164 Subject Index

S-waves. See shear wave velocity


diapirs, B:5–7

gradients, A:130–132

salts, sources, A:265–266


sediments, B:231–236

vs. depth, B:157, 233

See also thorium/scandium ratio

scouring, photograph, A:181

sea water. See paleoseawater

sea-level changes

glaciation, A:6

lithology, A:184

See also eustacy

seafloor pockmarks

diapirs, A:270–272

gas hydrates, A:271

photograph, A:249

sediment drift, structure, A:47–48

sediment instability, continental margin, A:6

sediment penetration rate, vs. depth, A:254

sediment properties, pressure core sampler, A:296

sediment recovery, gas release, B:125–126


diagenesis, A:220–221

lithologic units, A:79–81

lithology, A:146–147, 313

Pliocene–Quaternary interval, B:402–404

shallow hydrates, B:233–234

See also pelagic sedimentation; precipitation

sedimentation, hemipelagic, lithologic units, A:80

sedimentation rates

biostratigraphy, A:188–189, 258, 291–292; B:365–366

calcareous nannofossils, B:333

gas hydrates, B:136

lithologic units, A:147, 149

nannofossil datums, A:117

organic carbon, A:286

Quaternary, A:82

vs. depth, B:375

vs. diatom abundance, B:375

See also mass accumulation rates


bacteria, B:393–398

carbon-14, B:325–327

composition, B:231–233, 313–324

compressional wave velocity, B:265–272

diagenesis, A:6, 247–249; B:139–146

geochemistry, B:147–149, 151–163

geotechnical properties, B:421–429

grain size, B:237–245

hydrocarbons, B:47–58, 101–112

isotopes, B:67–77

Minolta data, B:318–323

photograph, A:71–74, 76–77

physical properties, A:7–8, 196

Pliocene–Miocene interval, B:3–4

Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:92, 129, 202, 302

X-ray diffraction data, A:183, 256, 286

See also red sediments

sediments, deep-marine, geomicrobiology, B:379–391, 393–398

sediments, hemipelagic, scanning electron microscope photomicrographs, B:306

seismic amplitude reduction, gas hydrates, A:48–49

seismic profiles

arrivals vs. arrival time, A:135

Blake Ridge, A:47–56, 59; B:4, 181, 254

Cape Fear Diapir, A:69

depths, A:135

Site 994, A:101–104

Site 995, A:177

Site 996, A:244–248

Site 997, A:280

seismic profiles, vertical

depth, A:206–207

experimental design, A:135–136, 305–306

reflectors, B:269–270

seismic reflection, marine gas hydrates, A:5

seismic surveys

gas hydrates, B:253–264

systems, A:43–46

seismogram stacks, vs. depth, A:208

shallow faults, gas hydrates, A:51

Shannon/Weaver diversity

planktonic foraminifers, B:351, 353

vs. depth, B:357

shear, Lamont-Doherty dipole shear tool, A:215

shear strength

sediments, B:422–423

vs. depth, A:94–96, 205, 274, 304; B:425

shear strength, undrained, sediments, A:91–93, 133, 201, 269, 304

shear wave velocity

gas hydrates, B:255–257

vs. depth, A:217


lithologic units, A:246

photograph, A:252

sediments, A:247

shore-based processing, well-logging, A:155, 166, 226, 319

Siberia, gas hydrate detection, B:169

side-scan sonar, diapirs, A:67


authigenic carbonates, B:303–306

diagenesis, A:149, 314; B:139–146

lithologic units, A:285–286

sediments, A:183–184

vs. depth, A:112, 182, 286; B:308

X-ray diffraction data, A:112

siderite beds, lithologic units, A:283

siderite nodules, lithologic units, A:111, 283

siderite rhombs, scanning electron microscope photomicrographs, B:306


pore water, A:129, 264–265, 300–301

vs. depth, A:131, 203, 271, 303; B:233

See also opal

silt, aragonitic clayey, lithologic units, A:246

silt, clayey, photograph, A:74

silt, lithologic units, A:69–72, 74–75, 78–79

silt, nannofossil clayey, photomicrograph, A:80

Site 533, gases, B:35

Site 570, gas hydrates, B:180

Site 991

biostratigraphy, A:81–82

diapirs, B:30

lithostratigraphy, A:68–75

physical properties, A:90–91

slide scars, B:325–327

Site 992

biostratigraphy, A:82

diapirs, B:30

lithostratigraphy, A:75–78

physical properties, A:91–92

Site 993

biostratigraphy, A:82

diapirs, B:30

lithostratigraphy, A:78–81

physical properties, A:92–94

Site 994, A:99–174

background and objectives, A:100–103

bacteria, B:393–398

biostratigraphy, A:114–117; B:331–341

coring, A:105

diapirs, B:30, 34–35

downhole measurements, A:122–124, 136–144

gas hydrates, B:247–249

geomicrobiology, B:383–384

geophysics, A:135–136

grain size, B:237–245

in-situ temperature, A:144–146

inorganic geochemistry, A:128–132

isotope stratigraphy, B:173–175

lithology, B:229–236

lithostratigraphy, A:105–114

operations, A:103–105

organic geochemistry, A:124–128

oxygen isotopes, B:59–66

paleomagnetism, A:117–122

physical properties, A:132–135

seismic profiles, A:47–56, 59

site description, A:99–174

synthesis and significance, A:146–152

well-logging, A:136–144

Site 995, A:175–240

background and objectives, A:176–177

biostratigraphy, A:185–189; B:331–341

coring, A:178

diapirs, B:30, 34–35

downhole measurements, A:193–197, 207–215

gas hydrates, B:247–249

geomicrobiology, B:384–386

geophysics, A:204–207

grain size, B:237–245

in-situ temperature, A:215–220

inorganic geochemistry, A:198–200

lithostratigraphy, A:179–185

operations, A:177–179

organic geochemistry, A:197

paleomagnetism, A:189–193

physical properties, A:200–204; B:424

seismic profiles, A:47–56, 59

site description, A:175–240

synthesis and significance, A:220–224

well-logging, A:207–215

Site 996, A:241–275

background and objectives, A:243

biostratigraphy, A:256, 258

coring, A:250

diapirs, B:30

downhole measurements, A:261–262

gas hydrates, A:249–255; B:219–228

inorganic geochemistry, A:264–266; B:285–300

lithostratigraphy, A:245–249

operations, A:243–245

organic geochemistry, A:262–264

paleomagnetism, A:258, 260–261

physical properties, A:266, 269–270

site description, A:241–275

synthesis and significance, A:270–272

Site 997, A:277–334

ammonium, B:171–172

background and objectives, A:278–279

biostratigraphy, A:290–292; B:331–341, 343–363

coring, A:281

diapirs, B:30, 34–35

diatoms, B:365–376

downhole measurements, A:295–297, 307–310

gas hydrates, A:286–290; B:247–249

geomicrobiology, B:386–387

geophysics, A:305–307

grain size, B:237–245

in-situ temperature, A:310–313

inorganic geochemistry, A:298, 300–301; B:147–149, 151–163

lithostratigraphy, A:281–286

operations, A:279–281

organic geochemistry, A:297–298

oxygen isotopes, B:59–66

paleoceanography, B:343–363

paleomagnetism, A:292–295

physical properties, A:301, 303–305

seismic profiles, A:47–56, 59

site description, A:277–334

stable isotopes, B:129–137

synthesis and significance, A:313–317

well-logging, A:307–310

Sites 991–993, A:65–97

background and objectives, A:66–67

coring, A:69

inorganic geochemistry, A:88–90

operations, A:68

organic geochemistry, A:87–88

paleomagnetism, A:82–87

physical properties, B:424

site description, A:65–97

synthesis and significance, A:94, 96

slide scars

carbon-14 age, B:325–327

deformation, B:6

photograph, B:327


gas hydrates, B:9

geochronology, B:325–327

lithologic units, A:246–249

See also debris flows; landslides; mass transport deposits

smear slides, photomicrograph, A:75


carbon/oxygen ratio, B:205–206

porosity, B:434

vs. depth, B:207–208


pore water, A:89, 264–265

vs. depth, A:271

sodium/chloride ratio

salts, A:89–90, 266

vs. chloride, A:93

vs. depth, A:273

soft sediment deformation, lithologic units, A:75, 77–78, 94–96, 246–249

sonic logs. See gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs; velocity


lithologic units, A:246–247

photomicrograph, A:255

species diversity

nannoflora, B:339

planktonic foraminifers, B:351, 353

spectra, seismic surveys, A:45

spectral data, shore-based, sediments, B:313–324

spectral modeling, reflectors, B:268–269

spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, gas hydrates, B:17–18

spectroscopy, Raman, gas hydrates, B:18, 20

Sphaeroidinella, vs. depth, B:356

spicules, biostratigraphy, A:81–82

sponge spicules, lithologic units, A:284

spores, sediments, B:52

sporinite, organic matter, B:55

stability zone, gas hydrates, A:317

stable isotopes

authigenic carbonates, B:289–290, 292–294, 303–306

carbonates and sulfides, B:139–146

methane, B:79–85

pore water, B:129–137

See also carbon isotopes; oxygen isotopes; strontium isotopes; sulfur isotopes

stress, sediments, B:421–429

stress, vertical effective

vs. depth, B:429

vs. void ratio, B:427–428


pore water, A:89, 129, 264–265, 300–301

vs. depth, A:131, 203, 271, 303; B:159, 305

strontium/calcium ratio, vs. depth, B:305

strontium/chloride ratio, vs. depth, A:283; B:305

strontium isotopes

authigenic carbonates, B:289–290, 292–294

pore water and authigenic carbonates, B:292–293

vs. depth, B:298

structure, gas hydrates, A:47–48; B:16–20

subpolar assemblage, faunal assemblages, B:358

subtropical gyre assemblage, faunal assemblages, B:358


concentration, B:94

depletion, A:90; B:35–36, 93–96

focused consumption, A:132

pore water, A:89, 128, 264

vs. depth, A:93, 131, 203, 271, 303; B:82, 85, 89–91, 383, 385, 387

vs. methane, A:131

See also methane/sulfate ratio

sulfate/methane interface, authigenic carbonates, B:307

sulfate/methane ratio, vs. depth, A:88

sulfate flux, models, B:92–93

sulfate reduction

authigenic carbonates, B:307–309

high-resolution sampling, B:90

methanogenesis, A:126–128; B:80–85, 87–99

organic matter transformation, B:55

Pliocene–Quaternary interval, B:402–404

pyrite, B:145

sediments, A:197, 298

vs. depth, B:85, 383, 385, 387, 389


lithologic units, A:181–182

reduction, A:193

stable isotopes, B:139–146

See also iron sulfides; pyrite; pyrrhotite

sulfides, disseminated, lithologic units, A:284

sulfides, magnetic, reduction, A:294

sulfur, sediments, A:91, 128, 201, 263–264, 269

sulfur, total, sediments, A:125–126, 197, 297–298, 301; B:48–51

sulfur isotopes

pyrite, B:143–146

vs. depth, B:91–92

supersaturation, diatoms, B:233–234


taxonomy, calcareous nannofossils, B:332–333


anomalous measurements, A:146

chloride, A:198–199

core recovery, B:5

core slabs, A:184–185

cores, A:185–186, 288

downhole core profiles, A:113, 185

equilibrium temperature, B:258–260

gas hydrates, A:144, 255; B:247–249

porosity, B:431–434

slab samples, A:185

tools, A:215

vs. chloride, A:204

vs. depth, A:149, 152, 184, 220, 223, 287, 289, 313, 316; B:256–257

vs. pressure, B:27–28

vs. thermal conductivity, B:25

vs. thermal demagnetization, A:193

vs. time, A:148, 218–220, 311–312

water, A:197; B:120–122

water-sampling probe, A:195–196

See also pressure–temperature conditions

temperature, core

distribution, A:260

vs. depth, A:115, 186

temperature, core slab, gas hydrates, A:113

temperature, in-situ

sampling, B:5

Site 994, A:144–147

Site 995, A:215–220

Site 997, A:310–313

temperature, surface, isothermal surface plot, A:114–115

temperature logs, vs. depth, A:145, 216

temperature probe, pore water, A:296–297

terrigenous components

lithologic units, A:111

mass accumulation rates, A:149

textures, authigenic carbonates, B:287–289

thermal anomalies, gas hydrates, A:113

thermal conductivity

gas hydrates, A:8; B:22, 24–25

sediments, A:92–93, 133, 201–202, 270, 304–305

vs. depth, A:134, 206, 274, 305

vs. temperature, B:25

thermal neutron porosity logs, vs. depth, A:141

thermal surveys, gas hydrates, B:253–264

thermogenesis, hydrocarbons, A:298

thermogenic gases, gas hydrates, A:9–10


vs. depth, B:162

vs. potassium, A:140, 212

thorium/scandium ratio, vs. depth, B:163

thorium/uranium ratio, vs. depth, B:163

thorium logs, vs. depth, A:156–157

time, vs. pressure, A:122–123, 265, B:124–125

time–pressure plots, pressure core sampler, A:195

titanium. See aluminum/titanium ratio

tomography. See acoustic reflection tomography

trace elements

authigenic carbonates, B:293

sediments, B:151–163, 231–236


gas hydrates, A:223–224

vs. depth, A:136

vs. frequency, B:268

vs. trace number, B:276

traveltime, one-way, vs. depth, A:137, 207, 306

traveltime, two-way, vs. depth, A:137, 146, 208

triterpenoids, sediments, B:50

upper methanogenic zone, authigenic carbonates, B:307–309

upwelling, nannoflora, B:338–339


vs. depth, B:162

See also thorium/uranium ratio


uranium logs, vs. depth, A:156–157


vanadium, vs. depth, B:157

variegated color, photograph, A:71–72

veins, gas hydrates, A:251, 254


gas hydrates, A:6–7

theoretical studies compared with experiments, B:276–277

tomographic inversion, B:277

vertical seismic profiles, A:305–307

vs. depth, A:94–95, 134, 137, 195–197, 206–208, 255–258, 305–306

waveforms, A:147

See also compressional wave velocity; shear wave velocity

velocity, acoustic

gas hydrates, A:144

sediments, A:91–93, 133, 201, 269, 303–304

tools, A:215

velocity logs

gas hydrates, B:193–198, 247–249

porosity, B:194

vs. depth, A:139, 142–143, 210, 213–214, 217, 308–309

See also gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs; sonic logs

vent fluids, sediments, A:249


sediments, B:50–56

vs. depth, B:51

void ratio

vertical effective stress, B:427–428

vs. consolidation, B:427–428

See also porosity


gases, A:186

pressure core sampler, B:441

vs. pressure, B:115, 117–124


warm-water (Gulf Stream) assemblage, faunal assemblages, B:356–357


composition, A:124

gas hydrates, B:20–22, 122–123

sources, B:224–225

temperature, A:197; B:120–122

See also gas/water volume ratio

water/gas molar ratio, gas hydrates, A:8; B:16–20, 41–42

water content

sediments, B:431–434

vs. depth, A:94–95, 134, 205, 274, 304; B:432

water masses

foraminifers, B:358–359

See also paleoceanography

water sampler, sediments, A:123–124

water saturation, well-logging, B:187–189


chloride, Blake Ridge Transect, B:4

formation evaluation, B:199–215

gas hydrate detection, B:179–191, 247–249, 253–264

gas hydrate volume, B:193–198

gas hydrates, A:309–310

shore-based processing, A:155, 166, 226, 319

Site 994, A:136–144; B:183

Site 995, A:207–215; B:183

Site 997, A:307–310; B:184

See also downhole measurements; epithermal neutron porosity logs; gamma ray–density logs; gamma ray–density–porosity logs; gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs; gamma-ray logs

well-logging unit 1, sediments, A:308

well-logging unit 2, sediments, A:308–309

well-logging unit 3, sediments, A:309

well-logging units, sediments, A:138–139, 209–210, 308–309; B:182–183


X-ray CT imagery, gas hydrates, B:14–15, 17

X-ray diffraction data

gas hydrates, B:17–19

sediments, A:75; B:155–163


global inventory, B:169

vs. krypton, B:168

vs. neon, B:168


yttrium, vs. depth, B:160


Zijderveld plots, demagnetization, B:412

zinc, vs. depth, B:159

zirconium, vs. depth, B:160


authigenic carbonates, B:301–312

calcareous nannofossils, B:332–333

diagenesis, B:306–307

Zoophycos, lithologic units, A:107