167 Subject Index


sediments, B:186

vs. depth, B:189

n-butane, headspace gases, A:150, 481

n-hexane, headspace gases, A:481

n-pentane, headspace gases, A:150, 171, 481


color reflectance, A:108–109

dissolution, A:76

lithologic units, A:55, 89, 161, 180–181, 183, 225–227, 288–291, 318–320, 357–359, 393, 395, 437–438, 467–468

sedimentation rates, A:92

vs. age, B:304

nannofossils, calcareous

abundance, B:9–10, 13, 17, 19–20

biochronology, B:367, 369

biostratigraphic datums, A:72

biostratigraphic ranges, A:58–59, 96–97, 137–138, 163, 188–189, 229, 250–251, 295, 324–325, 362,399–400, 441–442, 470–471

biostratigraphy, A:57–59, 101, 139, 162–163, 185, 229, 248–249, 293, 322–323, 361, 398, 439, 469–470; B:3–40, 364

upper Quaternary, B:303–308


biostratigraphy, B:364–376

diatoms, B:63–110

magnetostratigraphy, B:311–318

paleoceanography, B:342–343, 368–373

paleoclimatology, B:239–245

rare earths, B:235–238

sedimentary record, B:341–376

sedimentation rates, A:479

sediments, B:363–372

Neogene, upper

biogenic opal, B:213–214

planktonic foraminifers, B:41–62

Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, coiling, A:136, 187, 249, 294, 323, 361


sediments, B:188

vs. depth, B:191


detrital component, B:267–270

sediments, B:265

nickel/titanium ratio, vs. zirconium/titanium ratio, B:269


detrital component, B:266–270

sediments, B:265

niobium/titanium ratio, detrital component, B:267–270

nitrogen. See also carbon/nitrogen ratio

nitrogen, total

sediments, A:75, 81, 106, 146, 151, 167, 171, 193, 206, 232–234, 262–263, 267; B:186–187

Site 1017, A:273, 296–297, 304–305, 341, 369, 373–374,416, 449, 456, 476, 481; B:273

vs. depth, B:187

vs. total organic carbon, A:113

See also carbon, total organic/total nitrogen ratio

nodules, lithologic units, A:395, 468

North America, teleconnections, B:371–372

North America NW, paleoclimatology, B:217–226

North American Plate, plate tectonics, A:8

North Pacific Current, sedimentation, B:341

North Pacific Gyre, oceanography, B:341–342

North Pacific Intermediate Water

millennial cycles, B:277–296

paleoclimatology, B:136

Northern California Depth Transect, carbonates, B:178–179

Northern California Stack, correlation, B:175

Northern Depth Transect, sedimentation, A:11

nutrients, gas hydrates, B:354



vs. age, B:223, 225–226, 241–243

vs. depth, B:220–222, 174

oak/(oak + pine) ratio, vs. age, B:244

oak/pine ratio, vs. age, B:226

ocean circulation, California Current, A:5–13

oceanography, A:6

Oeschger. See Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles

Olduvai Subchron, magnetostratigraphy, A:141, 165

ooze, clayey diatom, lithologic units, A:246–247, 318–320

ooze, clayey nannofossil, lithologic units, A:89, 161, 468

ooze, diatom, lithologic units, A:245–247, 357–359, 437

ooze, diatom nannofossil, lithologic units, A:245–247

ooze, Ethmodiscus, backscattered electron imagery analysis, B:207–212

ooze, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:55–57, 87, 89, 92, 161, 246–247, 437–438, 465, 467–468

stable isotopes, B:129–140

ooze, siliceous, lithologic units, A:56–57, 87, 89, 92

ooze, silty nannofossil, lithologic units, A:89


accumulation rates, A:78

color reflectance, A:109, 264

dissolution, A:104, 144, 166, 193, 261, 295, 328, 368, 406, 447, 475

dissolution and diagenesis, B:350

extraction curve, B:204

Miocene, B:368

sediments, B:331–332

vs. depth, B:371

opal, biogenic

upper Neogene, B:213–214

vs. age, B:214

vs. depth, B:214

opal, estimated, vs. depth, A:115, 342


chertification, B:350

lithologic units, A:56

orbital cycles

Neogene, B:354–363, 373

paleothermometry, B:153–161

sediments, B:257–260

terrigenous component, B:231

See also insolation; Milankovitch cycles; suborbital cycles

Oregon, terrigenous component, B:231

organic debris, lithologic units, A:468

organic matter

characterization, A:233

diagenesis, B:344–345, 347–349, 358

lithologic units, A:132–135

sediments, B:273–276

overconsolidation, void ratio, B:334–336

overprinting, magnetic poles, B:315–317

oxic environment

biomarkers, B:189–190

glauconite, B:292–293


diagenesis, B:265–266

lithologic units, A:225–227

organic matter, B:344–345, 348–349

See also redox

oxygen depletion, diagenesis, B:265–266

oxygen index

organic matter, A:233

vs. depth, A:235

vs. hydrogen index, A:235

oxygen isotopes

event ages in deep-sea standard reference sequence, B:135

foraminifers, B:129–140, 355, 358–359

paleoceanography, B:141–150, 162–182

planktonic foraminifers, B:257–260

sediments, B:169–173

time series, B:360–361

vs. age, B:135–138, 144, 150, 223, 226, 252–253, 258, 355, 358

vs. calendar age, B:293

vs. color, B:363

vs. corrected depth, B:252, 258

vs. depth, B:135, 143, 146, 363, 372–373

vs. temperature, B:359


Pacific Arctic Water, paleoclimatology, B:136

Pacific Ocean N, ocean circulation, A:5–13

Pacific Plate, plate tectonics, A:8


diatoms, B:120

grain size, B:291–294

Haptophytes, B:155–160

millennial cycles, B:355

Miocene, B:368

Neogene, B:342–343, 368–373

Pliocene, B:369–370

Quaternary, B:260

sedimentation, B:163–182

stable isotopes, B:129–150

upwelling, B:100, 103–104


alkenones, B:153–160

carbonates, B:163–194

chronology, B:134

color images, B:319–329

connection with tectonics, B:370–372

diatoms, B:103–105, 111–113, 119–125

foraminifer stable isotopes, B:135–137

millennial cycles, B:277–296

Neogene, B:239–245

planktonic foraminifers, B:58–59

Quaternary, B:217–226, 239–245, 260

upper Quaternary, B:249–254

vegetation, B:361–362

See also climate; mid-Brunhes climatic event

paleodepths, hotspots, A:43–46


biomarkers, B:189–190

paleoclimatology, B:253

pollen, B:219–222, 240–244


Site 1010, A:63–64, 71–72

Site 1011, A:102–103

Site 1012, A:139–141

Site 1013, A:163–165

Site 1014, A:187

Site 1016, A:256

Site 1017, A:293

Site 1018, A:325

Site 1019, A:364–366

Site 1020, A:400

Site 1021, A:442

Site 1022, A:473


alkenones, A:296–297; B:156–160

carbonates, B:291

diatoms, B:67, 104

millennial cycles, B:356

organic matter, B:275–276

paleoceanography, B:369–370

teleconnections, B:371–372

upper Quaternary, B:138


chertification, B:350

diatoms, B:111–113

paleothermometry, alkenones, B:153–161

palynomorphs, paleoclimatology, B:217–226, 239–245

Panama Gateway, tectonics, B:370–371

paracme, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, B:28

pebbles, lithologic units, A:133

pentane. See isopentane; n-pentane

petroleum-type compounds

sediments, B:188

sources and transportation, B:191–192

Pholadidae, lithologic units, A:133, 290


pore water, B:343

sediments, A:74, 104, 144, 166, 193, 232, 260, 295, 328, 368, 406, 447, 475; B:345, 348

vs. depth, A:79–80, 110–111, 148, 170, 204, 232, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480; B:349


gas hydrates, B:354

sediments, B:195–202

phosphorus oxide

sediments, B:285–288

vs. depth, B:285

photoelectric factor logs

carbonate content, A:196–198

vs. depth, A:210, 420

physical properties

core vs. log correlation, A:110, 197–198, 265–266

Site 1010, A:76–77

Site 1011, A:107–109

Site 1012, A:146–148

Site 1013, A:168–171

Site 1014, A:193–196

Site 1015, A:233–234

Site 1016, A:263–264

Site 1017, A:297–298

Site 1018, A:333–334

Site 1019, A:370–371

Site 1020, A:410–411

Site 1021, A:450–451

Site 1022, A:477

stratigraphy, B:367–368


alkenones, B:155–156

organic matter, B:275–276

Piacenzian, biohorizons, B:15


vs. age, B:241–242

See also cedar/pine ratio; oak/(oak + pine) ratio; oak/pine ratio

plagioclase, lithologic units, A:55

Planolites, lithologic units, A:246–247, 395

plate motion, paleodepths, A:43–46

plate tectonics, transition zones, A:8


age vs. depth, B:22–23

biochronology, B:24

biohorizons, B:6–12

biostratigraphy, B:3–40

calcium carbonate, B:176, 178

diatom datum levels, B:103

diatoms, B:63–110, 119–125

time series, B:360–362

zonation, B:12–14

See also Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary

Pleistocene, upper

biogenic component, B:203–206

paleoceanography, B:141–144, 358–362

terrigenous component, B:227–234


age vs. depth, B:23

biochronology, B:25

biohorizons, B:14–23

biostratigraphy, B:3–40

diatom datum levels, B:103

diatoms, B:63–110, 119–125

lithologic units, A:55, 89, 245–246, 318–320, 395, 437–438, 465, 467–468

paleoceanography, B:369–370

paleoclimatology, B:243

planktonic foraminifers, B:45–54, 115–117

See also Miocene/Pliocene boundary

Pliocene, lower

biohorizons, B:21, 23

Ethmodiscus ooze, B:207–212

sedimentation, A:266

Pliocene, lower/middle boundary, biohorizons, B:21

Pliocene, middle, diatoms, B:111–113

Pliocene, upper, lithologic units, A:132–135, 161

Pliocene, upper (carbonate event), indicators, B:369–370

Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary

deposition, A:181, 183

lithologic units, A:135

Point Conception

biomarkers, B:183–194

calcareous nannofossils, B:303–308

millennial cycles, B:277–296

sediments, B:255–261

See also Conception Transect


paleoclimatology, B:217–226, 239–245

sediments, B:361–362

vs. age, B:219, 241–242

vs. depth, B:219, 360

See also sequoia pollen


lithologic units, A:56, 247, 468

temperature history vs. age, B:352

See also chert; temperature history (youngest chert/porcellanite bed)

pore water

gas hydrates, B:350, 352–354

geochemistry, A:73–74, 79–80, 104–105, 110, 143–145, 148, 165–166, 170, 191, 193, 203–204, 230, 232, 259–261, 264–265, 294–296, 302, 328–329, 339, 367–368, 370, 405–406, 414, 447, 456, 473, 475, 478–479; B:343, 346–347


vs. depth, A:82, 114, 152, 173, 207, 268, 307, 341–342, 375, 417, 457, 482

See also void ratio

porosity, compressional-wave logger, vs. depth, A:114

porosity, discrete core, vs. depth, A:273

porosity, log, vs. depth, A:273

porosity logs

vs. depth, A:117–118, 209, 211, 271, 343, 377–378, 419, 421, 484

See also gamma ray–density–porosity logs; gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 1; gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 2; gamma ray–density–porosity logs, Pass 3


pore water, B:343

sediments, A:329, 368, 406, 447, 475

vs. depth, A:414

potassium logs

core vs. log correlation, A:197–198

vs. depth, A:211

potassium oxide

sediments, B:284–288

vs. depth, B:285

power spectra

terrigenous component, B:231

See also cross-spectral analysis

precession, diatoms, B:119–120

precipitation, detrital component, B:268–270


biomarkers, B:189–190

carbonates, B:291

diatoms, B:100, 103–104, 120

Proboscia barboi, distribution, B:101

production, correlation, B:176, 178

prokaryotes, sediments, B:188


headspace gases, A:150, 303, 340, 372, 415, 481

sediments, A:105, 193, 368

propane/propene ratio, headspace gases, A:80

propane/propylene ratio, headspace gases, A:171, 205


headspace gases, A:150, 205, 415, 481

See also propane/propene ratio

propylene. See propane/propylene ratio


detrital component, B:268–270

indicators, B:291–292

sediments, B:259, 361–362

terrigenous component, B:231

proxy indicators, color images, B:319–329


lithologic units, A:226–227

See also laminations


lithologic units, A:132–135, 395, 437, 467–468

photograph, A:135

sediments, B:282–284

vs. depth, B:284, 292

pyrite, framboidal, cores, B:278–280

pyritization, diagenesis, B:265–266, 289, 291



lithologic units, A:132–135, 161, 245–247, 288–291; B:282–284

vs. age, B:206

vs. depth, B:284

quartz peak intensity, vs. Factor 3, B:288


diatoms, B:63–110

lithologic units, A:87, 132–135, 161, 180–181, 183, 225–227, 245–246, 288–291, 318–320, 357–359, 393, 395, 435–437, 465, 467–468

paleoceanography, B:342–343

paleoclimatology, B:217–226, 239–245

planktonic foraminifers, B:45–54

sediments, B:263–271

See also Holocene; Pleistocene; Younger Dryas

Quaternary, upper

biomarkers, B:183–194

calcareous nannofossils, B:303–308

carbon isotopes, B:273–276

millennial cycles, B:277–296

paleoclimatology, B:249–254

sediments, B:255–261

stratigraphy, B:129–140



biostratigraphic events, A:259, 332, 406, 447

biostratigraphic ranges, A:66–69, 102–104, 194–197, 256–258, 297, 330–331, 363–364, 405–406, 445–446, 474

biostratigraphy, A:59–61, 101–102, 186–187, 251, 256, 293, 323, 325, 364, 398, 440, 442, 473; B:367

extraction curve, B:204

lithologic units, A:56, 289–291, 437

radiologic age, paleoclimatology, B:249–254

rare earths, Neogene, B:235–238


diagenesis, B:265–266

pore water, B:343

See also oxidation

redox patches, lithologic units, A:437

reduction haloes

photograph, A:438

See also haloes


vs. age, B:223, 225–226, 241–243

vs. depth, B:174, 220–222

remanent magnetization, anhysteretic, sediments, B:313–314

remanent magnetization, anhysteretic (1%), vs. depth, B:317

remanent magnetization, anhysteretic (1%)/natural remanent magnetization ratio, vs. depth, B:317

remanent magnetization, anhysteretic/mean ratio, vs. depth, B:315

remanent magnetization, characteristic, sediments, B:312–314

remanent magnetization, drilling-induced, sediments, A:63–64

remanent magnetization, natural,

sediments, A:102–103, 141, 163–164, 256, 293, 325, 364, 400, 442, 473; B:312–314

vs. depth, B:317

remanent magnetization, natural/anhysteretic remanent magnetization ratio, vs. depth, B:313–314, 316

resistivity, vs. depth, B:354

resistivity logs

vs. depth, A:117, 209, 271, 343, 377, 419, 484

See also gamma ray–resistivity logs; gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs; gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs, Pass 2; gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs, Pass 3

Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, paracme, B:28


diagenesis, B:265–266

sediments, B:264

vs. depth, B:266


detrital component, B:267–270

sediments, B:265

rubidium/titanium ratio, vs. zirconium/titanium ratio, B:269

runoff, detrital component, B:268–270


Sacramento River, drainage, B:372


lithologic units, A:320

photograph, A:320

sage, vs. depth, B:220–222


pore water, B:343

sediments, A:74, 104, 260, 295, 328, 368, 405, 447, 473

San Francisco Bay, middle Pleistocene, B:372

San Nicolas Basin, composite section, A:158


deposition, A:226

detrital component, B:267–270

lithologic units, A:245–247

photograph, A:227

provenance, B:291–292

sand, bioclastic, photograph, A:292

sand, feldspar quartz

lithologic units, A:225–227, 318–320, 358–359, 393, 395

photograph, A:292

sand, glauconite, lithologic units, A:358–359

sand, siliciclastic, lithologic units, A:288–291

sand + silt

vs. depth, Site 1017, B:270

See also Factor 2

sandstone, lithologic units, A:92

sandstone, pyritic, lithologic units, A:133

Santa Barbara Basin

millennial cycles, B:354–355

Neogene, B:342–343

petroleum-type compounds, B:191–192

Santa Lucia Bank, sediments, B:255–261

Santa Lucia Slope

calcareous nannofossils, B:303–308

composite section, A:287

Santa Monica Basin, lithostratigraphy, A:226

saturation, carbonates, B:179–180

sea-level changes

glaciation cycles, B:354

Quaternary, B:260

sediment rebound

contribution to depth offset, B:338

vs. depth, B:337

sediment traps, organic carbon, B:180

sedimentary record, middle Miocene to Holocene, B:341–376


paleoceanography, B:163–182

tectonics, A:10–11

sedimentation, hemipelagic, deposition, A:181, 183

sedimentation rates

age control points, A:77, 108, 145, 168, 202, 262, 337, 412, 454

biostratigraphic events, A:301

diatoms, B:72–73

magnetic susceptibility, A:103

millennial cycles, B:356–358

nannofossils, A:92

Neogene, A:479; B:342–343

Pliocene, A:336

Quaternary, A:298, 372

rhythmic layering, A:198

Site 1010, A:72–73

Site 1011, A:103–105

Site 1012, A:141, 143

Site 1013, A:165

Site 1014, A:187, 190–191

Site 1015, A:229–230

Site 1016, A:256–257, 259

Site 1017, A:293–295

Site 1018, A:325, 328

Site 1019, A:366–367

Site 1020, A:400, 405

Site 1021, A:442, 447

Site 1022, A:473

vs. age, A:77, 108, 146, 168, 202, 262, 337, 412, 454

sedimentation rates, linear, vs. age, B:230

sedimentology, grain size, B:256–260


backscattered electron imagery analysis, B:207–212

carbon isotopes, B:273–276

color images, B:319–329

geochemistry, B:263–271

millennial cycles, B:277–296

Neogene, B:363–372

phosphorus, B:195–202

photograph, A:135

rare earths, B:235–238

textures, B:255–261

seismic profiles

Site 1010, A:53, 84

Site 1011, A:90, 120

Site 1012, A:133, 155

Site 1013, A:159, 174

Site 1014, A:181, 212

Site 1015, A:225, 237

Site 1016, A:243, 274

Site 1017, A:289, 309

Site 1018, A:316, 345

Site 1019, A:357, 375, 380; B:174

Site 1020, A:393, 422

Site 1021, A:435, 459

Site 1022, A:465, 485

seismic reflectors, bottom-simulating

causes, A:372

gas hydrates, B:352–354

sequoia pollen, vs. depth, B:360

Set LB, sediments, B:256–257

Set TU, sediments, B:257

shrubs, pollen, B:240–244

shrubs/herbs ratio, vs. age, B:242–243

Sidufjal Subchron

biohorizons, B:21

magnetostratigraphy, A:442

Sierra Nevada, uplifts, B:371–372


diagenesis, B:350

extraction curve, B:204

pore water, B:343

sediments, A:75, 104, 144, 166, 193, 232, 261, 295, 328, 368, 406, 447, 475; B:284–288

vs. depth, A:79–80, 110–111, 148, 170, 204, 232, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480; B:285, 352, 360

See also sodium oxide/(silica-14.15) ratio

silica, biogenic

correlation with color, B:329

time series, B:360–361

vs. age, B:206

vs. depth, B:371

silicates. See aluminosilicates; silica


deposition, A:161

lithologic units, A:55–57, 87, 89, 92, 132–135, 245–247, 438

sediments, B:255–261

silicoflagellates, lithologic units, A:289


color reflectance, A:342

deposition, A:226

lithologic units, A:55, 318–320, 357–359, 465, 467–468

major elements, B:288–289

volume ratio, B:296

vs. corrected depth, B:260

vs. depth, B:290

See also sand + silt

silt, clay diatom nannofossil, lithologic units, A:357–359

silt, clayey

cores, B:278–280

lithologic units, A:87, 225–227, 288–291

photograph, A:227

silt, feldspar quartz, lithologic units, A:393, 395

siltstone, lithologic units, A:92

Sisquoc Formation, comparison to Miocene, B:368

Site 893, millennial cycles, B:354–355

Site 1010, A:49–84

background and objectives, A:50, 52

biohorizons, B:35

biostratigraphy, A:57–63

composite depth, A:72–73

coring, A:54

diatoms, B:66–69, 72–73

inorganic geochemistry, A:73–75

lithostratigraphy, A:54–57

operations, A:52–54

organic geochemistry, A:75–76

paleomagnetism, A:63–64, 71–72

phosphorus geochemistry, B:197

physical properties, A:76–77

sedimentation rates, A:72–73

sediments, B:207–212

site description, A:49–84

smear slides, A:1327–1331

summary, A:77–78

thin sections, A:1375

Site 1011, A:85–127

background and objectives, A:86–87

biohorizons, B:35

biostratigraphy, A:92–102

color, B:363

composite depth, A:103–105

coring, A:91

diatoms, B:70–71, 73, 94

downhole measurements, A:109–110

inorganic geochemistry, A:104–105

lithostratigraphy, A:87–92

operations, A:87

organic geochemistry, A:105–107

paleoceanography, B:141–144

paleomagnetism, A:102–103

phosphorus geochemistry, B:198

physical properties, A:107–109

sedimentation, B:163–182

sedimentation rates, A:103–105

site description, A:85–127

smear slides, A:1332–1335

stratigraphy, B:173

summary, A:1110–112

thin sections, A:1376–1377

Site 1012, A:129–155

background and objectives, A:130

biohorizons, B:36

biostratigraphy, A:135–139

carbonate records, B:297–302

composite depth, A:141, 143

coring, A:134

diatoms, B:94

inorganic geochemistry, A:143–145

lithostratigraphy, A:130–135

operations, A:130

organic geochemistry, A:145–146

paleoceanography, B:141–144

paleomagnetism, A:139–141

phosphorus geochemistry, B:198

physical properties, A:146–148

sedimentation rates, A:141 143

site description, A:129–155

smear slides, A:1336–1338

summary, A:149

thin sections, A:1378

Site 1013, A:157–174

background and objectives, A:159

biohorizons, B:36

biostratigraphy, A:161–163

carbonate records, B:297–302

composite depth, A:165

coring, A:160

diatoms, B:94

inorganic geochemistry, A:165–166

lithostratigraphy, A:160–161

operations, A:160

organic geochemistry, A:166–168

paleomagnetism, A:163–165

physical properties, A:168–171

sedimentation rates, A:165

site description, A:157–174

smear slides, A:1339–1340

summary, A:171–172

Site 1014, A:175–221

background and objectives, A:176

biohorizons, B:36

biostratigraphy, A:183–187

composite depth, A:187, 190–191

coring, A:182–183

diatoms, B:72–73, 94–95

downhole measurements, A:196–198

inorganic geochemistry, A:191, 193

lithostratigraphy, A:180–183

magnetostratigraphy, B:311–318

operations, A:176, 180

organic geochemistry, A:193

paleoceanography, B:129–140, 145–150

paleomagnetism, A:187

phosphorus geochemistry, B:199

physical properties, A:193–196

rare earths, B:235–238

sedimentation rates, A:187, 190–191

site description, A:175–221

smear slides, A:1341–1344

summary, A:198

Site 1015, A:223–237

background and objectives, A:224

biostratigraphy, A:227–229

composite depth, A:229–230

coring, A:226

diatoms, B:94

inorganic geochemistry, A:230 232

lithostratigraphy, A:225–227

operations, A:224–225

organic geochemistry, A:232–233

physical properties, A:233–234

sedimentation rates, A:229–230

site description, A:223–237

smear slides, A:1345–1346

summary, A:234–235

Site 1016, A:239–283

background and objectives, A:240, 243

biohorizons, B:37

biomarkers, B:183–194

biostratigraphy, A:247–256

composite depth, A:256–257, 259

coring, A:244

diatoms, B:74–75, 95, 111

downhole measurements, A:264–266

index properties, B:331–332

inorganic geochemistry, A:259–261

lithostratigraphy, A:245–247

operations, A:243, 245

organic geochemistry, A:261–263

paleomagnetism, A:256

phosphorus geochemistry, B:200

physical properties, A:263–264

sedimentation rates, A:256–257, 259

site description, A:239–283

smear slides, A:1347–1350

summary, A:266

Site 1017, A:285–309

background and objectives, A:286

biohorizons, B:37

biostratigraphy, A:291–293

calcareous nannofossils, B:303–308

carbon isotopes, B:273–276

carbonate records, B:297–302

composite depth, A:293–295

coring, A:290

diatoms, B:94

geochemistry, B:263–271

inorganic geochemistry, A:294–296

lithostratigraphy, A:288–291

millennial cycles, B:277–296

operations, A:286, 288

organic geochemistry, A:296–297

paleoclimatology, B:249–254

paleomagnetism, A:293

phosphorus geochemistry, B:201

physical properties, A:297–298

sea-surface temperature, B:297–302

sedimentation rates, A:293–295

sediments, B:255–261

site description, A:285–309

smear slides, A:1351–1353

summary, A:298

Site 1018, A:311–352

background and objectives, A:312

biohorizons, B:37

biostratigraphy, A:320–325

composite depth, A:325, 328

coring, A:317–318

diatoms, B:76–77, 96, 119–120, 122, 124–125

downhole measurements, A:334–336

inorganic geochemistry, A:328–329

lithostratigraphy, A:316, 318–320

operations, A:312, 315–316

organic geochemistry, A:329, 332–333

paleoceanography, B:141–144

paleoclimatology, B:239–245

paleomagnetism, A:325

physical properties, A:333–334

sedimentation, B:163–182

sedimentation rates, A:325, 328

site description, A:311–352

smear slides, A:1354–1357

stratigraphy, B:167

summary, A:336

terrigenous component, B:227–234

Site 1019, A:353–387

background and objectives, A:354, 356

biohorizons, B:37

biostratigraphy, A:359–364

carbonate records, B:297–302

composite depth, A:366–367

coring, A:358

diatoms, B:78–79, 96–97

downhole measurements, A:371–372

gas hydrates, B:350, 352–354

inorganic geochemistry, A:367–368

lithostratigraphy, A:357–359

operations, A:356–357

organic geochemistry, A:368–370

paleoclimatology, B:217–226

paleomagnetism, A:364–366

physical properties, A:370–371

sedimentation, B:163–182

sedimentation rates, A:366–367

site description, A:353–387

smear slides, A:1358–1360

stratigraphy, B:167, 173

summary, A:372

Site 1020, A:389–429

background and objectives, A:390 392

biogenic component, B:203–206

biohorizons, B:38

biostratigraphy, A:395–399

composite depth, A:400, 405

coring, A:394

diatoms, B:80–81, 97, 119–120, 122–123

downhole measurements, A:411–414

index properties, B:333–338

inorganic geochemistry, A:405–406

lithostratigraphy, A:393–395

magnetostratigraphy, B:311–318

operations, A:392–393

organic geochemistry, A:406, 408–410

paleoceanography, B:145–150

paleoclimatology, B:217–226, 239–245

paleomagnetism, A:400

paleothermometry, B:153–161

physical properties, A:410–411

sedimentation, B:163–182

sedimentation rates, A:400, 405

site description, A:389–429

smear slides, A:1361–1364

stratigraphy, B:166

summary, A:414

terrigenous component, B:227–234

time series, B:360–362

Site 1021, A:431–459

background and objectives, A:432

biohorizons, B:38

biostratigraphy, A:438–442

composite depth, A:442, 447

coring, A:436

diatoms, B:82–87, 97–98, 111, 119–122

index properties, B:333–338

inorganic geochemistry, A:447

lithostratigraphy, A:435–438

operations, A:432, 434

organic geochemistry, A:447, 449–450

paleoclimatology, B:239–245

paleomagnetism, A:442

phosphorus geochemistry, B:201

physical properties, A:450–451

planktonic foraminifers, B:115–117

sedimentation, B:163–182

sedimentation rates, A:442, 447

site description, A:431–459

smear slides, A:1365–1368

stratigraphy, B:166–167

summary, A:451–452

Site 1022, A:461–495

background and objectives, A:464

biohorizons, B:38

biostratigraphy, A:468–473

composite depth, A:473

coring, A:466

diatoms, B:88–89, 98–99, 111–113

downhole measurements, A:477–479

inorganic geochemistry, A:473 475

lithostratigraphy, A:465, 467–468

operations, A:464–465

organic geochemistry, A:475–477

paleoclimatology, B:239–245

paleomagnetism, A:473

phosphorus geochemistry, B:202

physical properties, A:477

sedimentation rates, A:473

site description, A:461–495

smear slides, A:1369–1371

summary, A:479

Skolithos, lithologic units, A:246–247

smear slides

Site 1010, A:1327–1331

Site 1011, A:1332–1335

Site 1012, A:1336–1338

Site 1013, A:1339–1340

Site 1014, A:1341–1344

Site 1015, A:1345–1346

Site 1016, A:1347–1350

Site 1017, A:1351–1353

Site 1018, A:1354–1357

Site 1019, A:1358–1360

Site 1020, A:1361–1364

Site 1021, A:1365–1368

Site 1022, A:1369–1371


sediments, B:282–284

vs. age, B:232

vs. depth, B:284


pore water, B:343

sediments, A:74, 104, 143–144, 193, 230, 260, 295, 328, 368, 405, 447, 473

sodium oxide

sediments, B:284–288

vs. depth, B:285

sodium oxide/(silica-14.15) ratio, vs. Factor 4, B:289

sonic logs. See gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs; gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs, Pass 2; gamma ray–resistivity–sonic, Pass 3

Sorolian Coccolith Stage, biohorizons, B:23

sorting, vs. age, B:230

Southern Depth Transect, sedimentation, A:11

Southern Oscillation. See El Niρo/Southern Oscillation

splice tie points

Site 1010, A:76

Site 1011, A:108

Site 1012, A:145

Site 1013, A:168

Site 1014, A:202

Site 1015, A:231

Site 1016, A:262

Site 1018, A:337

Site 1019, A:368

Site 1020, A:412

Site 1021, A:453

Site 1022, A:478

stable isotopes, B:142

sponge spicules, lithologic units, A:56, 132–135

sponges, photograph, A:320


vs. age, B:242–243

vs. depth, B:220–222

stable isotopes

paleoceanography, B:129–150

paleoclimatology, B:250

See also carbon isotopes; oxygen isotopes

Stephanopyxis species, distribution, B:101

steranes, sediments, B:188

steroids, C-ring monoaromatic, sediments, B:188

stratigraphic markers, diatoms, B:66


Neogene, B:363–368

physical properties, B:367–368

sedimentation events, B:162–182

stable isotopes, B:129–140

stress, effective, vs. void ratio, B:334–336


biogenic carbonates, B:266

pore water, B:343

sediments, A:75, 104, 193, 232, 261,

Site 1017, A:295, 368, 406; B:265

vs. depth, A:110–111, 148, 170, 204, 265–266, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480

subduction zones, plate tectonics, A:8

suborbital cycles, sediments, B:257–260


pore water, B:343

sediments, A:74, 104, 144, 166, 193, 232, 260, 295, 328, 368, 405, 447, 473, 475

vs. age, A:339

vs. depth, A:79–80, 110–111, 148, 170, 204, 265, 302, 339, 371, 414, 447, 456, 480; B:348

sulfate reduction, organic matter, B:344–345, 348–349

sulfur, total

sediments, A:75, 81, 151, 167, 171, 206, 234, 267, 297, 304, 341, 369–370, 373, 416, 456, 481; B:273

vertical profile, B:275

vs. depth, B:274

See also carbon, total organic/total sulfur ratio


Tanner Basin

composite section, A:177–179

deep water, A:180

magnetostratigraphy, B:311–318

paleoceanography, B:129–140, 145–150

rare earths, B:235–238

tectonics, connection with climate, B:370–372

teleconnections, paleoclimatology with tectonics, B:370–371


foraminifer stable isotopes, B:135–137

vs. age, B:112

vs. depth, A:10, 83, 115, 117, 153, 174, 208–209, 269, 271, 308, 342, 376, 418, 458, 483–484; B:156–159, 345

vs. oxygen isotopes, B:359

vs. record number, A:82, 115, 153, 173, 207, 269, 307, 342, 376, 418, 458, 483

temperature, paleo-sea-surface

sediments, A:296–297, 305, 369, 374

vs. depth, A:306, 374

temperature, sea-surface

alkenones, B:297, 301–302, 359–360, 373

continental margin, B:137–138

millennial cycles, B:356, 373

paleothermometry, B:153–161

vs. depth, B:360

temperature, sea-surface (alkenone), comparison to interglacial lowland forest, B:362

temperature history (youngest chert/porcellanite bed), vs. age, B:352

Termination I, paleoclimatology, B:136, 139

Termination IA, paleoclimatology, B:253

Termination IB, paleoclimatology, B:253

terrestrial environment, vegetation, B:361–362

terrigenous component

deposition, B:227–234

geochemistry, B:266–270

sediments, B:205–206

vs. age, B:206, 230

terrigenous component, mass accumulation rates, vs. age, B:230

textures, sediments, B:255–261

Thalassionema species, distribution, B:101

Thalassiothrix species, distribution, B:101

thin sections, Site 1010, A:1375–1378

thorium logs

core vs. log correlation, A:197–198

vs. depth, A:211

Thvera Subchron

biohorizons, B:14

magnetostratigraphy, A:71, 442

time series

calcium carbonate, B:358

color, B:323–324


detrital component, B:267–270

sediments, B:265

vs. depth, B:268

See also barium/titanium ratio; chromium/titanium ratio; nickel/titanium ratio; niobium/titanium ratio; rubidium/titanium ratio; yttrium/titanium ratio; zirconium/ titanium ratio

titanium oxide

sediments, B:285–288

vs. depth, B:285

titanomagnetite, sediments, B:314–315

Tortonian, biohorizons, B:23, 26–29

trace elements, sediments, B:265

trace fossils, photograph, A:93

transport, currents, B:345

triquetrorhabdulids, biohorizons, B:18, 21


deposition, A:291

millennial cycles, B:357

photograph, A:227, 292

provenance, B:291–292


unsaturation indices

alkenones, B:185–186

sea-surface temperature, B:297, 301–302

time series, B:360–361

vs. depth, B:186


sediment transport, A:372

Sierra Nevada, B:371–372


carbon, B:180

chronology, B:159

currents, A:6–7

diatoms, B:67, 103–104

oceanography, B:342

paleoceanography, B:100


diagenesis, B:265–266

sediments, B:264

uranium logs

core vs. log correlation, A:197–198

vs. depth, A:210–211



detrital component, B:267–270

sediments, B:265

vs. depth, B:268


glacial/interglacial cycles, B:361–362

paleoclimatology, B:217–226, 239–245

sediments, B:361–362

velocity, vs. depth, A:82, 114; B:354

velocity, compressional-wave logger, vs. depth, A:81, 113

velocity logs, vs. depth, A:118

ventilation, upper Quaternary, B:138–139

void ratio

vs. depth, A:82, 114, 152, 173, 207, 268, 307, 341, 375, 417, 457, 482

vs. effective stress, B:334–336

See also porosity

voids, correlation with color, B:321–322

volcanic ash, lithologic units, A:87, 89, 161, 181, 183, 247, 318–320, 437–438

volcanic ash layers, vitric, photograph, A:56

volcanic glass, lithologic units, A:55, 87, 89, 132–135, 227, 288–291, 318–320, 437–438

volcaniclastics, lithologic units, A:134–135

volume ratio, vs. depth, B:290


water content, vs. depth, A:82, 114, 152, 173, 207, 268, 307, 341, 375, 417, 457, 482

well logging

carbonate content, A:196–198

lithology, A:412–413, 477–478

shore-based processing, A:121, 213, 275, 346, 381, 423, 486

Site 1011, A:109–110

Site 1014, A:196–198

Site 1016, A:264–266

Site 1018, A:334–336

Site 1019, A:371–372

Site 1020, A:411–414

Site 1022, A:477–479

See also core vs. log correlation

wood fragments, lithologic units, A:226–227, 468


X-ray radiography, cores, B:278–280


Younger Dryas

millennial cycles, B:277–296, 355–357

paleoclimatology, B:251–254


detrital component, B:266–270

sediments, B:265

vs. depth, B:267

yttrium/titanium ratio, detrital component, B:267–270


Zanclean, biohorizons, B:14–15


detrital component, B:267–270

sediments, B:265


detrital component, B:266-270

sediments, B:265

vs. depth, B:267

zirconium/titanium ratio

detrital component, B:267-270

vs. nickel/titanium ratio, B:269

vs. rubidium/titanium ratio, B:269


diatoms, B:64-65, 99, 102

planktonic foraminifers, B:44-55

Pleistocene, B:12, 14


lithologic units, A:246-247, 395, 437-438

photograph, A:93