brunhes transition, B:60-67
See also magnetic fields

Paleogene, sediments, A:13

paleointensity

vs. magnetic domains, B:59-60
See also magnetic fields

paleomagnetism

Site 950, A:75-77
Site 951, A:121-123
Site 952, A:152-154
Site 953, A:347, 349-351
Site 954, A:412-414
Site 955, A:453-454
Site 956, A:520
time scales, A:23-24

palmitic acid, sediments, B:368

pantellerite. See glass shards, pantelleritic; ignimbrite, comendite-pantellerite; ignimbrite, pantellerite-trachyte

paragenesis, fluid inclusions, B:432

pargasite, sand fraction, B:302

partial melting, lava, A:13

particles, morphology, B:191, 193

pelagic interbeds

accumulation rates, A:87, 164-165
lithologic units, A:63-64, 108, 112-113
photograph, A:117
thickness vs. age, A:94, 134, 172
volcaniclastics, B:191
vs. depth, A:63, 114, 147

petrography

fluid inclusions, B:432
sand fraction, B:297-298
sediments, B:359-360
volcaniclastics, A:351, 353-355, 414-415, 454, 456, 520-521; B:185-191, 347

petroleum potential

sediments, A:166, 169
vs. depth, A:173

petrology

ash-fall layers, B:315-328
volcaniclastics, A:351, 353-354, 414-415, 454, 456, 520-521, 523

phenocrysts

ash-fall layers, B:316, 318
ignimbrites, B:230-231
inclusions, B:375-401, 403-410, 416
photomicrograph, A:357, 416; B:291
type and relative amounts, B:229
volcaniclastics, B:189, 285
vs. depth, B:146-147
See also anorthoclase phenocrysts; biotite phenocrysts; clinopyroxene phenocrysts; edenite phenocrysts; olivine phenocrysts; plagioclase phenocrysts

phenols, turbidites, B:601

phillipsite

alteration, B:150
hydrothermal alteration, B:436

photograph, A:69-70; B:178

photomicrograph, B:149

phlogopite

chemical composition, B:251, 455
clastic mineral phases, B:235
geochemistry, B:316, 318
photograph, B:177
"placer sands," B:149
xenocrysts, B:169

phlogopite crystals, photomicrograph, B:266

phonolite clasts

photograph, A:337, 511, 513
photomicrograph, A:416

phonolites

ash-fall layers, B:315-328
geochronology, B:127-129, 133-134
lithologic units, A:335
microphotograph, A:416
photograph, A:337
volcanism, A:17

phosphorus

vs. magnesium oxide, B:406
vs. volatiles, B:407

phosphorus oxide

vs. magnesium oxide, B:282-283
vs. silica, A:362; B:192
vs. zirconium, B:169, 171

phosphorus oxide/titanium oxide ratio

vs. magnesium oxide, B:385
vs. silica, B:385

photoelectric effect logs, vs. depth, A:177-178, 379

physical properties

Site 950, A:80-81
Site 951, A:126-131
Site 952, A:157-160
Site 953, A:359, 362-363
Site 954, A:420-422
Site 955, A:461-464
Site 956, A:525, 527-530

Pico de Teide, time scales, A:23-24; B:458-459

"placer sands"

heavy minerals, B:168-169
mineralogy, B:149
photograph, B:177
tsunamis, B:174

plagioclase

alteration, B:150
composition, B:150
geochemistry, B:164, 394-395
inclusions, B:379-380
photomicrograph, A:357
See also basalts, plagioclase-phyric; oligoclase

plagioclase phenocrysts

argon isotopes, B:131
photomicrograph, B:148

plate dynamics, volcanism, A:17

Pleistocene

ash-fall layers, B:315-328, 421-428
biostratigraphy, B:116-117
calcareous nannofossils, A:341-342, 449, 515, 517; B:83-96
chemostratigraphy, B:535-558
geochronology, B:329-341
isopach maps, B:491
lithologic units, A:398, 402, 437, 443-444, 501, 507
nannofossils, A:409
organic matter, B:364
planktonic foraminifers, A:346-347, 453, 519
sedimentation, B:343-360, 459
turbidite infill, B:523-531
volcanism, A:21-22

Pliocene

biostratigraphy, A:73, 151; B:118-120
calcareous nannofossils, A:342-343, 346, 449, 517; B:85-96
chemostratigraphy, B:535-558
deposition, A:340-341; B:453
foraminifers, A:411-412
geochronology, B:329-341
isopach maps, B:492-493
lithologic units, A:329-333, 398, 402-405, 437, 443-445, 507-512
nannofossils, A:409
organic matter, B:364
planktonic foraminifers, A:347, 453, 519
sedimentation, B:353
turbidite infill, B:523-531
volcanism, A:21-22
See also Miocene/Pliocene boundary; Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary

Pliocene, lower, epiclastic sedimentation, B:293-313

Pliocene, upper, paleoceanography, B:73-82

Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary

biostratigraphy, A:151; B:117-118
carbonate compensation depth, B:525-529

plutonic rocks, clasts, B:273

pore water

geochemistry, A:24, 77-78, 124, 154-156, 364, 418, 459, 526
sediments, A:8; B:560, 563, 628-632
silica, B:609-612

porosity

estimate from resistivity, A:86
sediments, A:163-164, 369-371
vs. depth, A:85-86, 91, 133, 164, 171, 372-373, 380, 426-427, 467, 477-478, 536, 542; B:44-45
well logs, A:467-468
See also void ratio

porosity logs

vs. depth, A:379
See also gamma ray-density-porosity logs

potassium

interstitial waters, A:155-156, 356-358, 417, 458-459, 523
sediments, A:78
vs. depth, A:157, 419
See also sodium+potassium

potassium logs

felsic sediments, B:30-31, 37
vs. depth, A:88, 96-102, 167, 177-178, 377, 472, 539

potassium oxide

vs. chlorine, B:283, 427
vs. fluorine, B:283, 409, 427
vs. magnesium oxide, B:282-283, 384
vs. resistivity, B:35
vs. silica, A:362; B:192, 325
vs. sulfur, B:283, 427
vs. zirconium, B:168, 171
See also sodium oxide+potassium oxide

potassium oxide/titanium oxide ratio

vs. magnesium oxide, B:385
vs. silica, B:385

potassium/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:554, 566

prehnite

alteration, B:150
hydrothermal alteration, B:436

preservation, planktonic foraminifers, B:122-123

pressure

hydrothermal activity, B:435
parental magmas, B:388-389
vs. magma density, B:418
vs. temperature, A:380
vs. vesicles, B:419

production capacity, vs. depth, A:173, 545

production index

sediments, A:166
vs. depth, A:173, 545

provenance

sedimentation, B:343-360, 459-462
turbidites, B:556-557
volcaniclastics, B:305-307

pseudomorphs

photomicrograph, A:416; B:313
See also olivine pseudomorphs

pumice

age, B:324
geochemistry, B:316, 318, 321, 323-328
lithologic units, A:507
petrography, A:351, 353-355
photograph, A:336, 511
photomicrograph, B:266
volcaniclastics, A:414-415
See also sand; tuff

pumice clasts

photograph, A:514
photomicrograph, A:357, 458

pumice, felsic, photomicrograph, A:358

pumice lapilli, photograph, A:509-510

pumice sand, photomicrograph, A:524

pumice shards, vitroclasts, B:270

pyrite, lithologic units, A:507

pyrite, framboidal, photograph, A:66

pyroclastic deposits, regional distribution, B:279-282

pyroclastic flows, ash flows, B:215, 276-277

pyroloysis, Rock-Eval, sediments, A:165-166, 169

pyrolysates, turbidites, B:593

pyrolysis

organic matter, B:365-366, 591-607
sediments, A:172

pyrolysis, Rock-Eval, organic matter, A:534-535, 544

pyroxenes

clastic mineral phases, B:232, 234-235
geochemistry, B:316, 318
photomicrograph, B:414
See also aegirine; augite; clinopyroxenes; orthopyroxene; titanaugite clasts

pyrroles, pyrolysis, B:365-366

Q
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quartz

photograph, A:118
See also sand, foraminifer-feldspar-quartz; silt

quartz, monocrystalline, photograph, A:149

quartzite, photograph, A:149

Quaternary

deposition, B:353-354
foraminifers, A:411-412
islands, A:14-15
lithologic units, A:329-332
paleoceanography, B:73-82
See also Pleistocene

R
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radiometric age

sediments, B:103
See also absolute age; geochronology

Raman spectra, fluid inclusions, B:432-433

rare earths, glass inclusions, B:385-386, 390

Red Hill Member, geochronology, B:133

redeposition, mass balance, A:7-8

redox

parental magmas, B:389-390
See also oxidation fronts

redox front, fossil, image, B:564

reduction

sediments, A:8; B:631-633
See also alteration; diagenesis; hydrothermal activity; oxidation

remanent magnetization

sediments, A:121
volcaniclastics, A:347, 349-350, 412-414
vs. magnetic susceptibility, A:353

remanent magnetization, anhysteretic

vs. isothermal remanent magnetization, A:76, 123; B:68
vs. magnetic susceptibility, A:122, 456; B:59

remanent magnetization, isothermal

vs. anhysteretic remanent magnetization, A:76, 123; B:68
vs. natural remanent magnetization, A:123; B:68

remanent magnetization, natural

demagnetization, A:76
vs. isothermal remanent magnetization, A:123, B:68

remanent magnetization, post-depositional, sediments, A:75-76

remanent magnetization, primary, depositional, sediments, A:75-76

remanent magnetization, radial, detection, A:456

remanent magnetization, saturation, vs. temperature, B:58

resistivity

porosity, A:163-164
vs. potassium oxide, B:35

resistivity logs

Site 950, A:54, 96-98
vs. depth, A:168, 175-176, 378, 473, 540
See also gamma ray-resistivity-sonic logs

resorbtion, oligoclase, B:212

reworking, volcaniclastics, A:407; B:277-278

rhyolites

ash-fall layers, B:202-205
geochronology, B:129
Miocene, A:20-21
volcaniclastics, B:452-453
See also glass shards, rhyolitic; ignimbrite, rhyolite-basalt; ignimbrite, subalkalic rhyolite; lava; tuff

rhyolites, microcrystalline

ash-fall layers, B:205
photomicrograph, B:217

rhyolites, vitric

ash-fall layers, B:205
photomicrograph, B:218

richterite, stratigraphy, B:231

rock magnetism

paleointensity, B:58-60
sediments, A:122-123, 153-154
volcaniclastics, A:350-351

Roque Nublo Group

evolution, B:101, 110, 112, 453, 458
geochronology, B:134, 137-138, 140
photomicrograph, A:356
Pliocene, A:414-415; B:353

Roque Nublo Stratocone, Pliocene, A:21-22, 341

Rotaliina, turbidity currents, B:307-309

rubidium

vs. depth, B:454
vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:192

rutile, photograph, A:118

S
Up (1318 bytes)

sandstone, lithologic units, A:68

salinity

fluid inclusions, B:433
interstitial waters, A:77-78, 123, 154, 355-356, 417, 458, 523
vs. depth, A:365, 419, 460, 526

sand

lithologic units, A:138, 147
photograph, A:118, 148-149, 404, 446
photomicrograph, A:524
units per core vs. depth, A:331, 403
vs. depth, A:403
See also pumice sand

sand, bioclastic, lithologic units, A:507

sand, calcareous, lithologic units, A:332, 512

sand, crystal-lithic

petrography, A:520-521
photomicrograph, A:457
volcaniclastics, A:454, 456

sand, foraminifer

lithologic units, A:329-333, 402
photograph, B:177

sand, foraminifer-feldspar-quartz, lithologic units, A:448

sand, lithic

lithologic units, A:333, 402
photograph, A:332

sand, lithic-crystal-foraminifer, photomicrograph, A:457

sand, pumice

lithologic units, A:329-332
petrography, A:520-521

sand, quartz-lithic, lithologic units, A:444

sand, silty, photograph, A:67

sand units per core, vs. depth, A:331, 444, 508

sand, volcanic, volcanism, A:23

sand, volcaniclastic, photograph, A:513

sandstone

lithologic units, A:333
mineralogy, B:149
photograph, B:177
volcanism, A:22

sandstone, basaltic

petrography, A:353-355
photograph, B:179

sandstone, black, volcaniclastics, B:278

sandstone, calcareous, lithic, photomicrograph, A:356

sandstone, crystal-lithic

lithologic units, A:403, 405, 512; B:156
petrography, A:520-521
photomicrograph, A:356

sandstone, crystal-lithic-vitric, petrography, A:353-355

sandstone, epiclastic, photomicrograph, B:200

sandstone, exotic, heavy minerals, B:168-169

sandstone, lithic

lithologic units, A:333-338
photograph, B:179

sandstone, vitric, photograph, A:336

sandstone, volcaniclastic, photograph, B:180

scandium/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:556

scoria

geochronology, B:131
volcanism, A:22

sea level changes, cycles, B:353-354, 460-462

seamounts, drilling, A:11-25; B:456

sediment budget, seismic reflectors, B:628-629

sediment flux, turbidites, B:626

sedimentary basins, islands, A:13; B:463-465

sedimentary features, gravity flows, B:187

sedimentation

concentric vs. channelized, B:279
deposition, A:339-341
provenance, B:343-360
turbidite infill, B:523-531
volcaniclastics, A:407; B:183-200

sedimentation, epiclastic, Miocene-Pliocene, B:293-313

sedimentation, pelagic, turbidite infill, B:525-529

sedimentation rates

evolution, B:100-114
reflectors, B:22-23
turbidites, A:7
vs. depth, B:294
See also accumulation rates

sedimentology, volcaniclastics, B:273-274

sediments

accumulation rates, A:87-88, 131-132, 164-165
aprons, B:443-469
deposition, A:407
geochemistry, B:150-156, 459, 563-569
magnetization, B:47-56
maturity, A:166
mineralogy, A:77, 124, 156
petrography, B:359-360
pyrolysis, A:172
total accumulation rates, A:165

sediments, biogenic, downhole measurements, B:41-42

sediments, clastic

drilling, A:11-25
mineralogy, B:298, 302-304
petrology and geochemistry, A:351, 353-355
point-count data, B:296
time on shelf, B:309, 311

sediments, clayey, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:60-63, 67-68, 108, 437, 443-445, 501, 507-511
photograph, A:404, 513-514

sediments, green, volcanism, A:23-24

sediments, hemipelagic, Neogene, A:6-7

sediments, marine, magnetic polarity, B:57-69

sediments, mixed, photograph, A:510, 512-514

sediments, nannofossil, photograph, A:332

sediments, neritic, lithologic units, A:66

sediments, organic-rich, volcanism, A:23-24

sediments, quartz-rich, volcanism, A:23-24

seismic facies

correlation with borehole data, B:473-498
reflectors, A:385

seismic profiles

correlation, B:480-482, 622
Gran Canaria, A:17-21
lithostratigraphy, A:386
Madeira Abyssal Plain, A:6; B:478
Site 950, A:53
Site 952, A:137
Site 954, A:398
Site 955, A:436-437
Site 956, A:500

seismic reflection

correlation with borehole data, B:473-498
volcanic aprons, B:3-9, 11-27

seismic reflection coefficient, vs. traveltime, B:486

Seismic Reflector band M, unconformities, B:27

Seismic Reflector R2, accumulation rates, B:628

seismic reflectors

accumulation rates, B:628
lithology, B:5-7

seismic facies, A:385

seismic stratigraphy

Gran Canaria, A:24; B:450
Madeira Abyssal Plain, B:475-476
Site 953, A:372-375
traveltime, A:138
turbidites, B:620-621

seismic structures

islands, A:14
volcanic aprons, B:11-27

Seismic Unit 7, reflectors, B:21-22

Seismic Unit A0, reflectors, B:496

Seismic Unit A1, reflectors, B:496

Seismic Unit A2, reflectors, B:496

Seismic Unit A3, reflectors, B:496

seismic units

accumulation rates, B:495, 628-629
lithology, B:476-478
turbidite thickness, B:622
volumes, B:495

seismograms, synthetic

comparison to seismic reflection, B:3-9
density and velocity data, B:486
sediments, A:371-372
vs. traveltime, A:382

selenium, post-oxic conditions, B:567

selenium/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:568

Selvagens, basins, A:13

shear strength

sediments, A:80-81, 160, 165, 374, 421, 427, 464, 469, 529, 537
vs. depth, A:84, 86, 133, 164, 375, 428, 467, 535

shear strength, undrained, sediments, A:130, 362-363

shield volcanoes, lava, A:13, 20

shore-based log processing

Site 950, A:95

Site 952, A:174

sideromelane

alteration, B:150, 412
chemical composition, B:284-285, 421-428
chemical stratigraphy, B:260
deposition, B:279-282
fractal dimensions vs. depth, B:196
particles, B:193
petrography, A:351, 353-355, 521
photograph, B:176-180
photomicrograph, B:199-200, 291
scanning electron microscope image of shard, B:194-195
ternary diagrams, B:190
vitroclasts, B:270-271
volcaniclastics, B:187
volcanism, A:23
vs. depth, B:191

sideromelane clasts

petrology, B:145
photomicrograph, B:149

silica

diagenesis, B:630
high-resolution profile, B:609-612
interstitial waters, A:78, 125, 155-156, 358, 417-418, 459, 523; B:609-612
volcaniclastics, A:354-355
vs. calcium oxide, B:150, 240-245
vs. depth, A:9, 79, 125, 157, 365, 419, 460, 526; B:251, 610-611
vs. fluorine, B:409
vs. magnesium oxide, B:282-283, 384
vs. major elements, A:362; B:192
vs. major oxides, B:192, 324-325
vs. phosphorus oxide/titanium oxide ratio, B:385
vs. potassium oxide/titanium oxide ratio, B:385
vs. sodium oxide+potassium oxide, B:323, 385, 426
vs. sulfur, B:409
vs. zirconium, B:168, 171

silica, biogenic, profiles, B:609-612

siliceous microfossils, photograph, A:66, 118

silicon, vs. sodium, B:166

silicon/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:555, 630-631

silt

lithologic units, A:138, 147, 329-333, 448
photograph, A:117, 510

silt, crystal-lithic

lithologic units, A:507
petrography, A:351, 353-355

silt, quartz-foraminifer-lithic, lithologic units, A:445

silt, vitric, petrography, A:520-521

siltstone

photograph, A:70; B:175
volcanism, A:22

siltstone, crystal-lithic, lithologic units, A:403, 405; B:156

siltstone, dolomitic, lithologic units, A:402

siltstone, lithic, lithologic units, A:333-338

siltstone, volcaniclastic, lithologic units, A:68

Site 950, A:51-104

accumulation rates, A:87, 89
background and objectives, A:52
biostratigraphy, A:70-75; B:503-505
chemostratigraphy, B:535-558
coring summary, A:56-59
diagenesis, B:573-580
downhole measurements, A:81-87
inorganic geochemistry, A:77-78
lithostratigraphy, A:55, 59-70
operations, A:53, 55
organic geochemistry, A:78-80
oxidation fronts, B:559-571
paleomagnetism, A:75-77
physical properties, A:80-81
sedimentation, B:523-531
seismic units, B:476-478
shore-based log processing, A:95
silica, B:609-612
site description, A:51-104
underway geophysics, A:52-53

Site 951, A:105-134

background and objectives, A:106
biostratigraphy, A:114, 118-121; B:505-507
coring, A:109-112
diagenesis, B:573-580
inorganic geochemistry, A:123-125
lithostratigraphy, A:108, 112-114
magnetization, B:48
operations, A:107-108
organic geochemistry, A:125-126
organic matter, B:581-589, 591-607
paleomagnetism, A:121-123
physical properties, A:126-131
sediment accumulation rates, A:131-132
sedimentation, B:523-531, 627
seismic profiles, A:107
seismic units, B:476-478
site description, A:105-134
underway geophysics, A:106-107

Site 952, A:135-178

background and objectives, A:136
biostratigraphy, A:147-152; B:507-50
coring, A:139-143
diagenesis, B:573-580
downhole measurements, A:160-164
inorganic geochemistry, A:154-156
lithostratigraphy, A:138, 143-147
operations, A:136-138
organic geochemistry, A:156-157
organic matter, B:581-589, 591-607
paleomagnetism, A:152-154
physical properties, A:157-160
Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:165-166, 169
sediment accumulation rates, A:164-165
sedimentation, B:523-531, 627
seismic units, B:476-478
silica, B:609-612
site description, A:135-178

Site 953, A:317-394

accumulation rates, A:372
alteration, B:429-439
ash-fall layers, B:205-207
background and objectives, A:319-320
biostratigraphy, A:341-347; B:83-96, 98-102, 115-124
coring summary, A:321-329
downhole measurements, A:363, 365-372
inclusions, B:375-401, 403-410
inorganic geochemistry, A:355-358
lithostratigraphy, A:320, 329-341; B:156
magnetization, B:57-69
magnetostratigraphy, B:100, 117-118
operations, A:320
organic geochemistry, A:358-359
paleoceanography, B:73-82
paleomagnetism, A:347, 349-351
physical properties, A:359, 362-363
planktonic foraminifers age, B:122
sedimentation, B:183-200, 293-313
seismic reflection, B:3-9, 11-27
seismic stratigraphy, A:372-375
sideromelane, B:421-428
site description, A:317-394
volatiles, B:412
volcaniclastics, A:351, 353-355; B:29-37, 451

Site 954, A:395-431

accumulation rates, A:422-424
alteration, B:429-439
background and objectives, A:396-397
biostratigraphy, A:407-412; B:102-104, 115-124
coring summary, A:399-402
in-situ temperature, A:424
inorganic geochemistry, A:415, 417-419
lithostratigraphy, A:397-398, 402-407; B:161
magnetization, B:49-50, 57-69
magnetostratigraphy, B:119
operations, A:397
organic geochemistry, A:419-420
paleomagnetism, A:412-414
physical properties, A:420-422
planktonic foraminifers, B:120
sedimentation, B:293-313
seismic reflection, B:11-27
sideromelane, B:421-428
site description, A:395-431
underway geophysics, A:397
volcaniclastics, A:414-415; B:451

Site 955, A:433-496

accumulation rates, A:468
ash-fall layers, B:207-209
background and objectives, A:434-435
biostratigraphy, A:449-453; B:104-107
coring summary, A:438-443
downhole measurements, A:464-468
hydrogen index, A:545
in-situ temperature, A:468-470
inorganic geochemistry, A:457-459
lithostratigraphy, A:437, 443-449
operations, A:436-437
organic geochemistry, A:459-461
organic matter, B:361-372
paleomagnetism, A:453-454
physical properties, A:461-464
production capacity, A:545
sedimentation, B:343-360
site description, A:433-496
underway geophysics, A:435-436
volcaniclastics, A:454, 456-457; B:29-37, 451

Site 956, A:497-557

accumulation rates, A:533-534
alteration, B:429-439
ash-fall layers, B:209-211
background and objectives, A:498-499
biostratigraphy, A:515-520; B:108-110
coring summary, A:502-507
downhole measurements, A:530-533
formation microscanner logs, B:39-46
in-situ temperature, A:534
inclusions, B:375-401, 403-410
inorganic geochemistry, A:523
lithostratigraphy, A:501, 507-515; B:161
operations, A:501
organic geochemistry, A:523, 525
organic matter, B:361-372
paleomagnetism, A:520
physical properties, A:525, 527-530
sedimentation, B:343-360
sideromelane, B:421-428
site description, A:497-557
underway geophysics, A:499-500
volatiles, B:412-413
volcaniclastics, A:520-521, 523; B:29-37, 451

slump deposits

depths and age ranges, B:352-353, 355
lithologic units, A:511-514
photograph, A:512
provenance, B:343-360, 459-460, 462-463

slump folds, lithologic units, A:443-444, 507

slumping

lithologic units, A:403, 405-407
photograph, A:335
volcaniclastics, B:215-216
volcanism, A:24; B:110
well logs, A:466

smectite

hydrothermal alteration, B:436
photomicrograph, B:149

sodium+potassium, vs. silicon, B:166

sodium

interstitial waters, A:356-358, 417, 458-459, 523
sediments, A:78
vs. depth, A:365, 419, 460, 526
vs. silicon, B:166

sodium oxide+potassium oxide

vs. biostratigraphic age, B:325
vs. depth, B:251
vs. silica, B:323, 385, 426

sodium oxide

vs. aluminum oxide, B:165, 236-237, 239
vs. calcium oxide, B:150, 240-245
vs. magnesium oxide, B:282-283, 384
vs. silica, A:362; B:192
vs. zirconium, B:168, 171

soft sediment deformation

clastic sediments, B:297
lithologic units, A:405, 443-444, 507
photograph, A:406, 446; B:312

sonic logs. See gamma ray-resistivity-sonic logs

sorting, thickness, B:274

sorting mean, vs. graphic mean of clastics, B:303

source areas

hyaloclastite tuffs, B:166-168
kerogen, B:599-601
volcaniclastics, B:194-195

South Canary Channel, basins, A:13

sphene. See titanite

spinels

chemical composition, B:381, 392-394
"placer sands," B:149

spinels, chromian, inclusions, B:380

stable isotopes, turbidites, B:584-587

stearic acid, sediments, B:368

steranes, sediments, B:367, 369

sterenes, sediments, B:367, 369

stereoisomers, mass spectra, B:371

sterols, sediments, B:367

stratification, volcaniclastics, B:43-44

stratigraphy, subaerial, volcaniclastic units, B:226-229

strontium

interstitial waters, A:358, 418-419
vs. depth, A:365, 420
vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:169, 171, 192

strontium/calcium ratio, vs. depth, A:365, 420

structures, thickness, B:274

subaerial deposits, chemical stratigraphy, B:243-245, 256

subaerial growth, islands, A:14, 19-22

submarine emplacement, ash-fall layers, B:211-212, 268

submarine growth, islands, A:14

sulfate

interstitial waters, A:8, 78, 123-124, 154, 355, 415, 457-458, 523
vs. ammonia, A:9, 157; B:629
vs. depth, A:9, 78, 125, 157, 365, 419, 460, 526; B:563, 630

sulfur

inclusions, B:403-410
sediments, A:79-80, 126, 157-158, 358-359, 420; B:583
sideromelane, B:423, 425
speciation, B:408-409
volcaniclastics, A:461, 523, 525
vs. chlorine, B:407
vs. depth, A:80, 126, 158, 366, 461, 527; B:565
vs. magnesium oxide, B:283, 406, 426
vs. phosphorus, B:407
vs. potassium oxide, B:283, 427
See also carbon, organic/sulfur ratio; iron/sulfur ratio

sulfur, organic, oxidation, B:631

sulfur, total

sediments, B:363-365
vs. organic carbon, B:365

sulfur/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:569

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tachylite

photograph, B:178-180
photomicrograph, B:199-200
volcaniclastics, B:187
vs. depth, B:191
See also basalts, tachylitic; tuff; volcanic glass

tachylite clasts, petrology, B:145

tachylite fragments, photomicrograph, B:266

tachylite, mafic, photomicrograph, B:217

tachylite, trachyandesitic, ash-fall layers, B:205

tachylite, vesicular, photomicrograph, B:217

tantalum/thallium ratio, vs. depth, B:568

Te Bouma units, lithologic units, A:60-63

temperature

hydrothermal activity, B:435-436
parental magmas, B:388-389
sediments, A:84, 163, 369, 533
vs. depth, A:91, 173, 542, 545
vs. saturation magnetization, B:58
vs. time, A:430, 479-480, 543-544
well logs, A:466-467
temperature, in-situ, A:424, 468-470, 534
vs. depth, A:480, 544
vs. time, A:431

Tenerife

ash-fall layers, B:315-328, 458-459
deposition, A:514-515
drilling, A:12-13, 23
felsic tephra, B:453
geochronology, B:329-341
reflectors, B:27

tephra

fallout layers, B:276-277, 458
geochronology, B:127-129, 133-134, 329-341, 458-459
islands, A:14-15
lithologic units, A:64, 112
lithostratigraphy, B:219-291
mineral distribution vs. age, B:319
photograph, A:66
wireline logs, B:29-37
See also felsic tephra

Textulariina, turbidity currents, B:307-309

textures, alteration, B:429-439

thallium

post-oxic conditions, B:567
See also tantalum/thallium ratio

thermal conductivity

sediments, A:129, 131, 362, 421, 426, 464, 469, 527, 534
vs. depth, A:131, 372, 426, 469, 535

thiophenes, pyrolysis, B:365-366

thorium. See cadmium/thorium ratio; uranium/thorium ratio

thorium/uranium ratio, vs. depth, A:91

thorium logs, vs. depth, A:88, 96-102, 167, 177-178, 377, 472, 539

time scales, islands, A:23-24

tin/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:568

titanaugite clasts, petrology, B:145

titanite

chemical composition, B:316, 318, 320
clastic mineral phases, B:235, 237
inclusions, B:455

titanium/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:546-553, 566, 623

titanium oxide

vs. aluminum oxide, B:165, 236-237, 239
vs. calcium oxide, B:150, 240-245
vs. cerium oxide, B:320
vs. iron oxide, B:259-260, 320
vs. magnesium number, B:380-381, 384
vs. magnesium oxide, B:282-283
vs. silica, A:362; B:192, 325
vs. zirconium, B:168, 171
See also iron-titanium oxides; phosphorus oxide/titanium oxide ratio; potassium oxide/titanium oxide ratio

trace elements

basalt clasts, B:155-156, 160
enrichment, B:559-571
glass inclusions, B:383, 385-386, 453-455
glass shards, B:320
pumice glasses, B:328
turbidites, B:577, 580
volcaniclastics, A:354-355, 417, 458; B:148, 151-155, 191-192, 252-253
welded ignimbrite, A:525
whole-rock samples, A:360-361

trachyandesites

ash-fall layers, B:202-205
See also tachylite

trachyphonolite clasts

photomicrograph, A:416; B:313
vs. depth, B:304

trachyphonolites

geochemistry, A:521, 523
Miocene, A:20-21
petrography, A:353-355
photomicrograph, A:457
volcaniclastics, A:414-415, 454, 456; B:452-453
See also ignimbrite, trachyphonolitic; lava; tuff

trachytes

ash-fall layers, B:202-205, 315-328
volcaniclastics, B:452-453
See also ignimbrite, comendite-trachyte; ignimbrite, pantellerite-trachyte; ignimbrite, trachyte

trachytes, microcrystalline, ash-fall layers, B:205

trachytes, vitric, ash-fall layers, B:205

transport, volcaniclastics, B:165-166, 459-463

traveltime

depths to reflectors, B:479
seismic stratigraphy, A:138
vs. depth, A:55, 138, 383, 385, 398, 437, 501; B:23
vs. reflection coefficient, B:486

triterpanes, sediments, B:369

triterpenes, sediments, B:369

triterpenoids, sediments, B:367

tsunami deposits

"placer sands," B:174
volcaniclastics, B:278-279, 460

tuff

alteration, B:149-150
downhole measurements, B:42
geochemistry, B:155-156
lithologic units, A:406-407
petrography, A:353-355
photograph, A:67, 338-339; B:175-176
volcaniclastics, A:414-415
welded glass, B:273, 457

tuff, basaltic, photomicrograph, A:358

tuff clasts, photomicrograph, A:524

tuff clasts, partially welded, vitroclasts, B:270

tuff, felsic, photomicrograph, B:217

tuff, hyaloclastite

lithologic units, A:513-514; B:156, 161
petrography, A:521
photomicrograph, A:358; B:291
source areas, B:166-168

tuff, pumiceous, photograph, A:447

tuff, rhyolitic, photograph, B:287-290

tuff, tachylitic, photomicrograph, A:358

tuff, trachyphonolitic, photomicrograph, A:356, 457

tuff, vitric

lithologic units, A:66, 333-339, 445, 512-514
photograph, A:447
photomicrograph, A:357, 458, 524; B:290
turbidites, B:275
volcanism, A:23

tuff, welded

geochemistry, A:521, 523
photomicrograph, B:265, 288
tuff, zeolitized
lithologic units, A:447
photograph, A:447
volcaniclastics, A:454, 456

turbidite infill, sedimentation, B:523-531

turbidite thickness

seismic units, B:622
vs. depth, B:483-485

turbidites

accumulation rates, A:87-88; B:501-520
chemostratigraphy, B:535-558
classification, B:525-529
correlation, B:624
deposition, A:68-70, 340-341
depths and age ranges, B:346, 348-351
diagenesis, B:573-580
geochemistry, B:538-545, 623-624
lithologic units, A:60-63, 108, 113, 138, 143, 510-514
lithostratigraphy, B:624-628
Neogene, A:6-7; B:619-634
organic matter, B:581-589, 591-607
oxidation fronts, B:559-571
photograph, A:64-66, 68-70, 332, 334, 336-337; B:175, 198, 312
photomicrograph, B:199
provenance, B:343-360, B:556-557
sedimentology, B:624
seismic units, B:483, 495-497
transport, B:166
tuff, B:275
volcaniclastics, B:215-216, 457-458
vs. age, B:625
vs. depth, B:186
See also Bouma A; Te Bouma units

turbidites, ash, lithology, B:173

turbidites, brown, carbonate content, B:529

turbidites, calcareous

carbonate content, B:529
provenance, B:557
vs. depth, A:63, 114, 147

turbidites, gray, nonvolcanic, carbonate content, B:528-529

turbidites, intermediate, vs. depth, A:114, A:147

turbidites, organic

carbonate content, B:526, 528
lithologic units, A:62-63
photograph, A:64-66, 117-118, 148
provenance, B:556
vs. depth, A:63, 114, 147

turbidites, quartz-rich, deposition, B:353-355

turbidites, volcanic

carbonate content, B:528
lithologic units, A:63
photograph, A:117
provenance, B:556-557
vs. depth, A:63, 114, 147

turbidites, volcaniclastic, carbonate content, B:529

turbidity currents

deposition, A:514-515
foraminifers, B:307-309

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u-channel data, demagnetization, B:60-67

Ucana Formation, lithology, B:320

unconformities

biostratigraphy, B:513
Reflector band M, B:27
See also disconformities; hiatuses

underway geophysics, A:52-53, 106-107, 397, 435-436, 499-500

Unit A, ash-fall layers, B:205, 207, 209

Unit B, ash-fall layers, B:205-207, 209

Unit C, ash-fall layers, B:207-210

Unit D, ash-fall layers, B:207-210

Unit E, ash-fall layers, B:207, 209-210

Unit F, ash-fall layers, B:207, 209-211

Upper Fataga Formation, geochronology, B:133-134, 136

Upper Mogān Formation

geochronology, B:131
volcaniclastic units, B:227-228
upwelling, felsic sediments, B:30-31

uranium

post-oxic conditions, B:569, 631
See also thorium/uranium ratio

uranium/thorium ratio, vs. depth, B:569

uranium logs, vs. depth, A:88, 96-102, 167, 177-178, 377, 472, 539

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vanadium

post-oxic conditions, B:567

vs. depth, B:454

vs. zirconium, A:363, 418

vanadium/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:568

veins, epithermal, hydrothermal solutions, B:436

velocity

sediments, A:421, 426
vs. density and magnetic susceptibility, A:423
vs. depth, A:81-82, 129-130, 160-164, 168, 367-369, 374, 420, 422, 427, 463, 465-467, 529, 531-533, 537; B:486
vs. gamma rays, A:422, 466, 533
vs. magnetic susceptibility, A:422, 466, 533
vs. signal level, A:425
See also compressional wave velocity

velocity logs,

Site 950, A:54
vs. depth, A:378, 473, 540
See also gamma ray-resistivity-sonic logs

vesicles

flattening, B:212-213
vs. pressure, B:419
vesiculation, photograph, A:407
VICAP, volcanism, A:11-25; B:465-467

virtual geomagnetic poles

demagnetization, B:60-67
See also magnetic fields

vitrinite, sediments, B:366-367

vitroclasts, petrology, B:268, 270-271

void ratio

vs. depth, A:85-86, 428
See also porosity

volatiles

inclusions, B:403-410, 454
sideromelane, B:423, 425-426

volcanic ash

islands, A:14
lithologic units, A:329-332
volcaniclastics, A:414-415
See also ash-fall layers

volcanic ash, zeolitic, lithologic units, A:68

volcanic glass

photograph, A:338
photomicrograph, A:357
See also basalts, vitric; glass shards

volcanic glass, tachylitic, photomicrograph, A:358

volcanic islands

drilling, A:11-25
volume, B:447

volcaniclastic units, event stratigraphy, B:219-266, 276-278

volcaniclastics

age, B:329-341
chemical composition, B:240-243
chemical evolution, B:453-455
components, A:416-417, 524-525; B:185-189, 451
composition, B:452-453
correlation, B:262
deposition, A:340-341, 448-449, 514-515; B:273-274, 451
emplacement, B:219-291
evolution, B:101-114
fluid inclusions, B:429-439
genesis, B:215-216
geochemistry, B:151-155, 157-159
islands, A:14, 22-23
lithologic units, A:65-68, 331-339, 356-357, 402-407, 443-448, 507-514
mineralogy, B:190, 230-239
Miocene, B:229-230
petrology and geochemistry, A:351, 353-355, 414-415
photograph, A:70; B:175-181, 198
photomicrograph, B:199-200
quantitative estimate, B:42-43
reflectors, B:25-26
reworking, B:277-278
sand units per core vs. depth, A:331, 444, 508
sedimentation, A:407; B:183-200
Site 955, A:454, 456-457
Site 956, A:520-521, 523
source areas, B:166-168, 426-427, 459-462
thickness, B:274-275
volcanic components, A:456-457
volcanism, A:17
vs. depth, A:403
wireline logs, B:29-37
See also tuff

volcaniclastics, bulk, chemical stratigraphy, B:256, 258

volcaniclastics, felsic, eruptions, B:274-276

volcanism

chronostratigraphy, B:127-140
evolution, A:19-22; B:101, 104, 109, 111-114, 293-294
gap in activity, B:453
islands, A:14
Pliocene, A:21-22
See also eruptions; explosions

volcanism, intraplate, islands, A:15-18

volcanism, shield, evolution, B:141-181

volcanoes, glass inclusions, B:415-416

vugs, fluid inclusions, B:432

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water

mafic magmas, B:411-420
melt inclusions, B:383, 386-387
vs. carbon dioxide, B:417
vs. magnesium oxide, B:387

water content, vs. depth, A:86, 133, 164, 372-373, 375, 426-428, 467, 535-536

wavelets, vs. amplitude, B:486

waxes, sediments, B:367

weathering, volcaniclastics, B:305-307

welding, vesicles, B:212-213

well logs

sediments, A:166, 376
shore-based log processing, A:387, 481, 546
Site 950, A:54, 96-104
summary, A:538
vs. depth, A:366-368, 465-466, 531, 533

well-logging

Site 950, A:81-87
Site 952, A:160-164
Site 953, A:363, 365-372
Site 955, A:464-468
Site 956, A:530-533
See also downhole measurements

wireline logs, volcaniclastics, B:29-37

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Y
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yttrium

vs. depth, B:251
vs. zirconium, A:169, 171, 363, 418; B:192

Z
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zeolites

alteration, B:150
hydrothermal alteration, B:436
lithologic units, A:68, 406-407
photograph, A:69-70, 514
volcaniclastics, A:414-415, 454, 456
See also natrolite; phillipsite; prehnite; tuff

zeolitization, photograph, A:67

Zijderveld diagrams, demagnetization, B:60-67

zinc

post-oxic conditions, B:567-569, 631
vs. depth, B:251
vs. zirconium, A:363, 418; B:192

zinc/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:568

zircon

clastic mineral phases, B:239
inclusions, B:455
microphenocrysts, B:231
"placer sands," B:149

zirconium

vs. depth, B:454
vs. major elements, B:168
vs. trace elements, A:363, 418; B:169, 192

zirconium/aluminum ratio, vs. depth, B:554

zirconium/niobium ratio

sediments, B:155
volcaniclastics, A:415; B:454
vs. depth, B:251, 455

zonation, correlation, B:99, 108