167 Subject Index
A-M

absence intervals, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, B:28

age, vs. sedimentation rates, A:454

age control points, sedimentation rates, A:77, 108, 145, 168, 202, 262, 337, 412, 454

age models

paleoclimatology, B:250–251, 280–281

sediments, B:169–173

age vs. depth

California Margin, B:167, 372

diatoms, B:72–73

Pleistocene, B:22–23

Pliocene, B:23

Site 1010, A:71–73

Site 1011, A:103–104

Site 1012, A:138, 143

Site 1013, A:161, 166

Site 1014, A:185, 187, 199

Site 1016, A:247

Site 1017, A:293; B:251, 281

Site 1018, A:321

Site 1019, A:360

Site 1020, A:396

Site 1021, A:439, 450

Alaska Gyre, oceanography, B:341, 370

Alder

vs. age, B:242–243

vs. depth, B:174, 220–222

Alder/ferns ratio, vs. age, B:223, 225–226

Aleutian Low, teleconnections, B:371–372

alkalinity

gas hydrates, B:354

pore water, B:343

sediments, A:74, 104, 144, 166, 193, 232, 260, 295, 328, 368, 405, 447, 473; B:346, 349

vs. age, A:339

vs. depth, A:79–80, 110–111, 148, 170, 204, 232, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480; B:348

alkalinity, peak in pore water, vs. organic carbon mass accumulation rates, B:350

alkanes. See n-alkanes

alkatrienes

sediments, B:186, 188

vs. depth, B:190

alkenes

sediments, B:186

vs. depth, B:189

alkenoates

sediments, B:186

vs. depth, B:190

alkenones

abundance vs. carbon ratio, A:306

bitumens, A:296–297, 369–370

gas chromatograms, A:305

paleothermometry, B:153–161

sea-surface temperature, B:297, 301–302, 359–360

sediments, A:296–297, 305, 374; B:186–189

unsaturation indices, B:185–186

vs. age, B:157–158, 359

vs. depth, A:306, 374; B:190–191

vs. temperature, B:156

aluminosilicates

Quaternary, A:336

sedimentation rates, A:415, 451–452

aluminum oxide

sediments, B:285–288

vs. depth, B:285

ammonium

pore water, B:343

sediments, A:74, 104, 144, 166, 193, 232, 261, 295, 328, 368, 406, 447, 475

vs. depth, 79–80, 110–111, 148, 170, 204, 232, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480; B:349

amorphous material

sediments, B:282–284

vs. depth, B:284

amphibole, lithologic units, A:227, 359

Animal Basin

color, B:363

dissolution, A:103

paleoceanography, B:141–144

sedimentation, A:110–112

anoxia Event 1, vertical profile, B:275

Arguello Submarine Canyon, sediments, B:258

arsenic

diagenesis, B:265–266

sediments, B:264

Artemisia, vs. depth, B:220–222

atmospheric pressure, modern, B:344

authigenesis

phosphorus, B:195–202

pore water, B:343

sediments, A:105, 447

 

Baja Transect

composite section, A:51–52, 88–89;

middle Miocene, A:77–78

sedimentation, A:11, 110–112

barite, lithologic units, A:468

barium

detrital component, B:266–270

sediments, B:265

vs. depth, B:267

barium/titanium ratio, detrital component, B:267–270

basalts, amygdaloidal, lithologic units, A:395

basalts, lithologic units, A:92

basement

lithologic units, A:57, 92, 395

bathymetry

deep water, Tanner Basin, A:180

environmental hazards, A:315

biochronology

diatoms and calcareous nannofossils, B:367, 369

Miocene, B:26, 30

Pleistocene, B:24

Pliocene, B:25

biogenic component

geochemistry, B:266

lithologic units, A:55

temporal variations, B:203–206

biohorizons

Catinaster spp., B:28

ceratoliths, B:18, 21, 28

discoasterids, B:16–18

Miocene, B:23, 26–29, 368

Pleistocene, B:6–12

Pliocene, B:14–23

summary of positions, B:36–38, 365

triquetrorhabdulids, B:18, 21

biomarkers, paleotemperature, B:183–194

biosiliceous material, lithologic units, A:468

biostratigraphic correlation

diatoms, A:65, 100

biostratigraphic datums, epoch boundaries, A:72

biostratigraphic events

diatoms, A:329

radiolarians, A:259, 332, 406, 447

sedimentation rates, A:301

biostratigraphic ranges

calcareous nannofossils, A:58–59, 96–97, 137–138, 163,188–189, 229, 250–251, 295, 324–325, 263, 399–400, 441– 442, 470–471

diatoms, A:60–64, 98–99, 140, 164, 190–192, 230, 252–255,296, 326–329, 401–404, 443–444, 472

planktonic foraminifers, A:70–71, 94–95, 136, 162, 186, 228, 249, 294, 322, 361, 397, 440, 469

radiolarians, A:66–69, 102–104, 194–197, 256–258, 297,363–364, 405–406, 445–446, 474

biostratigraphy

calcareous nannofossils, A:57–59, 101, 139, 162–163, 185, 229, 248–249, 293, 322–323, 361, 398, 439, 469–470; B:3–40, 364

correlation, B:366

diatoms, A:59, 101, 139, 163, 185–186, 229, 249, 251, 293, 323, 362, 364, 398, 439–440, 470; B:63–113, 119–125, 364

middle Pliocene, B:111–113

Neogene, B:364–376

planktonic foraminifers, A:61–63, 93, 95, 101, 138–139, 162, 183–185, 228–229, 248, 291–293, 321–322, 360–361, 397–398, 439, 469; B:41–62, 115–117, 367

radiolarians, A:59–61, 101–102, 186–187, 293, 364, 398, 440, 442, 473; B:367

Site 1010, A:57–63

Site 1011, A:92–102

Site 1012, A:135–139

Site 1013, A:161–163

Site 1014, A:183–187

Site 1015, A:227–229

Site 1016, A:247–256

Site 1017, A:291–293

Site 1018, A:320–325

Site 1019, A:359–364

Site 1020, A:395–399

Site 1021, A:438–442, 468–473

biotite, lithologic units, A:55, 227

bioturbation

lithologic units, A:55–56, 161, 180–181, 183, 245–247, 289–291, 320, 357–359, 436–438, 468

photograph, A:246

sediments, B:257

bitumens, alkenones, A:296–297, 369–370

Bψlling/Εllerod

millennial cycles, B:277–296

paleoclimatology, B:251–254

Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

chronology, B:130, 155

diatoms, B:120

magnetostratigraphy, A:141, 187, 325, 364–366, 400; B:311–318

Brunhes Chron

diatoms, B:66

magnetostratigraphy, A:71, 141, 164, 293, 325, 364, 400, 442

See also mid-Brunhes climatic event

burial, carbonates, A:110–112; B:178

burrows

Ethmodiscus ooze, B:208–212

lithologic units, A:55, 318–320, 437–438, 468

millennial cycles, B:277–296

photograph, A:56, 93, 135, 438

sediments, B:257

butane. See isobutane; n-butane

 

Calcidiscus leptoporus, vs. age, B:307

calcite

lysocline, A:438

sediments, B:282–284

vs. depth, B:284

vs. total inorganic carbon, B:204

See also calcium carbonate; carbonate content

calcium

pore water, B:343

profiles, B:349, 351

sediments, A:75, 104–105, 144–145, 166, 193, 232, 261, 295, 328, 368, 406, 447, 475

vs. depth, A:79–80, 110–111, 148, 170, 204, 232, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480; B:350

calcium/magnesium ratio, sediments, A:75

calcium carbonate

biomarkers, B:183–194

diagenesis, B:137

sedimentation events, B:163–182

See also calcite; carbonate content

calcium oxide

sediments, B:284–288

vs. depth, B:285

California

Monterey Formation, A:57, 92

paleoceanography, B:129–140

California N, deglaciation, B:356–357

California S, deglaciation, B:357–358

California Borderlands

intermediate water, A:7–8

magnetite dissolution, A:103

Neogene, B:342–343

rare earths, B:235–238

sedimentation, A:110–112

teleconnections, B:371–372

California Countercurrent, paleothermometry, B:153–161

California Current

ocean circulation, A:5–13

paleoclimatology, B:253–254

paleoecology, B:220

paleothermometry, B:153–161

planktonic foraminifers, B:58–59

teleconnections, B:371–372

transport, B:345

California Current system

paleothermometry, B:153–161, 183–194

sedimentary record, B:341–376

sediments, B:259

teleconnections, B:371–372

California Margin

biogenic opal, B:213–214

biostratigraphy, B:3–129

carbonate records, B:297–302

color images, B:319–329

index properties, B:333–338

magnetostratigraphy, B:311–318

millennial- to orbital-scale cycles, B:354–363

oceanography, A:5–13

paleoceanography, B:141–150

phosphorus, B:195–202

sedimentary record, B:341–376

sedimentation, B:163–182

California Margin Central, sediments, B:255–261

California Margin N

paleoclimatology, B:217–226, 239–245

terrigenous component, B:227–234

California Margin S

geochemistry, B:263–271

millennial cycles, B:277–296

paleoclimatology, B:249–254

caliper logs, vs. depth, A:117, 209, 271, 343–344, 377–378, 419–421, 484

carbon, carbonate, vs. depth, B:283, 295

carbon, inorganic

sediments, A:75, 81, 171, 206, 232, 234, 267, 296, 304, 341, 373, 416, 456, 481; B:297–302

vs. depth, A:151

carbon, organic

biomarkers, B:183–194

carbon isotopes, B:273–276

color reflectometry, B:362

correlation with color, B:329

factors controlling variations, B:293

paleoproductivity, B:158–160

particulates, B:361

sedimentation events, B:163–182

sediments, A:75, 106, 146, 166–167, 193, 296; B:282, 295

time series, B:360–361

vs. age, B:175, 177, 179, 206, 357

vs. depth, B:167, 174, 266, 283, 360, 363–364

vs. Factor 1 loading, B:294

carbon, organic (mass accumulation rates), vs.

peak alkalinity in pore water, B:350

carbon, total, sediments, A:75, 81, 171, 206, 232, 234, 267, 304, 341, 373, 416, 456, 481

carbon, total inorganic, vs. calcite, B:204

carbon, total organic

sediments, A:81, 171, 193, 206, 232–234, 261–262, 267, 296–297, 304–305, 333, 341, 369, 373–374, 409–410, 416, 449, 456, 476, 481

vs. carbon ratio, A:306

vs. carbonate content, A:172

vs. depth, A:81, 112–113, 151, 171, 206, 234, 267, 305–306, 341, 373–374, 457, 480; B:191, 274

vs. total nitrogen, A:113

vs. total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio, A:113, 151, 172, 206

carbon, total organic/total nitrogen ratio

sediments, A:146, 167, 193, 233, 262, 296, 333, 368–369, 410, 449–450, 476–477

vs. depth, A:106–107, 112–113, 151, 171, 206, 234, 267, 305, 341, 373, 457, 480; B:187

vs. total organic carbon, A:113, 151, 172, 206

carbon, total organic/total sulfur ratio, vs. depth, A:112

carbon/nitrogen ratio

sediments, B:273–276

vs. depth, B:274

carbon isotopes

foraminifers, B:129–140

organic carbon, B:273–276

paleoceanography, B:141–150

paleoclimatology, B:249–254

vs. age, B:135–138, 144, 150

vs. depth, B:143, 146, 274

carbon ratio

vs. alkenone abundance, A:306

vs. total organic carbon, A:306

carbon stacks, correlation, B:175–176

carbonate content

bulk density, B:368

burial, A:110–112; B:178

color reflectance, A:170–171; B:362

correlation with color, B:329

lithologic units, A:55–57, 132–135, 180–181, 183, 246–247, 288–291

preservation, B:291

records, B:297–302

saturation, B:361

sediments, A:75–76, 81, 105, 146, 166, 171, 193, 206, 234, 261, 267, 296, 304–305, 333, 341, 368, 373–374, 408–409, 416, 449, 456, 476, 481; B:169–173, 282, 331–332, 373

time series, B:360–361

vs. age, B:173, 175, 177, 179, 181, 358

vs. bulk density, A:152

vs. depth, A:81, 112–113, 151–153, 171, 173, 206, 208, 234, 267, 305, 341, 373, 457, 480; B:166, 187, 191, 237, 298–301, 331, 360, 363

vs. total organic carbon, A:172

well logging, A:196–198

See also calcite; calcium carbonate

carbonate content, biogenic, vs. age, B:206

carbonate crash, teleconnections, B:371–372

carbonate dissolution, indicators, B:291

carbonate dissolution depth, changes, B:190–191

carbonate mass accumulation rates, Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles, B:356

Cascadia Subduction Zone, gas hydrates, B:353

Catinaster spp., biohorizons, B:28

cedar. See also juniper/cedar ratio

cedar/pine ratio

vs. age, B:223, 225–226

vs. depth, B:220–222

cementation, lithologic units, A:395

ceratoliths, biohorizons, B:18, 21, 28

cerium

sediments, B:236

vs. depth, B:237

chalk, clayey nannofossil, lithologic units, A:89, 247, 320

chalk, dolomitic, lithologic units, A:289

chalk, indurated, lithologic units, A:133–134

chalk, lithologic units, A:56

chalk, nannofossil

color reflectance, A:342

lithologic units, A:56, 89, 134, 395

photograph, A:93

charcoal

lithologic units, A:357–359

paleoecology, B:220

chert

chertification, B:350

lithologic units, A:247, 468

temperature history vs. age, B:352

See also porcellanite; temperature history (youngest chert/porcellanite bed)

chert, massive, upper Miocene, A:266

chertification, diagenesis, B:350

chloride

gas hydrates, B:353

sediments, B:265

vs. depth, B:354

chlorinity

gas hydrates, A:372

pore water, B:343

sediments, A:74, 104, 143–144, 166, 193, 230, 260, 295, 328, 368, 405, 447, 473

vs. depth, A:79–80, 110–111, 148, 170, 204, 232, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480

chlorite

lithologic units, A:357–359

vs. age, B:232

chlorite + kaolinite

sediments, B:282–284

vs. depth, B:284

Chondrites

lithologic units, A:133, 246–247, 289–291, 318–320, 395, 468

millennial cycles, B:277–296

photograph, A:246

chromium

detrital component, B:266–270

sediments, B:265

vs. depth, B:267

chromium/titanium ratio, detrital component, B:267–270

Chron 3Bn/3Br, biohorizons, B:28

Chron 3Br. See Chron 3Bn/3Br

Chron C1n, magnetostratigraphy, A:71, 141, 164, 187, 293, 325, 364, 400, 442

Chron C1r.1n, magnetostratigraphy, A:141, 165, 187, 400, 442

Chron C1r.1r, magnetostratigraphy, A:400

Chron C1r, magnetostratigraphy, A:102, 256

Chron C2An, magnetostratigraphy, A:71

Chron C2Ar, magnetostratigraphy, A:71

Chron C2n, magnetostratigraphy, A:141, 165

Chron C2r, magnetostratigraphy, A:473

Chron C3A, diatoms, B:66

Chron C3An.2n, magnetostratigraphy, A:71

Chron C3An.4n, magnetostratigraphy, A:71

Chron C3Ar, magnetostratigraphy, A:71

Chron C3Bn

diatoms, B:66

magnetostratigraphy, A:71, 77

Chron C3n.2n, biohorizons, B:21

Chron C3n.3n

biohorizons, B:21

magnetostratigraphy, A:442

Chron C3n.4n, magnetostratigraphy, A:442

Chron C3r, biohorizons, B:14

Chron C5n, biohorizons, B:23, 28

chronostratigraphy

biohorizons, B:8, 11–12, 14–16, 18, 21

calcium carbonate, B:163–182

paleoclimatology, B:249–254

chrons

magnetic polarity, A:164–165, 442

magnetic reversals, A:141

magnetostratigraphy, A:64, 71–72, 102–103

clay

color reflectance, A:77

correlation with color, B:329

lithologic units, A:55, 89, 161, 180–181, 183, 245–247, 357–359, 393, 395, 436–438, 465, 467–468

photograph, A:93

volume ratio, B:296

clay, diatom

color reflectance, A:342

lithologic units, A:246–247, 318–320, 357–359, 395, 437, 465, 467–468

clay, foraminifer, lithologic units, A:181, 183

clay, glauconitic, lithologic units, A:467–468

clay, hemipelagic, stable isotopes, B:129–140

clay, nannofossil

deposition, A:226

lithologic units, A:132–135, 181, 183, 227, 289–291, 320, 393, 395, 437–438, 465, 467–468

photograph, A:227

clay, silty

cores, B:278–280

lithologic units, A:55–56, 87, 89, 92, 132–135, 161, 225–227, 288–291, 357–359

clay mineralogy

sediments, B:282–284

terrigenous component, B:229

vs. age, B:232

claystone, lithologic units, A:56, 395

claystone, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:89

photograph, A:93

climate

California Margin, A:6

connection with tectonics, B:370–372

oceanography, B:342

See also paleoclimatology

clinochlore, lithologic units, A:357–359

closure, gateways, B:371–372

Coastal Ranges

detrital component, B:268–270

terrigenous component, B:231

Coastal Transect, sedimentation, A:11

cobalt, sediments, B:265

Cobb Mountain Cryptochron, magnetostratigraphy, A:71, 141, 165

coccolith diversity, vs. age, B:308

coccoliths

alkenones, B:153–161

backscattered electron imagery photograph, B:210–211

lithologic units, A:55

Coccolithus pelagicus, vs. age, B:307

Cochiti Subchron, magnetostratigraphy, A:71

coercivity, dissolution, A:442

coiling, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, A:136, 187, 249, 294, 323, 361

color

correlation coefficients, B:329

correlation with biogenic silica, B:329

correlation with carbonate content, B:329

correlation with clays, B:329

correlation with organic carbon, B:329

sediments, B:319–329

vs. age, B:324–328

vs. depth, B:320–321, 323, 363

vs. oxygen isotopes, B:363

color bands, lithologic units, A:55, 134, 437–438

color intensity, vs. depth, A:153, 236, 268–270, 308, 376, 418, 458, 483

color reflectance

multisensor track records, B:362

opal, A:264

sedimentation rates, A:141, 143, 187, 190–191

sediments, A:72, 77, 108–109, 147–148, 165, 169–170, 195–196, 229–230, 233–234, 256–257, 259, 263–264, 293–294, 298, 325, 328, 333–334, 366–367, 370–371, 400, 405, 410–411, 442, 447, 451, 473, 477

vs. age, A:78, 109, 147, 169, 203, 263, 338, 369, 413, 455

vs. depth, A:75, 83, 107, 115, 144, 154, 167, 201, 220, 231, 236, 260, 263, 269, 300, 308, 335, 367, 409, 418, 451, 458, 476, 483

vs. wavelength, A:83, 115

color video, digital

carbonate content, A:77

sediments, A:148, 171, 196, 234, 298, 334, 371, 411, 451, 477

vs. depth, A:109, 116, 308, 343, 418

Columbia River Basin, terrigenous component, B:231

composite depth

diatom datum levels, B:93

Site 1010, A:72–73; bp:CD-ROM

Site 1011, A:103–105

Site 1012, A:141, 143

Site 1013, A:165–166

Site 1014, A:187, 190–191, 200

Site 1015, A:229–230

Site 1016, A:256–257, 259

Site 1017, A:293–295, 300

Site 1018, A:325, 328, 334

Site 1019, A:366–367

Site 1020, A:400, 405, 409

Site 1021, A:442, 447, 450

Site 1022, A:473, 475

composite section

Site 1010, A:51–52, 74

Site 1011, A:88–89, 106

Site 1012, A:131–132

Site 1013, A:158

Site 1014, A:177–179

Site 1016, A:241–242

Site 1017, A:287

Site 1018, A:313–315

Site 1019, A:355–356

Site 1020, A:391–392

Site 1021, A:433–434

Site 1022, A:462–463

compression, gas hydrates, B:352

compressional wave velocity

sediments, A:76–77, 108, 146–147, 168–169, 263, 298, 333, 370, 410, 451, 477,

sediments vs. depth, A:235, 267–268, 306, 417, 457–458, 482

Conception Transect

composite section, A:241–242

index properties, B:331–332

sedimentation, A:11

See also Point Conception

concretions, lithologic units, A:395, 437

conifer ratio, vs. age, B:226

consolidation plots, effective stress, B:334–336

contourites, grain size, B:291

copper

detrital component, B:267–270

sediments, B:265

vs. depth, B:268

core vs. log correlation, physical properties, A:110, 197–198, 265–266, 372, 413-414

cores, lithology, B:278–280

correlation

biostratigraphy, B:366

geologic age, B:99

middle–late Miocene, B:27

planktonic foraminifers, B:59

correlation coefficients

color, B:329

major elements, B:287, 290

Coscinodiscus marginatus, distribution, B:100

cracks, correlation with color, B:321–322

cross-spectral analysis

terrigenous component, B:231

See also power spectra

currents

California Current, A:5–13

Pacific Ocean N, B:343

transport, B:345

cyclic processes

lithologic units, A:134–135

millennial cycles, B:354–355

cyclic processes, millennial-scale, sedimentation events, B:163–182

cypress. See juniper/cypress ratio

 

Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles

carbonate mass accumulation rates vs. age, B:356–357

comparison in GISP-2 to Northern California, B:356–357

correlation, B:175–176, 181–182, 294, 372–373

millennial cycles, B:354–355

paleoclimatology, B:251–254

Dansgaard/Oeschger Event 3, correlation, B:252–254

Dansgaard/Oeschger Event 4, correlation, B:252–254

Dansgaard/Oeschger Event 5, correlation, B:252–254

datum levels, magnetostratigraphy, A:200, 449

Davidson Current, paleothermometry, B:153–161

debris, ice-rafted

limits, B:160

organic matter, B:158–160

deep water, currents, A:7

deformation, photograph, A:395

deglaciation

chronology, B:155–156

marine isotope Stage 2/1, B:163–182

millennial cycles, B:356–358

demagnetization, alternating-field

sediments, A:63–64, 141, 187, 256, 293, 325, 333, 364–365, 400, 473

vector projection, A:105

Zijderveld diagrams, A:366; B:312–314

density, vs. depth, A:81, 113

density, bulk

carbonate content, B:368

vs. carbonate content, A:152

vs. depth, A:82, 114, 152, 154, 173, 207, 268, 307, 341, 375, 417, 457, 482

density, discrete core, vs. depth, A:273

density, dry, vs. depth, A:82, 114, 152, 173, 207, 268, 307, 341, 375, 417, 457, 482

density, dry bulk, vs. age, B:230

density, grain, vs. depth, A:82, 114, 152, 173, 207, 268, 307, 341–342, 375, 417, 457, 482

density, GRAPE, vs. depth, A:83

density, GRAPE bulk

sedimentation rates, A:187, 190–191

sediments, A:72, 165, 229–230, 256–257, 259, 293–294, 325, 328, 366–367, 400, 405, 442, 447, 473

vs. age, A:78, 109, 147, 169, 263, 338, 369, 413, 455; B:370

vs. depth, A:74, 81, 107, 113, 145, 151, 167, 172, 206, 231, 235, 260, 267–268, 273, 301, 306–307, 336, 341, 367, 374–375, 411, 417, 452, 457, 477, 482

density, log, vs. depth, A:272–273

density logs

carbonate content, A:196–198

vs. depth, A:117–119, 209, 211, 271–272, 343–344, 377–378, 419, 421, 484

See also gamma ray–density–porosity logs; gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 1; gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 2; gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 3

deposition

hemipelagic conditions, A:227

hemipelagic sedimentation, A:181, 183, 289–291

lithologic units, A:134–135, 227, 247, 289–291, 320, 359, 395, 438

siliciclastics, A:161

terrigenous component, B:227–234

detrital component, geochemistry, B:266–270

diagenesis

calcium carbonate, B:137

carbon, A:74–75

carbonates, A:359

dolostone, A:290

geochemistry, B:265–266

lithologic units, A:56, 133–134, 247, 436–438, 468

magnetite, A:103

opal, B:350

organic matter, B:344–345, 347–349

photograph, A:438

sedimentation rates, A:415

See also authigenesis; cementation; chertification; lithification; mineralization; pyritization

diagenetic haloes. See haloes

diatom datum levels

composite depths, B:93

Miocene, B:99–103

Pleistocene, B:103

Pliocene, B:103

diatomite

lithologic units, A:56, 90, 247, 320

photograph, A:93

diatomite, clayey, lithologic units, A:90, 468

diatomite, nannofossil, lithologic units, A:90

diatoms

biochronology, B:367, 369

biostratigraphic correlation, A:65, 100

biostratigraphic events, A:329

biostratigraphic ranges, A:60–64, 98–99, 140, 164, 190–192, 230, 252–255, 296, 326–329, 401–404, 443–444, 472

biostratigraphy, A:59, 101, 139, 163, 185–186, 229, 249, 251, 293, 323, 362, 364, 398, 339–440, 470; B:63–113, 119–125, 364

color reflectance, A:264, 342

extraction curve, B:204

group abundance, B:99

lithologic units, A:56, 134, 247, 289–291, 318–320, 359, 395, 437–438, 465, 467–468

middle Pliocene, B:111–113

paleoceanography, B:369–370

percentage abundance, B:112

preservation, B:100

time series, B:123–125

vs. depth, B:122

dinorhopane, vs. depth, B:190

diploptene

sediments, B:188

vs. depth, B:189

discoasters

biohorizons, B:16–18

lithologic units, A:55

dissolution

carbonate content, A:76

changes, B:190–191

coercivity, A:442

correlation, B:176, 178

diatoms, B:72, 101, 103

indicators, B:291

magnetite, A:103

opal, A:104, 144, 166, 193, 261, 295, 328, 368, 406, 447, 475; B:350

paleoceanography, B:369–370

time series effects, B:179–180

dolomite

dropstones, A:290

lithologic units, A:358–359, 393, 395

dolomite, authigenic, lithologic units, A:56

dolostone

diagenesis, A:290

lithologic units, A:181, 183, 358–359, 468

downhole measurements

Site 1011, A:109–110

Site 1014, A:196–198

Site 1016, A:264–266

Site 1018, A:334–336

Site 1019, A:371–372

Site 1020, A:411–414

Site 1022, A:477–479

dropstones, dolomite, A:290

dynamics, currents, A:6

 

East Cortes Basin

composite section, A:131–132

deep water, A:133

paleoceanography, B:141–144

Eel River Basin

composite section, A:355–356

gas hydrates, B:350, 352–354

plate tectonics, A:8

Eemian, paleoclimatology, B:136

Ekman transport, currents, A:6–7; B:345

El Niρo, oceanography, B:342

El Niρo/Southern Oscillation, limits, B:153–160

elastic properties, correlation with meters composite depth scale, B:333–338

electron imagery analysis, backscattered, Ethmodiscus ooze, B:207–212

Emiliania huxleyi, vs. age, B:307

enrichment, diagenesis, B:265–266

environmental hazards, bathymetry, A:315

epoch boundaries, depth, A:72, 135

esters. See ethyl esters; fatty acid–methyl esters

ethane

headspace gases, A:150, 303, 340, 372, 415, 481

sediments, A:105, 193, 232, 296, 368

See also methane/ethane ratio

ethane/ethene ratio, headspace gases, A:80, 233

ethane/ethylene ratio, headspace gases, A:111, 171, 205

ethene

headspace gases, A:150, 171, 205, 340, 415, 481

See also ethane/ethene ratio

Ethmodiscus, backscattered electron imagery analysis, B:207–212

ethyl esters, sediments, B:186

ethylene. See ethane/ethylene ratio

euophotic zone, chronology, B:181

 

fabric

Ethmodiscus ooze, B:207–212

sediments, B:257

Factor 1

detrital component, B:267–270

loading, B:296

loading vs. calendar age, B:293

loading vs. organic carbon, B:294

major elements, B:286–288

paleoceanography, B:291

vs. depth, B:270

Factor 2

detrital component, B:267–270

loading, B:296

major elements, B:286–288

paleoceanography, B:291

vs. depth, B:270

vs. Factor 3, B:288

Factor 3

detrital component, B:267–270

loading, B:296

loading vs. calendar age, B:293

major elements, B:286–288

paleoceanography, B:291

vs. depth, B:270

vs. Factor 2, B:288

vs. quartz peak intensity, B:288

Factor 4

loading, B:296

loading vs. calendar age, B:293

major elements, B:288

paleoceanography, B:291–292

vs. sodium oxide/(silica-14.15) ratio, B:289

Factor 5

loading, B:296

major elements, B:288

paleoceanography, B:292–293

factor analysis, major elements, B:286–288

factor analysis, Q-mode, minor elements, B:267–270

fatty acid–methyl esters, sediments, B:186

feldspar

lithologic units, A:132–135, 161, 245–247, 288–291; B:282–284

vs. depth, B;284

fern-7-ene, sediments, B:188

Ferns

vs. age, B:242–243

vs. depth, B:220–222

See also Alder/ferns ratio

filaments, opaque, cores, B:278–280

fine fraction, vs. depth, B:270

Florisphaera profunda, vs. age, B:307

foraminifers

lithologic units, A:55, 134, 161, 180–181, 183, 288–291, 318–320, 357–359, 393, 395, 437, 468

millennial cycles, B:356

oxygen isotopes, B:355

stable isotopes, B:129–140

foraminifers, benthic

stable isotopes, B:141–150, 163–181, 358–359

vs. age, B:206

foraminifers, planktonic

abundance, B:45–54

biostratigraphic ranges, A:70–71, 94–95, 136, 162, 186, 228, 249, 294, 322, 361, 397, 440, 469

biostratigraphy, A:61–63, 93, 95, 101, 138–139, 162, 183–185, 228–229, 248, 291–293, 321–322, 360–361, 397–398, 439, 469; B:41–62, 367

depth ranges, B:55–58

isotope stratigraphy, B:251–254

Pliocene, B:115–117

Formation MicroScanner imagery, vs. depth, A:420

Franciscan Complex

detrital component, B:268–270

sediments, B:259

frustules, backscattered electron imagery photograph, B:210

 

gamma ray–density–porosity logs

Site 1018, A:347–348, 351

Site 1019, A:382–383

gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 1, A:276–277

gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 2

Site 1011, A:122–123

Site 1014, A:214–216

Site 1020, A:424–425

Site 1022, A:487–489

gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 3, Site 1017, A:280–281

gamma ray–resistivity logs, Site 1018, A:349–350, 352

gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs, Site 1019, A:384–385

gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs, Pass 2

Site 1011, A:124–125

Site 1014, A:217–219

Site 1020, A:426–427

Site 1022, A:490–492

gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs, Pass 3, Site 1017, A:282–283

gamma rays, vs. depth, A:81, 113, 151, 172, 206, 268, 306, 341, 374, 417, 457, 482

gamma-ray logs, vs. depth, A:117–119, 209, 211, 271–272, 343, 377, 379, 386–387, 419, 484

gamma-ray logs, corrected, carbonate content, A:196–198

gamma-ray logs, Pass 2

Site 1011, A:126–127

Site 1014, A:220–221

Site 1020, A:428–429

Site 1022, A:493–495

gas hydrates

chlorinity, A:372

pore water, B:350, 352–354

Gauss/Matuyama boundary, biohorizons, B:16

Gauss Chron. See also Gilbert/Gauss boundary

Gelasian, biohorizons, B:15

geochemical rain, organic carbon, B:180

geochemistry

pore water, B:343, 346–347

sediments, B:263–271

geochemistry, inorganic

Site 1010, A:73–75

Site 1011, A:104–105

Site 1012, A:143–145

Site 1013, A:165–166

Site 1014, A:191, 193

Site 1015, A:230, 232

Site 1016, A:259–261

Site 1017, A:295–296

Site 1018, A:328–329

Site 1019, A:367–368

Site 1020, A:405–406

Site 1021, A:447

Site 1022, A:473, 475

geochemistry, organic

Site 1010, A:75–76

Site 1011, A:105–107

Site 1012, A:145–146

Site 1013, A:166–168

Site 1014, A:193

Site 1015, A:232–233

Site 1016, A:261–263

Site 1017, A:296–297

Site 1018, A:329, 332–333

Site 1019, A:368–370

Site 1020, A:406, 408–410

Site 1021, A:447, 449–450

Site 1022, A:475–477

geochronology, paleoclimatology, B:249–254

geologic age, correlation, B:99

geomagnetic poles, virtual, paths, B:314-318

Gephyrocapsa muellerae, vs. age, B:307

Gephyrocapsa oceanica, vs. age, B:307

Gephyrocapsa spp., vs. age, B:307

gephyrocapsids, biohorizons, B:6–8

Gilbert/Gauss boundary, biohorizons, B:15–18

Gilbert Chron, magnetostratigraphy, A:71

glacial/interglacial cycles

average distribution of terrigenous component, B:232–233

chronology, B:163–182, 155–156

geochemistry, B:263–271

millennial cycles, B:277–296, 355–358

organic matter, B:275–276

vegetation, B:361–362

glaciation

chronology, B:134

diatoms, B:119–120

marine isotope Stage 5/4, B:163–182

millennial cycles, B:354–355

opal accumulation rates, A:78

paleoclimatology, B:253

sea-surface temperature, B:359–360

sedimentation, A:234–235

terrigenous component, B:229, 233

See also Last Glacial Maximum

glass. See volcanic glass

glauconite

indicators, B:292–293

lithologic units, A:134, 181, 183, 320, 358–359, 467–468

Gorda Plate

magnetostratigraphy, A:400

plate tectonics, A:8

Gorda Ridge

composite section, A:391–392

magnetostratigraphy, B:311–318

paleoceanography, B:145–150

Gorda Ridge E, time series, B:360

Gorda Transect

gas hydrates, B:353

sedimentation, A:11

grain size

average distribution of terrigenous component, B:232

indicators, B:291

major elements, B:288–289

mean size, B:233

sediments, B:256–260

terrigenous component, B:229

volume ratio, B:289–290

vs. age, B:230, 258

vs. corrected depth, B:260

vs. depth, B:258, 260

See also fine fraction

Greenland, ice cores, B:175–176, 355

Guide Seamount

composite section, A:313–315

paleoceanography, B:141–144

 

habitat, paleoecology, B:220–222

haloes

lithologic units, A:436–438

photograph, A:438

See also Liesegang reduction haloes; redox patches; reduction haloes

Haptophytes

paleoproductivity, B:158–160

sediments, B:186

heat flow, sediments, A:77, 108, 147, 169, 195, 263, 298, 333, 370, 410, 451, 477

Helicosphaera carteri, vs. age, B:307

hematite, sediments, B:314–315

hemipelagic beds, photograph, A:56

Hemlock

vs. age, B:242–243

vs. depth, B:220–222

herbs

pollen, B:240–244

vs. age, B:223, 225–226

vs. depth, B:220–222

See also shrubs/herbs ratio

hexane. See isohexane; n-hexane

hiatuses

chronology, B:134

sedimentation rates, A:415

highstands, Quaternary, B:260

Himalayas, tectonics, B:370–371

Holocene

millennial cycles, B:277–296, 355–356

paleoclimatology, B:136, 251–254

hop-17(21)-ene, sediments, B:188

hop-21(22)-ene, sediments, B:188

hopanes

sediments, B:188

vs. depth, B:190

See also dinorhopane

hotspots, rotation, A:41–43

hydrocarbons

chromatograms, B:187

sediments, B:186–189

vs. depth, B:191

See also alkatrienes; alkenes; alkenoates; alkenones; bitumens; dinorhopane; diploptene; ethane; ethane/ethene ratio; ethane/ethylene ratio; ethene; ethyl esters; fatty acid–methyl esters; fern-7-ene; hop-17(21)-ene; hop-21(22)-ene; hopanes; isobutane; isohexane; isopentane; isoprenoids; lipids; methane; methane/ethane ratio; n-alkanes; n-butane; n-hexane; n-pentane; neohop-13(18)-ene; petroleum-type compounds; propane; propane/propene ratio; propane/propylene ratio; steranes; steroids, C-ring monoaromatic

hydrocarbons, volatile, sediments, A:75, 105, 146, 166, 193, 232, 261, 296, 332–333, 368, 408, 447, 449, 475

hydrogen index

organic matter, A:233

vs. depth, A:235

vs. oxygen index, A:235

hysteresis, parameters, B:315

 

icebergs, organic matter, B:158–160

illite

sediments, B:282–284

vs. age, B:232

vs. depth, B;284

index properties

correlation with meters composite depth scale, B:333–338

sediments, A:76, 107–108, 146, 194–195

Site 1016, A:263, 297–298, 333, 370, 410, 450, 477; B:331–332

Indonesian Passage, tectonics, B:370–371

insolation

paleoecology, B:222

vs. age, B:226

See also orbital cycles

interbedding, cyclic, photograph, A:93

interglacials

chronology, B:134–138

paleoecology, B:221

See also glacial/interglacial cycles

intermediate water, ocean circulation, A:7–8

interstitial water. See pore water

iron oxide

sediments, B:284–288

vs. depth, B:285

isobutane, headspace gases, A:150, 481

isohexane, headspace gases, A:481

isopentane, headspace gases, A:150, 481

isoprenoids

sediments, B:186

vs. depth, B:189

isotope stratigraphy, planktonic foraminifers, B:251–254

 

Jaramillo Subchron

chronology, B:130

magnetostratigraphy, A:141, 165, 187, 400, 442

Jaramillo Subchron, upper, magnetostratigraphy, B:311–318

juniper/cedar ratio

paleoclimatology, B:240–241

vs. age, B:241

juniper/cypress ratio, vs. age, B:242

 

kaolinite

vs. age, B:232

See also chlorite + kaolinite

Kelvin waves, oceanography, B:342

Klamath Mountains, sediments, B:361–362

Kuroshio Current, oceanography, B:342

 

Lake Clyde, middle Pleistocene, B:372

laminations

cores, B:278–280

Ethmodiscus ooze, B:207–212

grain size, B:291

lithologic units, A:55, 357–359, 436–438, 468

photograph, A:227, 438

See also pseudolaminations

laminations, nannofossil-rich, photograph, A:56

lanthanum/lutetium ratio, vs. depth, B:237

Last Glacial Maximum

alkenones, B:153–160

millennial cycles, B:355–356

lead, sediments, B:265

Liesegang reduction haloes

lithologic units, A:438

photograph, A:438

See also haloes; redox patches

lipids, bitumens, A:296–297

lithification, lithologic units, A:468

lithium

pore water, B:343

sediments, A:75, 105, 193, 261, 296, 329, 368, 406, 447, 475

vs. depth, A:110–111, 148, 170, 204, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480

lithofacies, cores, B:278–280

lithologic units

basement, A:57

Site 1010, A:55–56

Site 1011, A:87–92

Site 1012, A:132–135

Site 1013, A:161

Site 1014, A:180–181, 183

Site 1015, A:225–227

Site 1016, A:245–247

Site 1017, A:288–291

Site 1018, A:318–320

Site 1019, A:357–359

Site 1020, A:393 395

Site 1021, A:435–438

Site 1022, A:465–468

Unit I, A:55, 87, 132–135, 161, 180–181, 183, 225–227, 245–246, 288–291, 318–320, 357–359, 393, 395, 435–437, 465, 467–468

Unit II, A:55, 87, 89, 246, 320, 395, 437–438, 468

Unit III, A:55–56, 89–90, 246–247, 395, 468

Unit IV, A:56, 92

Unit V, A:92

lithology, well logging, A:412–413, 477–478

lithostratigraphy

Site 1010, A:54–57

Site 1011, A:87–92

Site 1012, A:130–135

Site 1013, A:160–161

Site 1014, A:180–183

Site 1015, A:225–227

Site 1016, A:245–247

Site 1017, A:288–291

Site 1018, A:316, 318–320

Site 1019, A:357–359

Site 1020, A:393–395

Site 1021, A:435–438

Site 1022, A:465, 467–468

loading

factor analysis, B:296

vs. calendar age, B:293

vs. organic carbon, B:294

loss on ignition

sediments, B:284–288

vs. depth, B:285

lutetium. See lanthanum/lutetium ratio

lysocline, calcite, A:438

 

mafic component

detrital component, B:268

vs. depth, B:270

magnesium

pore water, B:343

profiles, B:349, 352

sediments, A:75, 104–105, 145, 166, 193, 232, 261, 295, 329, 368, 406, 447, 475

vs. depth, A:79–80, 110–111, 148, 170, 204, 232, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480; B:350

See also calcium/magnesium ratio

magnesium oxide

sediments, B:284–288

vs. depth, B:285

magnetic declination

sediments, A:102; B:312–314

vs. depth, A:141, 164, 198–199, 298–299, 332, 365, 407–408, 448, 475; B:313–314, 316

magnetic domains, sediments, B:314–315

magnetic inclination

magnetic reversals, A:442

sediments, A:63–64, 102, 400; B:312–314

vs. depth, A:72–73, 105, 142–143, 164–165, 198–199, 259, 298–299, 332, 365, 407–408, 448, 475; B:313–314, 316

magnetic intensity

magnetostratigraphy, A:256

reduction, A:103

vs. depth, A:72–73, 105, 141, 164, 198, 259, 298–299, 332, 365, 407–408, 448, 475

magnetic mineralogy, sediments, B:314–315

magnetic polarity

chrons, A:164–165, 442

magnetic reversals, A:64, 71–72, 187

magnetostratigraphy, A:102

overprinting, B:315–317

magnetic reversals

age vs. depth, A:442

chrons, A:141

magnetic polarity, A:187

magnetostratigraphy, A:73, 142–143, 165, 200

sedimentation rates, A:172

sediments, A:64, 71–72; B:313–314

magnetic susceptibility

sedimentation rates, A:103, 141, 143, 187, 190–191

sediments, A:72, 165, 229–230, 256–257, 259, 293–294, 325, 328, 366–367, 400, 405, 442, 447, 473

vs. age, A:78, 109, 147, 169, 203, 263, 338, 369, 413, 455

vs. depth, A:75, 81, 105–106, 113, 144, 151, 167, 172, 201, 206, 210, 231, 235, 261, 268, 272, 301, 306, 335, 341, 367, 374, 379, 408, 410, 417, 421, 452, 457, 476, 482; B:315

magnetite

diagenesis, A:103

dissolution, A:103

magnetostratigraphy

chrons, A:64, 71–72, 102–103

datum levels, A:165, 200, 449,

Neogene, B:311–318

reversal boundaries, A:73

magnetozones, magnetostratigraphy, A:141

major elements

factor analysis, B:286–288

sediments, B:284–288, 296

manganese

detrital component, B:267–270

sediments, A:74, 104, 144, 166, 261, 295, 406, 447; B:265 vs. depth, A:79–80, B:268

manganese oxide

sediments, B:285–288

vs. depth, B:285

marine environment

biomarkers, B:189–190

vegetation, B:361–362

marine isotope Stage 1

chronology, B:136

detrital component, B:268–270

sediments, B:259–260

marine isotope Stage 2

chronology, B:163–182, 357, 359

detrital component, B:268–270

diagenesis, B:265–266

sediments, B:284, 286, 289

marine isotope Stage 2/1 boundary

chronology, B:356

deglaciation, B:163–182 

marine isotope Stage 3

chronology, B:134, 139, 146, 163–182, 356

millennial cycles, B:277–296

sediments, B:260, 284, 286, 289

marine isotope Stage 3 stadial/interstadial oscillations, paleoclimatology, B:253

marine isotope Stage 4

chronology, B:134, 163–182

sediments, B:284, 286

marine isotope Stage 5

chronology, B:134

sediments, B:284, 286

marine isotope Stage 5/4 boundary, glaciation, B:163–182

marine isotope Stage 6

chronology, B:134

paleoclimatology, B:253

marine isotope Stage 6/5 boundary

chronology, B:356

sedimentation, B:167

marine isotope Stage 12/11 boundary, time series, B:360–361

marine isotope Substage 5a

chronology, B:136

sediments, B:284, 286, 289

marine isotope Substage 5b, chronology, B:139

marine isotope Substage 5c, sediments, B:260

marine isotope Substage 5d, chronology, B:134, 139

marine isotope Substage 5e

chronology, B:134, 159

sediments, B:260

mass accumulation rates

carbonate content, B:173–175

silica, A:78

terrigenous component, B:228–229

vs. age, B:177–179, 181

See also carbonate mass accumulation rates

Matuyama Chron

biohorizons, B:17

magnetostratigraphy, A:256

See also Brunhes/Matuyama boundary; Gauss/Matuyama boundary

Mendocino Fracture Zone

composite section, A:433–434, 462–463

teleconnections, B:371–372

Mendocino Triple Junction, plate tectonics, A:8

meters composite depth scale

correlation with index properties, B:333–338

vs. depth, B:337–338

methane

headspace gases, A:80, 111, 150, 171, 205, 233, 265, 303, 340, 372, 415, 481

sediments, A:105, 166, 193, 232, 261, 296, 332–333, 368, 408, 447, 449, 475

vs. depth, A:111, 149, 170, 204, 233, 303, 340, 371, 415, 480

methane/ethane ratio

headspace gases, A:303

sediments, A:146, 166, 193, 232, 296, 332–333, 368, 475

vs. depth, A:149, 170, 204, 303, 340, 371, 480

methyl. See fatty acid–methyl esters

mica, lithologic units, A:288–291

microfossils, calcareous, vs. depth, A:319

microfossils, siliceous, vs. depth, A:319

mid-Brunhes climatic event, diatoms, B:120

Milankovitch cycles

organic matter, B:158–160

terrigenous component, B:231, 233

See also insolation; orbital cycles

millennial cycles

cyclic processes, B:354–355, 372–373

Neogene, B:354–363

sediments, B:257–260

upper Quaternary, B:277–296

mineralization, sediments, B:345

minor elements

Q-mode factor analysis, B:267–270

sediments, B:265

Miocene

biochronology, B:26, 30

biohorizons, B:368

biostratigraphy, B:3–40

diatom datum levels, B:99–103

diatoms, B:63–110

lithologic units, A:55–57, 246–247, 437–438, 468

magnetostratigraphy, A:451

paleoclimatology, B:243

Miocene, middle

biohorizons, B:29

paleoceanography, B:368

Miocene, middle–upper, correlation, B:27

Miocene, upper

biohorizons, B:23, 26–29

lithologic units, A:89 92

paleoceanography, B:368

Miocene/Pliocene boundary

biohorizons, B:14–16

carbonate content, A:266

opal accumulation rates, A:78

moisture, paleoecology, B:220–222

molybdenum

diagenesis, B:265–266

sediments, B:264

vs. depth, B:266

Monterey Formation

comparison to Miocene, B:368

lithologic units, A:57, 92

petroleum-type compounds, B:191–192

mottling, lithologic units, A:437–438

mud, felsic

vs. depth, B:270

See also Factor 1

mud, mafic

vs. depth, B:270

See also Factor 3

mudstone, siliceous, lithologic units, A:468

multisensor track data

color reflectometry, B:362

sediments, A:76, 107, 146, 165, 168, 193–194, 233, 263, 297, 333, 370, 410, 450, 477