SUBJECT INDEX

acoustic unit 3. See HPC acoustic Unit 3

age

argon isotopes, B:233-236

lithofacies, B:151

magnetic polarity, B:144

models, B:255, 257

volcanism, B:299-314

See also dating; geochronology; radiometric ages

age vs. depth

Caribbean Sea, B:257

Site 998, A:70

Site 999, A:161

Site 1000, A:253

Site 1001, A:315

Site 1002, B:96

Aguacate Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

Alice Shoal, seismic units, B:209

alkalinity

carbonate reactions, B:291

pore water, A:75, 167-168, 259-260, 319

vs. depth, A:75, 167, 259, 319, 372, 396-397; B:292, 294-295

alkenones

concentration, B:239-247

sediments, B:96

Allison Guyot, thermal events, A:151

alteration

carbonates, B:228

chemical reactions, A:167-168

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:150-152

lithologic units, A:60

photograph, A:82, 177, 328

pore water, A:396-398

volcanic ash falls, A:82, 391; B:294-296

volcanic glass, A:176

See also diagenesis; hydrothermal alteration

aluminum logs, vs. depth, A:104

aluminum oxide, volcanic ash, A:180

aluminum oxide logs, vs. depth, A:93, 193; B:195

ammonium

pore water, A:75, 166, 259, 317; B:288

redox, A:257

vs. depth, A:75-76, 166, 257, 319, 372; B:289, 294

amphiboles

lithologic units, A:308

photomicrograph, A:81

Andes N, uplifts, A:207

andesite, petrography, A:83

anoxic deposits

Quaternary, B:125-140

sediments, B:88-93, 98

Antarctic Bottom Water, ocean circulation, B:255, 264

Antarctic Intermediate Water, ocean circulation, A:9; B:255, 264

Antarctica, carbon isotopes vs. oxygen isotopes, B:281

apophyses, photograph, A:327

aragonite

bulk sediments, B:255

lithologic units, A:238, 241, 247, 260; B:87

mass accumulation rates, B:261-262

saturation, A:383

vs. depth, A:240, 259

argon isotopes

age, B:151

basalts, B:233-236

feldspars, B:306

volcanism, B:299-314

Atitlan I caldera, volcanic provenance, A:183

Atlantic hiatus, Neogene, B:29

Atlantic Ocean, ocean circulation, B:255, 269-270

atmospheric circulation, tephra transport, B:105-110

Aves Swell, circulation, A:9

bacteria

paragenesis, B:228-230

See also microbial activity

Banco Nuevo, seismic units, B:209

barite, biogenic production, A:79

barium

volcanic ash, A:180

vs. depth, A:79

barium/titanium ratio, vs. depth, A:79

basalts

basement, A:391-393; B:293-294

demagnetization, B:159-162

fractures, B:227-232

geochemistry, A:329-330

geochronology, B:233-236

lava, A:325-330, 347

magnetic inclination, A:314

major oxides, A:326

oceanic plateaus, A:11

paleomagnetism, B:157

petrography, A:326-329

photograph, A:327-328

trace elements, A:393

See also limestone/basalt contact

basalts, altered, photograph, A:306

basalts, aphyric

photomicrograph, A:329

textures, A:326

basalts, plagioclase-phyric

photomicrograph, A:329

textures, A:326

basalts, tholeiitic, chromium vs. yttrium, A:329, 331

basalts, variolitic, photograph, A:329

basement

igneous rocks, A:391-393; B:293-294

reactions with seawater, B:293-294

basement, acoustic, reflections, A:133-135

basement, basaltic, Cretaceous, A:294, 327, 347

basement, volcanic

depth, B:219-224

geochronology, B:233-236

bathymetric maps, A:300

bathymetry

acoustic basement, A:134, 294

Caribbean Sea, B:253

Pedro Channel, A:234

Beata Ridge, acoustic basement, A:133

Beloc Formation, Haiti, A:7

bicarbonate ions

carbonate reactions, B:291

seawater reactions with basement, B:294

biochronology, tephra ages, B:302, 306-308

biogenic production, chemical proxies, A:79

biostratigraphic datums

nannofossils, A:63, 153, 249, 310; B:3-15, 306

planktonic foraminifers, A:65, 157, 251, 310; B:23-29, 256, 306

biostratigraphy

closing, A:384-385

radiolarians, B:57-81

Site 998, A:62-67; B:3-17

Site 999, A:152-158; B:3-17, 19-56

Site 1000, A:248-251; B:3-17

Site 1001, A:309-314

Site 1002, A:368; B:85-99

vs. age, B:256

vs. radiometric ages, B:305-307

biotite

photomicrograph, A:81

tephra ages, B:302-304

bioturbation

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151-152

cycles, B:132

lithologic units, A:145-148, 150, 239, 242-243, 297-302; B:87, 98

photograph, A:56, 59, 147, 241, 244-245, 247

volcanic ash, A:263-264, 322-324

See also burrows

bitumens, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:256-257

Blake Plateau, ocean circulation, B:267

Bocono Fault, lithofacies, B:131

bolides

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:393-394

impact craters, A:7

boreholes, depth shifting, B:194, 196

breccia

basement, A:392-393

photograph, A:327-328

breccia, hyaloclastite, basalts, A:330

Brunhes Chron, paleomagnetism, B:145

burial history, mixed sediments, B:177-190

burrows, lithologic units, A:145, 304

Cabo Codera, basins, B:86

calcite

concretions, B:130-131

lithologic units, A:238, 244

photograph, A:329; B:137

recrystallization, B:133

See also quartz/calcite ratio

calcite, magnesian

lithologic units, A:238-239, 247, 259

mass accumulation rates, B:261-262

saturation, A:383

calcite, secondary, photograph, A:328

calcium

carbonate reactions, B:291

impact craters, A:8

pore water, A:74, 167, 260, 319, 348, 396-398; B:295

seawater reactions with basement, B:293-294

vs. depth, A:75, 167, 260, 319, 372, 397; B:292, 294

See also hydrogen/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs; iron/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs; silicon/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs

calcium carbonate

biogenic production, A:79

sediments, A:254-256, 316, 318

vs. depth, A:257

calcium logs, vs. depth, B:196-197

calcium oxide

basalts, A:329

vs. silica, A:84

caliper logs, vs. depth, A:92, 192, 272, 338; B:223

Campanian

lithologic units, A:304-308

pelagic sedimentation, A:378; B:308

tephra grain size and thickness, B:112

volcanic ash, A:322-325

Canal Basin, volcanic provenance, A:184

carbon, inorganic, sediments, A:72-73, 163-164, 254-256, 316, 318

carbon, organic

biogenic production, A:79

sediments, A:72-73, 163-164

carbon, total, sediments, A:254-256, 316, 318

carbon, total organic

carbonate reactions, B:292

sediments, A:254-256

vs. age, B:97, 244

vs. depth, A:255; B:293

carbon dioxide

paleoclimatology, A:8-10

Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:256-257

carbon isotopes

vs. age, B:263, 282

vs. depth, B:196-197, 278, 280

vs. oxygen isotopes, B:281

water mass signature, B:268-269

carbonate compensation depth

lithologic units, A:56, 62, 247; B:201

See also lysocline

carbonate content

bulk sediments, B:254

correlation with magnetic susceptibility, A:382

Eocene/Miocene unconformity, A:321

lithologic units, A:53, 56, 138, 142-147, 164, 238-247, 297-308

mass accumulation rates, A:379-380

Miocene, A:152

sediments, A:71-72, 76-79, 321, 348; B:117-118, 258-259

vs. age, A:58, 144-145, 382, 384; B:97, 119, 258, 260, 265

vs. color reflectance, A:61

vs. depth, A:78, 146, 149, 240, 243, 259, 263, 303, 306, 392, 396; B:195, 293

vs. magnetic susceptibility, A:61, 252

vs. paleolatitude, B:171

carbonate crash interval

lithologic units, A:56

Miocene/late Miocene interval, A:381-384; B:249-273

models, B:264-266

ocean circulation, A:9

pelagic sedimentation, A:378-380

sedimentation rates, A:96

carbonate dissolution event, circulation, A:9

carbonate dissolution index, interglacial Stage 5e, B:266

carbonate lithification front, vs. depth, A:255

carbonate minimums. See Miocene, middle-upper carbonate crash

carbonate platforms

reflectors, A:234, 275

See also megabanks, foundered

carbonate solution

diagenesis, A:261

See also dissolution

carbonate systems, sea gateways, B:254

carbonates

bulk sediments, A:394, 396

compaction, B:181-183

impact craters, A:8

mineralogy, B:255

Miocene/late Miocene interval, A:381-384

pelagic sedimentation, A:378-380

photograph, A:329; B:230

photomicrograph, B:231

reactions, B:291-293

scanning electron microscopy, B:232

carbonates, microcrystalline, microbial origin, B:227-232

carbonates, pelagic, correlation of magnetic susceptibility and calcium carbonate, A:382, 384

Cariaco Basin

anoxic deposits, B:125-140

circulation, A:9

hydrography, B:240

oxic to anoxic environment, A:361

paleoceanography, B:239-247

sedimentation, A:370

site description, A:359-373

stratigraphy and sedimentation, B:85-99

Caribbean/Loop Current system, ocean circulation, B:267-269

Caribbean Current

erosional events, A:234, 275

general circulation models, B:267-269

Neogene, A:9; B:29

pelagic sedimentation, A:379-380

Caribbean Plate

basement, A:393

formation, A:160

paleolatitude, B:149-173

Caribbean region, Miocene volcanic episode paleogeography, A:387

Caribbean Sea

geology, A:7-13; B:29

high-resolution well-log data, B:191-203

Miocene carbonate crash, B:249-273

Miocene volcanic ash layers, B:101-113

Neogene biostratigraphy, B:3-17

ocean circulation, B:253

paleoceanography, B:275-283

pore water geochemistry, B:287-298

radiolarian biostratigraphy, B:57-81

synthetic seismograms, B:205-217

terrigenous matter and dispersed ash, B:115-124

volcanism age, B:299-314

cavity fills, carbonates, B:229

Cayman Fracture Zone, volcanism, A:390

Cayman Ridge

geology, B:151, 308-309

origin, A:103

plate tectonics, A:390

seismic stratigraphy, A:50-51

tectonics, A:85

volcanism, A:86, 347, 388-390

Cayman Rise

age models, B:255, 257

carbonate crash, A:152

Eocene plate tectonics, A:390

geology, B:151

Miocene and Eocene tectonics, A:103

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382

pelagic sedimentation, A:378-379

seismic stratigraphy, A:50-51

seismic units, B:208-209

site description, A:49-129

tectonics, A:95-96, 103-106; B:308-309

volcaniclastics, A:85-86

volcanism, A:388-390

Cayman Trench, volcanism, A:86

Cayman Trough

bathymetry, A:234

geology, B:151

seismic stratigraphy, A:50-51, 232

volcanism, A:86, 390

Cayman Trough Fracture Zone, volcaniclastics, A:85-86

Cayman volcanic arc, volcanism, A:388-390

Ceara Rise

carbonate content vs. age, B:265, 269-270

terrigenous accumulation rates, B:123

cementation

microbial origin, B:227-232

pore water, A:260

Cenozoic

explosive volcanism, B:312

paleoclimatology, A:8-10

paleogeography, B:173

paleolatitude, B:149-173

Central America

Miocene explosive volcanism, B:311

tephra source areas, B:105

volcanism, A:389

Central American Arc S, volcanic provenance, A:183-184

Central American Seaway

closing, A:9, 207, 275, 384-385; B:29, 267

mass accumulation rates, A:379

Miocene tectonics, B:252

paleoceanography, planktonic foraminifers, A:154-155

pelagic sedimentation, A:379-380

Chalatenango Formation

tephra source areas, B:105

volcanic provenance, A:183

volcaniclastics, A:85

chalk

lithologic units, A:55

Paleocene, A:381

seismic facies, B:210

chalk, calcareous, lithologic units, A:300-302, 342

chalk, clayey calcareous, lithologic units, A:145-146

chalk, clayey nannofossil, lithologic units, A:145-146, 241-242

chalk, foraminiferal

lithologic units, A:59

photograph, A:59

chalk, micritic nannofossil, lithologic units, A:241-248

chalk, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:58

photograph, A:59

chert

diagenesis, B:308

lithologic units, A:58; B:209, 213

photograph, A:305

thickness vs. depth, A:304

volcanic ash, B:295

vs. depth, A:320, 397; B:296

chert, interbedded, lithologic units, A:300-302, 308, 348

chert nodules, lithologic units, A:58

chert nodules/core ratio, vs. depth, A:59

chertification

seismic stratigraphy, A:203-204

See also silicification

Chicxulub impact crater

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:206, 393-394

formation, A:7

chlorinity

pore water, A:73-74, 166, 259, 317

vs. depth, A:74, 166, 259, 319, 372

chlorite

lithologic units, A:138

photograph, A:328

Choco Block, volcanic provenance, A:183-184

Chondrites, lithologic units, A:145

Chorotega Block, volcanic provenance, A:183-184

Chortis Block

sedimentation, A:206

volcanic provenance, A:183-184

volcaniclastics, A:85-86

chromium

basalts, A:329

bulk sediments, A:202

provenance, A:322

sediments, B:117-118

terrigenous component, A:261, 321

volcanic ash, A:169-170

vs. yttrium, A:331

Chron 26N, remanent magnetization, A:314

Chron 28N, remanent magnetization, A:314

chron boundaries, depths, A:315

Chron C3n2n, "pachyderma" interval, A:207

Chron C5n, magnetostratigraphy, A:160

Chron C34n(y), tephra ages, B:302

clasts

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:394

photograph, A:306, 328

clay minerals

alteration, B:296

identification by thorium vs. potassium, A:340

lithologic units, A:142-143, 239, 241, 243, 297-308

volcanic ash falls, A:82

X-ray diffraction peak intensity, vs. depth, A:142

clays

compaction, B:181-183

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151-152

cycles, B:132

lithofacies, B:131-133

lithologic units, A:53-55, 146-147, 150, 241-248, 298-306

clays, green silty, lithologic units, B:87

clays, greenish gray, lithologic units, A:145

clays, indurated

lithologic units, A:143-145

photograph, A:144

clays, nannofossil, lithologic units, A:298-300

clays, nannofossil silty, lithologic units, A:363-368

clays, silty

lithologic units, A:363-368

oxic to anoxic environment, A:361

clays, smectitic

lithologic units, A:305

photograph, A:307

claystone

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151-152, 204-206

late Paleocene thermal maximum, A:206

lithologic units, A:147-148, 302-306

Paleocene, A:381

photograph, A:148-149, 305, 307

cleavage, shaly, photograph, A:307

climate forcing, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:8

clinoptilolite, lithologic units, A:241

clinopyroxene

photograph, A:329

photomicrograph, A:329

Cocos Plate, volcanism, A:184

coercivity, basalts, B:159-162

Colombian Basin

acoustic basement, A:133-135

carbonate content vs. age, B:265

carbonate dissolution index, B:266

depth to volcanic basement, B:219-224

geology, B:151

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382

oceanic plateaus, A:9-10

paleoceanography, B:275-283

plate tectonics, B:252

sedimentation rates, B:257

sediments, A:194; B:264

site description, A:131-230

color banding

lithologic units, A:53, 55-58, 146

sediments, B:127-128

color reflectance. See reflectance

compaction

burial history, B:177-190

corrections, B:129

foraminifers, B:133, 139

volcanic ash, A:263-264

compaction curves, plots, B:181-182, 185

composite cores, photograph, A:150

composite sections

Site 998, A:54-55, 97-102

Site 999, A:196-201

Site 1000, A:278-281

Site 1001, A:343-345

compressional wave velocity

multisensor track data, A:86-88, 186, 265-267, 333

perpendicular to core axis vs. parallel to core axis, A:189

sediments, A:185-186

vs. depth, A:87, 89, 185, 189, 266, 332, 334

concretions

calcite, B:130-131

carbonates and silica, B:133

compaction, B:133

dolomite, B:130-131

concretions, carbonate, photograph, B:137-139

concretions, siliceous, photograph, B:137, 139

consolidation, porosity, B:181-183

contourites

lithologic units, A:59

photograph, A:60

cooling, explosive volcanism, B:312

Coris Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

correlation

seismic units, B:206-217

Site 147/Site 1002, B:89

Costa Rica

Chalatenango Formation, A:85

volcanic provenance, A:183-184

Coyol Group, tephra source areas, B:105

Cretaceous

basaltic basement, A:327

calcareous nannofossils, A:154, 311

lithologic units, A:150-152

See also Campanian; Maastrichtian

Cretaceous, Upper

anoxic deposits, B:125-140

paleoclimatology, A:8-10

paleogeography, B:173

paleolatitude, B:149-173

pelagic sedimentation, A:377

planktonic foraminifers, A:313

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary

bolide impact hypothesis, A:393-394

Caribbean Sea, A:7, 379

gamma-ray spectra scanning, A:186, 336

lithologic units, A:150, 304-306, 342, 346

lithology, A:204-206, 395

magnetostratigraphy, A:160; B:143-147

paleoclimatology, A:8-10

photograph, A:150, 307, 346

planktonic foraminifers, A:158, 313

remanent magnetization, A:314

sedimentation rates, B:145

sequences, A:151-152

sites, A:206

summary, A:205

cross laminations

lithologic units, A:59

photograph, A:60

crust

acoustic basement, A:133

basalts, A:330

crystal size

Miocene volcanic ash layers, B:102-103

See also grain size

Cuba

Oriente Terrane, A:86

volcanism, A:389; B:309

Cucaracha Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

Culebra Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

Curre Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

currents

ocean circulation, A:154-155

See also Western Boundary Current

cyclic sedimentation

anoxic deposits, B:125-140

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:9

duration, B:131, 133

photograph, B:137

dating

igneous activity, A:85

See also age; geochronology; radiometric ages

deformation, photograph, B:136

demagnetization

magnetic inclination, A:159-160

sediments, A:368-369

vector diagrams, A:68, 159-160

demagnetization, alternating-field, basalts, B:159-162

density, vs. depth, B:183, 207, 208, 210-212

density, GRAPE, vs. depth, A:87, 185, 187, 266, 332, 372, 381

density, IP, vs. depth, A:87, 185, 266, 332

density logs

vs. depth, A:92, 192; 272, 338; B:195-197, 223

See also gamma ray-density logs;

gamma ray-density-porosity logs

density, wet bulk, vs. depth, A:90, 142-143, 149, 189, 269, 335

deposition

Magdalena Fan, A:207

oxic to anoxic, A:361

See also sedimentation

deposition, hemipelagic, sedimentation, B:98

deposition, pelagic, carbonate content, A:152, 245-248

diagenesis

anoxic deposits, B:125-140

microstylolites, B:177-190

paleoceanography, B:275-283

pore-water geochemistry, B:287-298

reactions, A:77-79

redox, A:164; B:308

See also alteration; carbonate solution; cementation; dissolution; recrystallization

diagenesis, reductive, iron oxide to pyrite, A:252, 258

diatoms, lithologic units, A:142, 363, 366, 368, 370; B:87

dish structures, volcanic ash, A:263-264

dispersal

Miocene volcanic ash layers, B:101-113

volcanic ash, A:172-174; B:115-124

dissolution

basaltic glass, B:294

carbonates, A:166-167, 247, 348

coarse fraction, B:257-258, 269-272

cyclic sedimentation, B:137-138

Miocene/late Miocene interval, A:382-384

opal A, A:261

See also carbonate solution

dolomite

concretions, B:130-131

lithologic units, A:238-239, 260, 364-368

See also proto-dolomite

downhole measurements

Site 998, A:88-95

Site 999, A:186-194

Site 1000, A:269-274

Site 1001, A:336-341

dysoxia, Paleocene, A:381

echinoderms, photomicrograph, A:246

ejecta mass, impact craters, A:7

Ekman drift, circulation, B:86

El Salvador

Chalatenango Formation, A:85

tephra source areas, B:105

volcanic provenance, A:183

volcanism, A:387

electron microprobe data, basalts, B:233-235

environment. See oxic environment; tropical environment

Eocene

ash deposits, A:103

biostratigraphy, A:66

calcareous nannofossils, A:154

lithologic units, A:56, 58-60, 146, 300-303

pelagic sedimentation, A:378

planktonic foraminifers, A:156-157

plate tectonics, A:390

sedimentation rates, A:162

tectonics, A:103

volcanic ash, A:174

volcanism, A:85-86, 388-390; B:308-309

See also Miocene/middle Eocene sequence; Paleocene/Eocene boundary

Eocene/Miocene boundary, unconformities, B:212

Eocene/Miocene unconformity, sediments, A:321, 348

Eocene middle/lower boundary, unconformities, A:304

Ericson Y zone, planktonic foraminifers, B:88

erosional events

middle Miocene, A:234

See also hiatuses; unconformities

eruptions

glass shard morphology, A:177-178

tephra source areas, B:105-106

volcaniclastics, A:85-86

volcanism, A:347, 389, 390

See also explosions; volcanism

evaporites, impact craters, A:8

explosions

volcanism, A:390; B:299-314

See also eruptions; volcanism

fabric, cycles, B:134

Farallon Plate

oceanic plateaus, A:9-10

paleolatitude, B:170

subduction, A:85

volcanism, A:184

faults

maps, B:127

reflectors, A:295

See also grabens

faults, block, reflectors, A:234

faults, normal

acoustic basement, A:133

reflectors, A:234

feldspars

argon isotopes, B:306

crystal size, B:102-109

crystal size in tephra fall layers, B:112

cumulative percentage of maximum size, B:105, 107, 109

lithologic units, A:308

long-axis measurements, B:104

median size vs. tephra layer thickness, B:104, 107-108

foraminifers

biostratigraphic datums, B:256

compaction, B:133

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151-152

lithologic units, A:53-58, 138, 142-143, 145-148, 238-239, 241-248, 297-298, 300-302, 363, 370; B:87

oxygen isotopes, B:243

photograph, A:329; B:137

photomicrograph, A:246

radiometric ages, B:305-306

vs. depth, A:142

foraminifers, benthic

biostratigraphy, A:67, 313-314

carbon isotopes, B:268-269

late Paleocene thermal maximum, A:206

stable isotopes, B:262-263

turbidites, A:67

foraminifers, calcitized, photograph, B:136

foraminifers, planktonic

biostratigraphic datums, A:65, 157, 251, 310; B:257

biostratigraphy, A:64-66, 154-158, 250-251, 311-313, 368; B:19-56

preservation, A:66-67

Formation A

basaltic basement, A:325

photograph, A:328

Formation B

basaltic basement, A:325

basalts, B:233-235

photomicrograph, A:346

Formation C, basaltic basement, A:325-326

Formation D, basaltic basement, A:325-326

Formation E, basaltic basement, A:325-326

Formation F, basaltic basement, A:325-326

Formation G

basaltic basement, A:325-326

basalts, B:233-235

photograph, A:329

Formation H

basaltic basement, A:325-326

basalts, B:233-235

photograph, A:329

Formation I, basaltic basement, A:325-326

Formation J, basaltic basement, A:325-326

Formation K, basaltic basement, A:325-326

Formation L

basaltic basement, A:325-326

basalts, B:233-235

Formation MicroScanner imagery, vs. depth, A:195; B:194-197, 199, 223

fractal analysis, glass shard morphology, A:177-178

fractures, basalts, B:227-232

framboids, lithologic units, A:365

Galapagos hot spot

formation, A:160

oceanic plateaus, A:9-10, 293-295

paleolatitude, B:170

Galapagos Spreading Center, volcanism, A:184

gamma ray-density logs, A:114-119

gamma ray-density-porosity logs

Site 999, A:214-220

Site 1000, A:284-286

Site 1001, A:352-354

gamma ray-resistivity-sonic logs

Site 998, A:120-125

Site 999, A:221-227

Site 1000, A:286-289

Site 1001, A:355-357

gamma-ray logs

Site 999, A:190, 192-194, 211-213

vs. depth, A:92-95, 104, 109-113, 272-273, 338-339; B:195, 199

gamma-ray spectra, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:186

gamma rays

sediments, A:187

vs. depth, A:87, 89, 185, 187, 266, 268, 381, 332-333, 336

gases, headspace, concentration, A:370

gateways. See sea gateways

Gatun Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

general circulation models, sea gateways, B:267-269

geochemical logs

Site 999, A:228-230

vs. depth, A:93-94, 104, 126-130, 194, 273, 336, 339

geochemistry

ash deposits, A:103

pore water, A:396-398; B:287-298

sediments, A:394, 396

volcanic ash falls, A:81-82

geochemistry, inorganic

Site 998, A:73-79

Site 999, A:165-174

Site 1000, A:258-263

Site 1001, A:316-323, 348

Site 1002, A:369-370

volcanic ash, A:202

geochemistry, organic

Site 998, A:71-73

Site 999, A:163-165

Site 1000, A:254-258

Site 1001, A:315-316

Site 1002, A:369

geochronology

igneous basement, B:233-236

volcanism, B:299-314

See also age; dating; radiometric ages

geological high-sensitivity magnetic tool, magnetic induction, A:94-95, 273-274, 340-341

geomagnetic polarity time scale, volcanic ash, A:385

geomagnetism, secular variations, B:151, 158

glacial/interglacial cycles

carbonate dissolution, B:266

magnetic polarity, B:144

sediments, B:96, 243-245

glaciation

carbon isotopes vs. oxygen isotopes, B:281

lithologic units, A:368; B:87-89, 92-98, 243-245

sedimentation, A:385

See also ice sheets; last glacial maximum

glass. See volcanic glass

glomeroporphyritic textures. See textures, glomeroporphyritic

grabens, reflectors, A:295

grain size

coarse fraction, B:257-258

compaction, B:186

mixed sediments, B:180

volcanic ash, B:101-113

vs. age, B:259

See also crystal size

gravity flow deposits, lithologic units, A:242

Greater Antilles/Cayman volcanic arc, dispersed ash source, B:121

Greater Antilles arc, volcanism, A:389

Guatemala

Chalatenango Formation, A:85

tephra source areas, B:105

volcanic provenance, A:183-184

volcanism, A:386

Gulf of Mexico, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:7

Guyana Current, circulation, B:86

gypsum, photograph, A:329

Hess Escarpment

acoustic basement, A:133

geology, B:151

microcrystalline carbonates, B:227-232

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382

pelagic sedimentation, A:378-379

sediments, A:194

seismic stratigraphy, A:293-295

site description, A:291-357

hiatuses

Neogene, B:29

preconsolidation, B:179-181

seismic facies, B:211

See also erosional events; unconformities

Hispaniola, volcanism, A:86

Holocene, lithologic units, A:237-238, 363

Honduras

Chalatenango Formation, A:85

volcanism, A:387

HPC acoustic Unit 3, acoustic basement, A:135

hyaloclastite

basement, A:392-393

lithologic units, A:308

photograph, A:327-328

hydrocarbon zone, vs. depth, A:259

hydrocarbons, carbonate reactions, B:292

hydrocarbons, liquid, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:256-257

hydrocarbons, volatile

chromatograms, A:256

chromatograms vs. time, B:293

sediments, A:73, 164-165, 256, 258, 316, 369

hydrogen/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs, vs. depth, A:193

hydrography

basins, B:86

temperature, B:239-240

hydrolysis, basaltic glass, B:294

hydrothermal alteration

paragenesis, B:228-230

See also alteration; diagenesis

ice sheets

carbon isotopes vs. oxygen isotopes, B:281

See also glaciation

igneous activity, A:85

igneous petrology

Site 998, A:79-86

Site 999, A:174-184

Site 1000, A:263-264

Site 1001, A:323-330

igneous provinces, large, oceanic plateaus, A:9-10

igneous rocks

basement, A:391-393

geochronology, B:233-236

See also igneous provinces, large

ignimbrite

igneous activity, A:85; B:309

Miocene explosive volcanism, B:311

tephra source areas, B:105

volcanic ash falls, A:80

volcanism, A:387

impact craters

Beloc Formation, A:7

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:393-394

See also bolides; Chicxulub impact crater

inclusions, micrite, B:128, 130

inclusions, micritic, photograph, B:134

inclusions, sparitic, photograph, B:134

index properties, sediments, A:87-88, 90, 186, 189, 267, 26, 333-335

induration

coarse fraction, B:257-258

lithologic units, A:297-302

insoluble residues, vs. specific surface, B:186

intersertal textures. See textures, intersertal

Intertropical Convergence Zone, circulation, A:9; B:86

iridium, impact craters, A:7

iron

pore water, A:166, 259, 317, 319; B:288

pyrite, A:183

redox, A:257

seawater reactions with basement, B:294

vs. depth, A:74, 166, 257; B:289

iron/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs, vs. depth, A:93, 104, 193

iron/titanium ratio, pore water, B:288

iron logs, vs. depth, B:196-197

iron oxide

basalts, A:329

reductive diagenesis, A:252

vs. depth, A:172

vs. silica, A:84

iron oxide logs, vs. depth, B:195

isothermal remanent magnetization. See remanent magnetization, anhysteretic; remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal

Jamaica, volcanism, A:86
kaolinite, lithologic units, A:138, 142

kerogen, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:256-257

ketones

laminations, B:243

vs. age, B:244

Kogi Rise

acoustic basement, A:133-135

depth to volcanic basement, B:219-224

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382

pelagic sedimentation, A:378-379

sedimentation rates, B:257

sediments, A:194-207

site description, A:131-230

La Luna Formation, lithofacies, B:131-139

La Luna-Querecual Formation, anoxic deposits, B:125-140

laminations

bundles, B:135

compaction, B:183

compilation, A:367

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151-152

lithologic units, A:59, 147, 150, 302, 363-368; B:87

photograph, A:148, 325; B:190

photomicrograph, B:188-189

See also cross laminations

lapilli, basement, A:392-393

lapilli, basaltic, photograph, A:306

large igneous provinces. See igneous provinces, large

last glacial maximum

carbonate dissolution, B:266

lithologic units, B:87-89, 92-98

ocean circulation, B:255

late Paleocene thermal maximum

claystone, A:206

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151

downhole measurements, B:195

downhole physical properties, A:381

mass accumulation rates, A:379

paleoceanography, A:380-381; B:70

well-logging data, B:191-203

lava flows, basalts, A:326-327, 329

lava flows, basaltic, acoustic basement, A:133

Layer A, limestone, A:346

Layer B, limestone, A:346-347

Layer C, claystone, A:347

Layer D, claystone, A:347

Lesser Antilles, carbonate dissolution index, B:266

Lesser Antilles volcanic arc, tephra source areas, B:105

limestone

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:204-206, 394

lithologic units, A:150

photograph, A:329, 346

limestone/basalt contact, age, A:313

limestone, calcareous

lithologic units, A:58-60, 146-148, 150, 243-245, 304-306, 342

photograph, A:306-307

limestone, clayey, photograph, A:346

limestone, clayey calcareous

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151-152

lithologic units, A:146-147

limestone, foraminifer, lithologic units, A:59-60

limestone, marly, lithofacies, B:131

limestone, nannofossil micritic, lithologic units, A:243-248

Limon Basin, volcanic provenance, A:184

lithification, lithologic units, A:238-239, 243

lithification front, vs. depth, A:259

lithium

pore water, A:75, 168, 260-261

vs. depth, A:76, 168, 261

lithofacies

age, B:151

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151

marl, B:131

lithologic units

Site 998, A:53-60

Site 999, A:138-151

Site 1000, A:237-245

Site 1001, A:296-309

Site 1002, A:363-368

Unit I, A:53-54, 138, 142-143, 237-239, 241-243, 296-300, 363-368

Unit II, A:54-56, 143-145, 243-245, 300-303

Unit III, A:56, 58-59, 145-146, 303-308

Unit IV, A:59-60, 146-148

Unit V, A:148, 150

Unit VI, A:150-151

lithology

relation to color reflectance, A:60-61

synthetic seismograms, B:205-217

lithosphere, plateaus, B:235

lithostratigraphy

correlation with seismic stratigraphy, A:202-204

Site 998, A:52-62

Site 999, A:138-152; B:277

Site 1000, A:236-248; B:277

Site 1001, A:296-309

Site 1002, A:362-368

Loop Current. See Caribbean/Loop Current system

Los Chocoyos eruption, volcanic provenance, A:183

lysocline

lithologic units, B:201

Miocene/late Miocene interval, A:381-384

See also carbonate compensation depth

Maastrichtian

geology, B:151

limestone, A:346

lithologic units, A:150-152, 308

pelagic sedimentation, A:378; B:308

planktonic foraminifers, A:158

sedimentation rates, A:162

Magdalena Fan

carbonate content, A:152

deposition, A:207

pelagic sedimentation, A:380

sediments, A:194

magnesium

carbonate reactions, B:291

pore water, A:74, 167, 260, 319, 396-398

seawater reactions with basement, B:293-294

vs. depth, A:75, 167, 260; B:292, 294-295, 372

magnesium oxide

basalts, A:329

volcanic ash, A:180

volcanic ash falls, A:82

vs. titanium oxide, B:235

magnetic declination

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, B:145

vs. depth, B:145

magnetic inclination

basalts, B:157

biases, B:167-169

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, B:145

demagnetization, A:159-160

paleolatitude, B:159-163

principal component analysis of discrete samples, B:158

vs. depth, A:68, 159-161, 314-315, 369; B:145-146, 169

magnetic induction

geological high-sensitivity magnetic tool, A:94-95, 273-274, 340-341

vs. depth, A:274, 341-342

magnetic induction, total, vs. depth, A:95-96

magnetic intensity

vs. depth, A:69, 159, 252, 314, 369; B:163

magnetic polarity

age, B:144

depths of chron boundaries, A:161

magnetic reversals, boundary depths and ages, A:69

magnetic susceptibility

comparison of Sites 998 and 999, A:248

correlation with calcium carbonate, A:382

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, B:145

high-sensitivity tools, A:94-95

relation to lithology, A:60-61

sediments, A:185, 267

vs. age, A:58, 144-145, 382, 384

vs. carbonate content, A:61, 252

vs. depth, A:69, 87, 95-96, 149, 185, 187, 240, 243, 252, 266, 272, 274, 303, 306, 314, 332, 334, 338, 341-342, 369, 372-373; B:145, 147, 196-197, 200-201

magnetostratigraphy

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, B:145

magnetic polarity, A:160-161

synthesis, A:68-69

vs. age, B:256

major elements

sediments, A:77, 170, 262, 321

volcanic ash, A:84, 181, 324

major oxides

basalts, A:326, 329

volcanic ash, A:179-182, 183

volcanic ash fall layers, A:266

vs. depth, A:330

vs. silica, A:183

manganese

pore water, A:167, 259, 319; B:288

redox, A:257

vs. depth, A:74, 166, 257, 319; B:294

manganese/titanium ratio, pore water, B:288

Margarita Island, basins, B:86

Maria Tecun welded ash flow tuffs, volcanic provenance, A:183

marine isotope Stages 1-6, planktonic foraminifers, B:91

marine isotope Stage 2, planktonic foraminifers, B:92

marine isotope Stages 2-4, planktonic foraminifers, B:88

marine isotope Stage 3, planktonic foraminifers, B:89, 244

marine isotope Stage 4, planktonic foraminifers, B:89

marine isotope Stage 5, planktonic foraminifers, B:88-89, 92-94, 244

marine isotope Stage 6, planktonic foraminifers, B:88-89, 92-94

marine isotope Stage 12, planktonic foraminifers, B:88

marine isotope Stages 14/13 boundary, planktonic foraminifers, B:88

marl, lithofacies, B:131

mass accumulation rates

aragonite, B:261-262

bulk sediments, B:254-255, 270-272

carbonate component vs. age, B:120, 261

carbonate and noncarbonate fractions, A:162; B:118-123

dispersed ash vs. age, B:120-122

interpolated ages, A:72, 162, 255, 317

Miocene volcanic ash, B:111, 113

pelagic sedimentation, A:377-380

sediments, B:22-23

Site 998, A:69-71

Site 999, A:161-163

Site 1000, A:252-254, 275

Site 1001, A:315

tephra layers, B:301

terrigenous component vs. age, B:120-121

vs. age, A:71, 163, 253-254, 318, 383

vs. depth, A:71-72, 162-163, 253, 317, 379-380

See also sedimentation rates

mass accumulation rates, carbonate

sediments, B:259-261

vs. age, B:250

mass extinctions, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:7

Mediterranean Outflow Water, ocean circulation, B:255

megabanks. See carbonate platforms

megabanks, foundered, reflectors, A:234-236

methane

carbonate reactions, B:292

sediments, A:73, 164-165, 256, 316, 369

vs. core number, A:370

Mexico, volcanism, A:386

Mexico S, tephra source areas, B:105

micrite

beige layers, B:132-133

compaction, B:181-183

inclusions, B:128, 130

lithologic units, A:238-242

microbial origin, B:227-232

seismic units, B:210

micrite, layered, photograph, B:136

microbial activity

cements, B:227-232

organic matter, B:288-291

microfossils

photomicrograph, B:188-189

preconsolidation, B:181-183

microstylolites, mixed sediments, B:177-190

Middle America Trench

plate boundaries, A:184

volcanism, A:386

Middle American Arc, tectonics, A:85

Milankovitch cycles

indicators, B:246

lithologic units, A:305, 308

Mimbral sequence, Mexico, A:7

minerals, downcore variations, A:241, 303

Miocene

acoustic basement, A:133-135

biostratigraphy, A:64-66; B:13-14

calcareous nannofossils, A:152-153, 249-250

lithologic units, A:54-56, 58-59, 138, 142-146, 237-239, 241-248, 297-300

pelagic sedimentation, A:378-379

planktonic foraminifers, A:155-156, 250-251

sea gateways, B:254

tectonics, A:103

volcanic ash, A:174; B:101-113

volcanic ash falls, A:80

volcaniclastics, A:83-86

volcanism, A:386-388; B:309-310

See also Eocene/Miocene boundary; Eocene/Miocene unconformity; Oligocene/Miocene boundary

Miocene/middle Eocene sequence, unconformities, A:304

Miocene, lower-middle, paleoceanography, B:275-283

Miocene, middle-upper, tectonics, B:252

Miocene, middle-upper carbonate crash

mass accumulation rates, A:247, 249-250, 275, 379, 383

paleoceanography, A:381-384; B:249-273

sediment composition, A:172

tectonics, A:206-207

Miocene volcanic episode, paleogeography, A:387

Misteriosa Bank, seismic stratigraphy, A:50-51

Mono Rise

acoustic basement, A:134

sediments, A:194

Monterey Excursion, carbon isotopes, B:280-281

Monterey Formation, carbon isotopes vs. oxygen isotopes, B:281

Morti tuffs, volcanic provenance, A:184

Motagua Fault, volcanism, A:184

mottling, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151-152

nannofossils

biostratigraphic datums, A:63, 153, 249, 310; B:256

lithologic units, A:53, 138, 142, 145-148, 238-239, 241, 363-368; B:87

photograph, A:144

radiometric ages, B:305-306

nannofossils, calcareous, biostratigraphy, A:62-64, 152-154, 248-250, 309-311, 368; B:3-17

Napipi Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

Nazca Plate, volcanism, A:184

Neogene

biostratigraphy, A:62-65, 342; B:3-17, 19-56

calcareous nannofossils, A:309-310

Caribbean Current, A:9

mass accumulation rates, A:69-71

pelagic sedimentation, A:378-380

planktonic foraminifers, A:311-312

Neogene/Paleogene boundary, unconformities, A:342

Nicaragua

Chalatenango Formation, A:85

volcanism, A:387

Nicaraguan Rise

bathymetry, B:253

geochronology of igneous basement, B:233-236

ocean circulation, A:9; B:253

paleoceanography, B:275-283

pelagic sedimentation, A:378

plate tectonics, B:252

seismic facies, B:212

seismic stratigraphy, A:293-295

volcanism, A:86

Nicaraguan Rise N

carbonate dissolution index, B:266

geology, B:151, 267-268

site description, A:231-289

Nicaraguan Rise S

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:395

site description, A:291-357

nickel

volcanic ash falls, A:82

vs. sulfur, B:290-291

niobium

sediments, A:174

volcanic ash, A:180, 183

vs. noncarbonate fractions, A:174

vs. yttrium, A:183

vs. zirconium, A:393

See also yttrium + niobium; yttrium/niobium ratio; zirconium/niobium ratio

nitrogen, total, sediments, A:72, 163-164, 254-256, 316, 318

noncarbonate component

chromium, A:261

distribution, A:262-263, 275

mass accumulation rates, A:247, 379-380

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:383

provenance, A:322

vs. rubidium, A:323

vs. titanium, A:323

vs. zinc, A:323

vs. zirconium, A:323

North Atlantic Deep Water

ocean circulation, A:9, 62; B:264-265, 267-272

production vs. carbonate composite dissolution index, B:266

North Atlantic Deep Water, lower, ocean circulation, B:255

North Atlantic Deep Water, upper, ocean circulation, B:255

North Atlantic Intermediate Water, glacial, ocean circulation, B:255

North Brazil Current, circulation, B:86

North Component Water, carbonate content vs. age, B:265, 268-272

North Equatorial Countercurrent

ocean circulation, A:154

pelagic sedimentation, A:378, 385

North Equatorial Current

ocean circulation, A:154; B:29

pelagic sedimentation, A:378, 385

obduction, plateaus, B:235

obliquity

cyclic sedimentation, B:137-138

vs. age, B:95

ocean circulation

carbonates, A:385

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:8-10

middle-late Miocene, B:252

ocean plateaus

isochrons, B:235

volcanism, A:9-10, 293-295, 347; B:308

See also igneous provinces, large

Oligocene

biostratigraphy, A:66

calcareous nannofossils, A:153-154

lithologic units, A:146-148

planktonic foraminifers, A:156

volcanic ash falls, A:80

Oligocene/Miocene boundary

carbon isotopes, B:280-281

sedimentation rates, A:162-163

Oligocene, upper, paleoceanography, B:275-283

olivine, dissolution, B:294

ooze, clayey nannofossil, lithologic units, A:142, 297-298

ooze, foraminiferal, lithologic units, A:53-55

ooze, foraminiferal micritic, lithologic units, A:238-239, 241

ooze, micritic, lithologic units, A:238-239, 241

ooze, micritic nannofossil, lithologic units, A:238-239, 241, 245-248

ooze, nannofossil, lithologic units, A:53, 55, 238, 298-300

ooze, pelagic, lithologic units, A:54-55

ooze, pelagic biogenic, lithologic units, A:53-55

opal, biogenic production, A:79

opal, biogenic, vs. depth, A:143

opal A, dissolution, A:261

opal CT

lithologic units, A:147, 244, 260, 301

orbital forcing

chronology, B:306

lithologic units, A:304-308

organic matter

diagenesis, A:164, 275

lithofacies, B:131-133

pore water, A:166-167

remineralization, B:288-291

See also alkenones; hydrocarbons; ketones

Oriente Terrane, volcanism, A:86

oxic environment, lithologic units, A:368

oxygen isotopes

foraminifers, B:88-93, 243

vs. age, B:94, 97, 262, 281

vs. carbon isotopes, B:281

vs. depth, B:92-93, 278-281

oxygen isotopes, planktonic record, vs. depth, A:240

oxygenation, sedimentation, B:98

Pacacua Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

"pachyderma" event, ocean circulation, A:154-155, 250; B:29

"pachyderma" (sinistral) event

Caribbean Sea, A:384-385

Site 999, A:155

Pacific Ocean, central, volcanic ash mass accumulation rate, B:113

Pacific Ocean E equatorial, carbonate mass accumulation rates, B:250, 270-271

Pacific Plate, volcanism, A:388

Pacific tuffs, volcanic provenance, A:184

Padre Miguel Group

tephra source areas, B:105

volcanic provenance, A:183

palagonitization, basalts, A:327

paleoceanography

alkenones, B:239-247

Cretaceous-Tertiary sequence, A:154-155, 341-342, 346-348, 380-385; B:29

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:8-10

latest Quaternary, A:385

middle-late Miocene, B:252

middle-late Miocene carbonate crash, B:249-273

stable isotopes, B:275-283

Paleocene

calcareous nannofossils, A:154

limestone, A:346

lithologic units, A:148, 150, 300-306

pelagic sedimentation, A:378

planktonic foraminifers, A:157-158

sedimentary rocks, B:190

sedimentation rates, A:162

volcanism, A:390; B:308-309

See also late Paleocene thermal maximum

Paleocene, upper, downhole measurements, B:196-197, 199

Paleocene/Eocene boundary, well logs, B:200-201

paleoclimatology

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:8-10

latest Quaternary, A:385

Quaternary, A:368; B:92-98

volcanism, A:390

paleodepth, Paleocene, A:381

paleoenvironment, oxic to anoxic environment, A:361

paleoequator, Late Cretaceous, A:393

Paleogene

biostratigraphy, A:64, 66, 342; B:57-81

calcareous nannofossils, A:310-311

pelagic sedimentation, A:377

planktonic foraminifers, A:312-313

radiolarian and foraminifer-rich sands, A:206

See also Neogene/Paleogene boundary

paleogeography

Cenozoic, B:173

Miocene volcanic episode, A:387

paleolatitude

Caribbean Plate, B:149-173

magnetic inclination, B:159-163

mean inclinations for basalt units, B:166

observed values to true values, B:164-165

vs. age, B:170

vs. carbonate content, B:171

vs. depth, B:168-170

vs. porosity, B:171

vs. water content, B:171

paleomagnetic directions, dating, A:68

paleomagnetism

basalt split-core inclinations, B:157

discrete samples, B:156-157

paleolatitude, B:151-171

Site 998, A:67-69

Site 999, A:158-161

Site 1000, A:251-252

Site 1001, A:314-315

Site 1002, A:368-369

split-core data, B:154-156

tephra, B:154; bp:CD-ROM

paleoproductivity

alkenones, B:243

sedimentation rates, A:96; B:96

paleotemperature, alkenones, B:242-246

Panama, Isthmus of

Chalatenango Formation, A:85

genesis, A:207

isthmus emergence, A:9, 62; B:267

ocean circulation, B:253, 264, 270

pelagic sedimentation, A:379-380

volcanic provenance, A:183-184

paragenesis, carbonates, B:228-230

Pedro Channel

bathymetry, A:234, 275; B:253

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382-383; B:271-272

pelagic sedimentation, A:378-380; B:267

plate tectonics, B:252

sedimentation, A:245-248

seismic stratigraphy, A:232-236

seismic units, B:209-212

site description, A:231-289

periplatforms

lithologic units, A:239, 245-248

reflectors, A:234

petrography

basalts, A:326-329

micrite, B:228-230

petrology, basalts, B:233-236

pH, pore water, A:73-74, 166, 259, 317

Phacodiscid species, Site 999, B:79

phenocrysts

basalts, A:326-327, 329; B:233-235

crystal size, B:102-103

photomicrograph, A:81

phosphate

pore water, A:75, 167, 259; B:288

redox, A:257

vs. depth, A:75, 257, 372; B:294

photoelectric effect logs, vs. depth, A:92, 192, 272, 338

physical properties

mixed sediments, B:180

Site 998, A:86-88

Site 999, A:184-186

Site 1000, A:264-269

Site 1001, A:330-336

Site 1002, A:370

volcanic basement, B:220

plagioclase

basalts, B:233-235

photograph, A:329

photomicrograph, A:329

textures, A:326-327, 329

volcanic ash falls, A:80

plagioclase, calcic, dissolution, B:294

Planolites, lithologic units, A:145

plate boundaries

convergent plates, A:184

oceanic plateaus, A:11

plate motion, models, B:169-171

plate tectonics

Eocene-Miocene, B:309-310

middle-late Miocene, B:252, 270-272

paleolatitude, B:149-173

plateaus. See ocean plateaus

Pleistocene

biostratigraphy, A:62-64

calcareous nannofossils, A:152, 248-249

lithologic units, A:53-54, 138, 237-238, 296-297, 363-368

pelagic sedimentation, A:380

planktonic foraminifers, A:155, 250

See also Pliocene-Pleistocene sequence

Pliocene

biostratigraphy, A:64; B:11-13

calcareous nannofossils, A:152, 249

lithologic units, A:53-55, 138, 142, 237-239, 241, 297

planktonic foraminifers, A:155, 250

Pliocene-Pleistocene sequence

magnetostratigraphy, A:160

sedimentation rates, A:162

pore water

composition, A:73-76, 165-169, 258-261, 316-320, 348, 369-371

geochemistry, A:396-398; B:287-298

porosity

gamma-ray attenuation evaluator data, A:185, 267, 332, 373

sulfate reduction, B:289

vs. depth, A:90, 143, 149, 189, 269, 335; B:138

vs. paleolatitude, B:171

vs. traveltime, B:187

vs. uniaxial stress, B:182, 185

porosity, Archie, vs. depth, A:90

porosity, critical, preconsolidation, B:181-183

porosity logs. See gamma ray-density-porosity logs

potassium

gamma-ray intensity vs. depth, A:190-191

pore water, A:75, 168, 260, 320

volcanic ash, A:180

vs. depth, A:76, 168, 261, 320, 336-337, 372

vs. thorium, A:340

potassium/(thorium + uranium) ratio, gamma-ray intensity vs. depth, A:191, 337

potassium logs, vs. depth, A:94, 104, 194, 273

potassium oxide

volcanic ash, A:82

See also sodium oxide + potassium oxide; sodium oxide/potassium oxide ratio

precession, vs. age, B:95

precipitation, carbonates, A:166-167; B:292-293

precipitation, postdepositional, carbonates, B:279

preconsolidation, stylolites, B:179-181

preservation

calcareous nannofossils, A:152-154, 248-250, 309-311

foraminifers, A:368

planktonic foraminifers, A:66-67

radiolarians, B:57-58

vs. depth, A:66

primary structures, lithofacies, B:131-133

proto-dolomite, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:256-257

provenance, Miocene volcanic ash layers, B:101-113

pteropods, lithologic units, A:138, 238, 363; B:87

Punta Carballo Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

pyrite

lithologic units, A:54, 241, 244, 363-368

photomicrograph, A:176-177

reductive diagenesis, A:252, 258

sulfate reduction, B:290

volcanic glass, A:176

pyroclastics, plumes, B:106-108

pyrolysis, Rock-Eval

bitumens, A:256-257

sediments, A:257

quartz

lithofacies, B:131-133

lithologic units, A:144, 298-301, 346

X-ray diffraction peak intensity vs. depth, A:142

quartz/calcite ratio, vs. depth, A:56

quartz, shocked

Layer B, A:346

photomicrograph, A:346

Quaternary

anoxic deposits, B:125-140

biostratigraphy, A:368; B:3-17

Quaternary, upper

biostratigraphy, B:85-99

paleoceanography and paleoclimatology, A:385

quenched margins, textures, A:326-327, 329

Querecual Formation

lithofacies, B:131-139

See also La Luna-Querecual Formation

radiolarians

biostratigraphy, B:57-81

lithologic units, A:142-143, 148

radiometric ages

vs. biostratigraphy, B:305-307

See also dating; geochronology

rebound, uploading curves, B:178-179

recrystallization

calcite, B:133

carbonates, B:228-229

lithologic units, A:304

photograph, B:136

redox

diagenesis, A:164; B:308

organic matter, B:288-291

pathways, A:257

See also reduction

reduction

Miocene/late Miocene interval, A:381-384

organic matter, A:164

See also redox; sulfate reduction

reflectance

lithologic units, A:241

relation to lithology, A:60-61

spectra for lithologies, A:61

vs. carbonate content, A:61

vs. depth, A:238, 243, 303

reflections, acoustic basement, A:133-135

reflections, high-resolution, seafloor, A:234

Reflector 1, seismic stratigraphy, A:51, 234

Reflector 2, seismic stratigraphy, A:51

Reflector 3, seismic stratigraphy, A:51

Reflector 4, seismic stratigraphy, A:51, 235

Reflector 5, seismic stratigraphy, A:234

Reflector 6, seismic stratigraphy, A:234-236

Reflector A'', seismic stratigraphy, A:294, 348

Reflector B'', seismic stratigraphy, A:294

reflectors

periplatforms, A:234

seismic stratigraphy, A:50-51

remanent magnetization, anhysteretic, vs. depth, B:147

remanent magnetization, anhysteretic/saturation isothermal ratio, vs. depth, B:147

remanent magnetization, chemical, basalts, B:159-162

remanent magnetization, "hard" isothermal, vs. depth, B:147

remanent magnetization, natural, sediments, A:68-69, 158, 314, 368-369; B:146-147

remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal, vs. depth, B:147

remineralization, organic matter, B:288-291

remineralization, organic, pore water, A:166

resistivity

sediments, A:88, 186, 189, 267, 269, 334-335

vs. depth, A:90, 189, 269, 335, 381

resistivity logs

vs. depth, A:92, 192; 272, 338; B:195, 223

See also gamma ray-density-porosity logs

reworking

lithologic units, A:145

photograph, A:59

rhyolite, photomicrograph, A:81

Rosalind Bank

bathymetry, A:234, 275

seismic stratigraphy, A:232

seismic units, B:209

rough horizon B''

acoustic basement, A:133

See also smooth horizon B''

rubidium

pore water, A:75, 168, 260, 320

volcanic ash, A:183

vs. depth, A:76, 168, 261, 320; B:297

vs. noncarbonate fraction, A:323

vs. yttrium + niobium, A:183

rubidium/strontium ratio, volcanic ash, A:180

salinity

indicators, B:88-89, 91, 96

pore water, A:73-74, 166, 259, 317, 396-398

vs. depth, A:166, 319, 372

San Pedro Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

sand, foraminiferal

lithologic units, A:239, 242-243, 302-303

number of layers vs. age, A:381

photograph, A:242, 245

sand, foraminiferal and radiolarian

Paleogene, A:206

vs. depth, A:148

sand, normally graded, lithologic units, A:238-239, 241, 244-245

sand, volcaniclastic, photograph, A:60

Santa Elena Fault Zone, volcanic provenance, A:183

Santaren Channel, ocean circulation, B:267-269

Santorini, tephra grain size and thickness, B:112

saturation isothermal remanent magnetization. See remanent magnetization, anhysteretic; remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal

sea gateways

closing, B:254, 271

general circulation models, B:267-269

seafloor spreading rates, volcanism, A:388

sea-level changes

history, B:96, 244

lithologic units, A:368

seawater, reactions with basement, B:293-294

secular variations, geomagnetism, B:151, 158

sedimentary rocks, mixed, lithologic units, A:300-302

sedimentation

lithologic units, A:62

upper Quaternary, B:85-99

volcanic ash, A:202

See also deposition; sedimentation, rhythmic

sedimentation, pelagic, mass accumulation rates, A:377-380

sedimentation, rhythmic, sediments, B:92-98

sedimentation rates

biostratigraphy, B:257

carbonate crash, A:96

corrections, B:129

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, B:145

geomagnetism, B:151, 158

lithologic units, A:142

Maastrichtian, A:162

nannofossil datums, A:161

Oligocene/Miocene boundary, A:162-163

Site 998, A:69-71

Site 999, A:161-163

Site 1000, A:252-254, 275

Site 1001, A:315

vs. age, A:70, 161, 253, 316

vs. number of cycles, B:133-139

See also mass accumulation rates

sediments

geochemistry, A:394, 396

lithologic units, B:86-87

sediments, bulk

carbonates and terrigenous material, A:394, 396

vs. age, A:173

vs. depth, A:263, 322

sediments, clayey, photograph, A:307

sediments, foraminiferal, vs. depth, A:306

sediments, foraminiferal clayey mixed, lithologic units, A:138

sediments, hemipelagic, ocean circulation, A:385

sediments, indurated mixed, lithologic units, A:143-145

sediments, laminated, lithologic units, A:363-368

sediments, mixed

burial history, B:177-190

lithologic units, A:54-55, 363-368

sediments, mixed clayey nannofossil, lithologic units, A:55, 138, 142-146, 297

sediments, redeposited, photograph, A:59-60

seismic facies

lithology, A:204

synthetic seismograms, B:205-217

seismic profiles

Site 998, A:52

Site 999, A:134-136

Site 1000, A:235-236

Site 1001, A:296-299

Site 1002, A:364

seismic stratigraphy

correlation, A:105, 202-204, 282

Site 998, A:50-51

Site 999, A:132-136

Site 1000, A:232, 234-236

Site 1001, A:293-295

Site 1002, A:362

volcanic basement, B:219-220

seismic Unit A

ash deposits, A:104

reflectors, A:234-236, 295

seismic Unit B

ash deposits, A:104

reflectors, A:235-236, 295

seismic stratigraphy, A:51

seismic Unit C

ash deposits, A:104

reflectors, A:295

seismic stratigraphy, A:51

seismic Unit CB1

acoustic basement, A:135

lithostratigraphy, A:204

seismic Unit CB4

acoustic basement, A:135; B:222-224

lithostratigraphy, A:204

seismic Units CB4B/CB5 boundary, synthetic seismograms, B:222-224

seismic Unit CB5

acoustic basement, A:134; B:222-224

lithostratigraphy, A:202-204

seismic units

ash deposits, A:104

lithofacies, B:208-214

seismograms, synthetic, seismic facies, B:205-217, 222

Serranilla Bank

seismic stratigraphy, A:232

seismic units, B:209

shear strength

sediments, A:186, 190, 267-269, 335

vs. depth, A:90-91, 190, 270, 335-336

shear strength, vane, sediments, A:88

sheet flows, basement, A:392-393

shoaling, Neogene, B:29

Sierra Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

Sierra Maestra, volcanism, B:309

silica

pore water, A:76, 168-169, 260, 320

seawater reactions with basement, B:294

volcanic ash, A:180, 183; B:295

volcanism, A:390

vs. depth, A:76, 169, 261, 320, 372, 397; B:295-296

vs. major oxides, A:183

vs. oxides, A:84

See also hydrogen/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs; iron/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs; silicon/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs

silica, biogenic

lithologic units, A:142

pore water, A:397

silica logs, vs. depth, B:195

silicification

lithologic units, A:60, 147

seismic stratigraphy, A:203-204

See also chertification

silicon/(silicon + calcium) ratio logs, vs. depth, A:93, 104, 193

silt, foraminiferal, lithologic units, A:54, 239, 242

Site 147, lithologic units, B:87-89, 95

Site 489, volcanism, A:386

Site 493, volcanism, A:386

Site 502, acoustic basement, A:135

Site 504, niobium vs. zirconium, A:393

Site 536, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:7

Site 540, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:7

Site 806, stylolites, B:184

Site 807

mixed sediments, B:180

stylolites, B:184

Site 846

carbonate content vs. age, B:265

correlation of magnetic susceptibility and calcium carbonate in pelagic carbonates, A:384

Site 848, carbonate mass accumulation rates, B:250

Site 849, carbonate mass accumulation rates, B:250

Site 850, carbonate mass accumulation rates, B:250

Site 851, carbonate mass accumulation rates, B:250

Site 852, carbonate mass accumulation rates, B:250

Site 865, thermal events, A:151

Site 926

carbonate content vs. age, B:265

correlation of magnetic susceptibility and calcium carbonate in pelagic carbonates, A:384

Site 998, A:49-130

background and objectives, A:50

biostratigraphy, A:62-67; B:3-17, 59-63

carbonate crash, A:152

coring, A:53

correlation of magnetic susceptibility and calcium carbonate in pelagic carbonates, A:382, 384

downhole measurements, A:88-95

geology, B:151

igneous petrology, A:79-86

inorganic geochemistry, A:73-79

lithostratigraphy, A:52-62

mass accumulation rates, A:69-71

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382; B:249-273

Miocene volcanic ash layers, B:101-113

operations, A:51

organic geochemistry, A:71-73

paleomagnetism, A:67-69; B:163

physical properties, A:86-88

sedimentation rates, A:69-71

seismic stratigraphy, A:50-51

site description, A:49-130

summary and conclusions, A:95-106

synthetic seismograms, B:208-209

volcanology, A:79-86

Site 999, A:131-230

background and objectives, A:132

biostratigraphy, A:152-158; B:3-56, 59-60, 64-68

coring, A:137

correlation of magnetic susceptibility and calcium carbonate in pelagic carbonates, A:382

depth to volcanic basement, B:219-224

downhole measurements, A:186-194

geology, B:151

high-resolution well-log data, B:191-203

igneous petrology, A:174-184

inorganic geochemistry, A:165-174

lithostratigraphy, A:138-152

mass accumulation rates, A:161-163

microstylolites, B:177-190

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382; B:249- 273

Miocene volcanic ash layers, B:101-113

operations, A:136-138

organic geochemistry, A:163-165

paleoceanography, B:275-283

paleomagnetism, A:158-161; B:163

physical properties, A:184-186

sedimentation rates, A:161-163

seismic stratigraphy, A:132-136

site description, A:131-230

stylolites, B:184

summary and conclusions, A:194-207

volcanology, A:174-184

Site 1000, A:231-289

background and objectives, A:232

biostratigraphy, A:248-251; B:3-17

coring, A:237

correlation of magnetic susceptibility and calcium carbonate in pelagic carbonates, A:382

downhole measurements, A:269-274

geology, B:151

igneous petrology, A:263-264

inorganic geochemistry, A:258-263

lithostratigraphy, A:236-248

mass accumulation rates, A:252-254

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382-383; B:249-273

Miocene volcanic ash layers, B:101-113

operations, A:236

organic geochemistry, A:254-258

paleoceanography, B:275-283

paleomagnetism, A:251-252; B:163

physical properties, A:264-269

sedimentation rates, A:252-254

seismic stratigraphy, A:232, 234-236

site description, A:231-289

summary and conclusions, A:269-274

synthetic seismograms, B:209-212

volcanology, A:263-264

Site 1001, A:291-357

background and objectives, A:292-293

biostratigraphy, A:309-314; B:59-60, 69

coring, A:301

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:395

downhole measurements, A:336-341

geochronology of igneous basement, B:233-236

geology, B:151

high-resolution well-log data, B:191-203

igneous petrology, A:323-330

inorganic geochemistry, A:316-323

lithostratigraphy, A:296-309

magnetostratigraphy, B:143-147

mass accumulation rates, A:315

microcrystalline carbonates, B:227-232

microstylolites, B:177-190

Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382

operations, A:295-296

organic geochemistry, A:315-316

paleomagnetism, A:314-315; B:163, 165

physical properties, A:330-336

sedimentation rates, A:315

seismic stratigraphy, A:293-295

site description, A:291-357

stylolites, B:184

summary and conclusions, A:341-348

synthetic seismograms, B:212-213

volcanology, A:323-330

Site 1002, A:359-373

alkenones, B:239-247

anoxic deposits, B:125-140

background and objectives, A:360-362

biostratigraphy, A:368

coring, A:365

inorganic geochemistry, A:369-370

lithostratigraphy, A:362-368

operations, A:362

organic geochemistry, A:369

paleoceanography, B:239-247

paleomagnetism, A:368-369

physical properties, A:370

rock magnetism, B:143-147

seismic stratigraphy, A:362

site description, A:359-373

stratigraphy and sedimentation, B:85-99

summary and conclusions, A:370

smectite

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:394

lithologic units, A:142, 144, 244, 297, 299, 347

photograph, A:328, 346

pore water, A:396-398

seawater reactions with basement, B:294

volcanic ash falls, A:82

smooth horizon B''

acoustic basement, A:133

See also rough horizon B''

sodium

pore water, A:73-74, 259, 317

vs. depth, A:74, 259, 372

sodium oxide + potassium oxide, vs. silica, A:84

sodium oxide/potassium oxide ratio, volcanic ash, A:82

sonic logs. See gamma ray-density-porosity logs

specific surface

vs. depth, B:186

vs. insoluble residue, B:186

spherulitic textures. See textures, spherulitic

spicules. See sponge spicules

sponge spicules, lithologic units, A:142

stable isotopes

benthic foraminifers, B:262-263

carbonates, B:254

foraminifers, B:88-93

paleoceanography, B:275-283

See also carbon isotopes; oxygen isotopes

strain, vs. uniaxial stress, B:181

stress, effective, vs. depth burial, B:184

stress, uniaxial

vs. porosity, B:182, 185

vs. strain, B:181

strontium

carbonate reactions, B:291

pore water, A:74, 167, 260, 319

volcanic ash falls, A:82

vs. depth, A:75, 167, 260, 319, 397; B:292, 294-295

See also rubidium/strontium ratio

stylolites. See microstylolites

subduction zones, volcanism, A:309, 388

subophitic textures. See textures, subophitic

subthermocline depth, Miocene/late Miocene carbonate crash, A:382-383

Subunit IG, sediments, B:92

Subunit IG/IF, sediments, B:92

sulfate

pore water, A:74, 166, 259, 317

redox, A:257-258

sediments, A:73, 164

vs. depth, A:74, 166, 252, 319, 372; B:289, 294

sulfate reduction

model rates, B:289

organic matter, B:288-291

sediments, A:165, 316

See also reduction

sulfur

volcanism, A:390

vs. depth, A:255

vs. nickel, B:290-291

sulfur, total

sediments, A:72, 163-164, 254-256, 316, 318

vs. depth, A:164

synchroneity, Miocene explosive volcanism, B:311

taphonomy, volcanic ash, B:296

tectonics

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:9; B:29

Eocene, A:103

temperature, alkenones, B:239-247

tephra

glass shard morphology, A:177-179

lithologic units, A:308; B:153

photograph, B:310

volcaniclastics, A:85-86

volcanism, A:386-388

See also volcanic ash

tephra, marine, vs. age, A:388

tephra layers

biotite, B:302-304

grain size and thickness, B:112

maximum feldspar crystal size, B:112

volcanism, B:299-314

terrigenous component

bulk sediments, A:394, 396; B:87-88

chromium, A:169-170, 173-174, 261

cumulative percentage vs. depth and age, A:173

distribution, A:262-263, 275

mass accumulation rates vs. depth, A:265

sediments, A:321; B:115-124

vs. age, A:173; B:97

vs. depth, A:79, 172, 263-264, 322, 392

vs. niobium, A:174

vs. volcanic ash, A:76-79

Tertiary. See Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary

textures

basalts, A:326-329

carbonates, B:228-229

preconsolidation, B:181-183

textures, glomeroporphyritic, basalts, A:329

textures, intersertal, photomicrograph, A:329

textures, spherulitic, basalts, A:326-327, 329, 346

textures, subophitic, photomicrograph, A:329

thermal conductivity

sediments, A:86, 185, 187, 265, 268, 332

vs. depth, A:89, 187, 268, 334

thermal degradation, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A:256-257

thermal maxima. See late Paleocene thermal maximum

thermohaline circulation, Paleocene, A:381

thermohaline currents, circulation, A:9

thorium

gamma-ray intensity vs. depth, A:190-191

vs. depth, A:336-337

vs. potassium, A:340

See also potassium/(thorium + uranium) ratio

thorium logs, vs. depth, A:94, 194, 273, 339

thorium/uranium ratio logs, vs. depth, A:94, 194, 273, 339

titanium

provenance, A:322

vs. noncarbonate fraction, A:323

See also barium/titanium ratio; iron/titanium ratio; manganese/titanium ratio

titanium oxide, vs. magnesium oxide, B:235

titanium/zirconium ratio

sediments, A:76-77, 174

vs. depth, A:78, 175

Toba, tephra grain size and thickness, B:112

Tortuga Bank, basins, B:86

trace elements

basalts, A:331, 393

basement, A:392-393

sediments, A:78, 171-172, 263, 322

volcanic ash, A:85, 180, 182-183, 266, 324

vs. age, A:84

vs. depth, A:331

transport

eruptions, A:389

tephra, B:103-104

See also wind transport

traveltime

ash deposits, A:104

vs. porosity, B:187

traveltime, two-way, vs. depth, A:94, 195, 213, 273; B:212-213, 222

tropical environment, Paleocene, A:380-381

turbidites

basement, A:392-393

benthic foraminifers, A:67

deposition, A:96

frequency, A:61-62

lithologic units, A:53-55, 59-60, 238-239, 241, 244-248, 275

number/core ratio vs. age, A:58

photograph, A:83

photomicrograph, A:83, 246

reflectors, A:234

seismic facies, B:210-212

thickness vs. depth, A:242

thickness/core ratio vs. age, A:58

volcanic ash falls, A:81

volcanism, A:388-390

See also sand, normally graded

Turrucares Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

unconformities

Eocene/Miocene unconformity, A:321

lithologic units, A:301

Neogene/Paleogene, A:342

photograph, A:304

seismic facies, B:211-212

volcanism, A:388-390

See also Eocene/Miocene boundary; erosional

events; hiatuses

unsaturation index, alkenones, B:239-247

uplifts, Andes N, A:207

upwelling

ocean circulation, A:154

pelagic sedimentation, A:379-380

uranium

gamma-ray intensity vs. depth, A:190-191

See also potassium/(thorium + uranium) ratio

uranium logs

vs. depth, A:94, 104, 194, 273, 339

See also thorium/uranium ratio logs

varves

lithofacies, B:131-133, 138-139

sediments, B:127-128

veins, photograph, A:327

velocity

sediments, A:185-187, 265-268

volcanic basement, B:219-220

vs. depth, A:89, 92, 334, 381; B:178, 207-208, 210-211, 334

velocity, acoustic, sediments, A:93-94, 194, 272-273, 340

velocity logs

vs. depth, A:92, 104, 192; B:195, 199, 223, 272

See also gamma ray-density-porosity logs

Venado Formation, volcanic provenance, A:184

Venezuela, basins, B:86

Venezuela N, anoxic deposits, B:125-140

Venezuelan Basin

acoustic basement, A:133-134

oceanic plateaus, A:9-10

ventilation, history, B:96

vesicularity, basalts, A:330, 393

volatiles, impact craters, A:8

volcanic ash

alteration, B:294-296

dispersal vs. discrete layers, B:122-123

geochemistry, B:291

lithofacies, A:322-324, 347-348, 385-391

lithologic units, A:54-55, 59-60, 142, 144-148, 150, 300-302, 308

magnetic inclination, A:159-160

mass accumulation rates, B:301

mass accumulation rates vs. age, A:324

Miocene, B:101-113

photograph, A:56, 80, 325

pyrite, B:290

sediments, B:115-124

thickness/core ratio vs. age, A:83

thickness frequency distribution, A:175

thickness vs. depth, A:173

volcanic episodes, A:195

vs. age, A:388, 391

vs. depth, A:320, 392, 397; B:296

vs. terrigenous component, A:76-79

See also tephra

volcanic ash, dispersed

bulk sediments, A:394, 396

chromium, A:261

cumulative percentage vs. depth and age, A:173

distribution, A:262-263, 275

geochemistry, A:321-322

vs. age, A:173

vs. depth, A:173

volcanic ash fall layers

accumulation rate vs. age, A:175-176

age, A:263-264

mass accumulation rates vs. age, A:265

photograph, A:80, 143, 147, 241, 244, 247

photomicrograph, A:178

vs. age, A:175, 324, 386

vs. depth, A:263

volcanic ash, interbedded, lithologic units, A:238-239, 241, 243-248

volcanic ash, silicic, thickness and distribution, A:174-176

volcanic glass

basalts, B:233-235

Beloc Formation, A:7

dissolution, B:294

impact craters, A:8

index of preservation vs. depth, A:177

lithologic units, A:147, 305, 308

volcanic glass, rhyolitic, photomicrograph, A:81

volcanic glass, silicic, photomicrograph, A:177-180

volcanic glass shards

age, A:263-264

lithologic units, A:138-150

morphologies, A:176-180

photograph, A:328

photomicrograph, A:176-180

volcanic glass shards, rhyolitic, photograph, A:241

volcanic glass shards, silicic and dacitic, photomicrograph, A:176-180

volcaniclastics

acoustic basement, A:133-134

basement, A:392-393

deposition, A:103

genesis, A:83-86

lithologic units, A:59-60, 62, 308

photograph, A:60, 83

photomicrograph, A:83

volcanism, A:388-390

volcanism

basalts, A:330

Campanian, A:322-324

Cretaceous/Tertiary sequence, A:174-176

dispersed ash source, B:121-123

Eocene, A:388-390; B:309

eruptions, A:389

geochronology, B:299-314

Miocene, A:386-388

Miocene volcanic ash, B:111, 113

Paleocene, A:390

silicic magmatism, A:184

sources, A:103, 183-184

tectonics, A:85

See also eruptions; explosions; igneous provinces, large; ocean plateaus

volcanism, explosive

cooling, B:312

oceanic plateaus, A:11

volcanology

Site 998, A:79-86

Site 999, A:174-184

Site 1000, A:263-264

Site 1001, A:323-330

Walton Basin

bathymetry, A:234; B:253

plate tectonics, B:252, 267, 271

water content

vs. depth, A:90, 189, 269, 335

vs. paleolatitude, B:171

water masses, carbon isotopes, B:268-269

weathering, volcanic ash, A:169

well-log Unit 1

Site 998, A:91

Site 999, A:188

Site 1000, A:270-271

Site 1001, A:337-338

well-log Unit 2

Site 998, A:91

Site 999, A:188, 190

Site 1000, A:271

Site 1001, A:338-339

well-log Subunit 2a, A:188

well-log Subunit 2b, A:190

well-log Unit 3

Site 998, A:91, 93

Site 999, A:190-192

Site 1000, A:271-272

Site 1001, A:339-340

well-log Subunit 3a, A:190

well-log Subunit 3b, A:191

well-log Subunit 3c, A:191-192

well-log Unit 4

Site 998, A:93

Site 999, A:192-194

Site 1000, A:272

Site 1001, A:340

well-log Subunit 4a, A:192-193

well-log Subunit 4b, A:193

well-log Subunit 4c, A:193

well-log Subunit 4d, A:193-194

well-log Unit 5, A:93

well-log units

lithology, A:188-194, 270-272

Site 998, A:90-93

well logging

high-resolution data, B:191-203

shore-based log processing, A:108, 210, 283, 351

Site 998, A:88-95

Site 999, A:186-194

Site 1000, A:269-274

Site 1001, A:336-341

time schedule, A:92, 191, 271, 337

volcanic basement, B:220-222

Western Boundary Current, circulation, A:9

wind transport, tephra, B:103-104

winnowing, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, A:151

X-ray diffraction data, sediments, A:140-141, 240, 303

X-ray fluorescence data, sediments, A:57-58

yttrium

basalts, A:329

volcanic ash, A:180, 183

vs. chromium, A:331

vs. niobium, A:183

yttrium/niobium ratio

basalts, A:330

vs. zirconium/niobium ratio, A:331

yttrium/zirconium ratio, sediments, A:77

yttrium + niobium, vs. rubidium, A:183

Yucatan Basin

age models, B:255, 257, 264

carbonate content vs. age, B:265

plate tectonics, B:252

volcanism, A:390

Yucatan Basin abyssal plain, seismic stratigraphy, A:50-51

Yucatan Peninsula, impact craters, A:7

Zaza terrane, volcanism, A:390

zeolites

alteration, B:296

lithologic units, A:241

seawater reactions with basement, B:294

See also clinoptilolite

Zijderveld plots, magnetic polarity, B:144

zinc, vs. noncarbonate fraction, A:323

zirconium

volcanic ash, A:180

volcanic ash falls, A:82

vs. niobium, A:393

vs. noncarbonate fraction, A:323

See also titanium/zirconium ratio; yttrium/zirconium ratio

zirconium/niobium ratio

basalts, A:330

basement, A:392-393

sediments, A:174

vs. depth, A:175

vs. yttrium/niobium ratio, A:331

zonation, radiolarians, B:58-60

Zoophycos, lithologic units, A:145, 147, 244

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