169S Subject Index


carbon-14, A:25, 33–35

stratigraphic units, A:26

wood/shell pair, A:25–26

alkali metals, sediments, B:40

alkaline earths, sediments, B:39–40

alkalinity, sediments, B:39–40

alkalinity, dissolved, vs. depth, A:47, 54

alkalinity, titration, vs. depth, A:51, 57


sediments, B:39–40

vs. depth, A:54, 57

anoxia, bottom waters, A:14


basins, oceanography, A:15–16

biogeochemistry, diagenesis, A:17

bioturbation, lithologic units, A:22, 24


lithologic units, A:22

sediments, A:60

boron, dissolved, vs. depth, A:56, 59

boron, sediments, B:40

bottom waters, oceanography, A:15–16

British Columbia, geology, A:14

bryozoans, lithologic units, A:22

burrows, lithologic units, A:24


calcite. See also carbonate content

calcite crystal, angular biterminated, photograph, A:27

calcite, granular, photograph, A:27

calcium, sediments, B:39–40

calcium, dissolved, vs. depth, A:55, 58

Capilano sediments, geology, A:14

carbon, organic

organic matter, B:38–39

sediments, A:48, 50

vs. depth, A:49, 52

carbon-14, age, A:25, 33–35

carbon dioxide, gases, B:37, 39

carbon dioxide, vacutainer, vs. depth, A:47, 51

carbonate content

organic matter, B:39

sediments, A:48, 50

vs. depth, A:49, 52

See also calcite

cedar, sediments, A:60

Chaetoceros spp., vs. depth, B:7

chemistry, organic, A:32–39


sediments, B:40

vs. depth, A:47, 51, 55, 58

See also sodium/chloride ratio; sulfate/chloride ratio

cirripeds, sediments, A:60

clasts, silt, lithologic units, A:24

clay, composition, A:14

clay, silty, lithologic units, A:21–22, 24

clays, lithologic units, A:21

climate, Holocene, geology, A:14–15

color reflectance, vs. depth, A:37, 44

composite section, stratigraphy, B:27


composite summary, A:29–30

massive intervals, A:31–32

Mazama Ash, A:25

Cowichan River

oceanography, A:15–16

organic matter, A:14

cyclic processes, oceanography, A:15–16

Cyclotella caspia, vs. depth, B:9

Cyclotella spp., vs. depth, B:9


deep water, oceanography, A:15–16

deglaciation, sediments, A:16–17

density, GRAPE bulk, vs. depth, A:36, 43

density, spliced bulk, vs. depth, A:38, 45


biogeochemistry, A:17

organic matter, Saanich Inlet, B:32, 36

sediments, A:17

See also remineralization


intra-annual variability, B:3–10

oceanography, A:15–16

diatoms, littoral, vs. depth, B:7

dropstones, lithologic units, A:24–25


earthquakes, proxy data, A:17

El Niρo–Southern Oscillation events, oceanography, A:15–16


fabric, lithologic units, A:24–25

feldspar, lithologic units, A:21


geology, A:14

oceanography, A:15–16

Fraser Glaciation, geology, A:14

Fraser River, geology, A:13–14


gastropods, sediments, A:60

geochemistry, inorganic

Site 1033, A:39–40

Site 1034, A:40

geochronology, carbon-14, A:25, 33–35

glaciomarine environment

lithologic units, A:24–25

sediments, B:40

glendonite, photograph, A:27

granules, lithologic units, A:21–22, 24


Haro Strait

cores, A:13

oceanography, A:15–16

hexahydrate, calcium carbonate, photograph, A:27


climate, A:14–15

cores, A:13

mud, A:26–27

See also Pleistocene/Holocene boundary


headspace gas chromatographic data, A:46, 49

vacutainer gas chromatographic data, A:47, 50

See also methane

hydrogen sulfide, gases, B:37–38

hydrogen sulfide, vacutainer, vs. depth, A:48, 51


ikaite, organic matter, B:39

index properties, sediments, B:28, 31

Isothecium stoloniferum, scanning electron microscopy, A:61


Juan de Fuca Strait, oceanography, A:15–16



lithologic units, A:21–24

photograph, A:21

X-ray radiograph, A:28

liquefaction, Pleistocene lake sediments, A:17

lithium, sediments, B:40

lithium, dissolved, vs. depth, A:56, 59

lithologic units

Site 1033, A:20–22

Site 1034, A:22–27

Unit I, A:20–23

Unit II, A:21–24


Site 1033, A:20–22

Site 1034, A:22–27


Magnesium, sediments, B:40

magnesium, dissolved, vs. depth, A:55, 58

magnetic susceptibility, vs. depth, A:36, 43

magnetic susceptibility, spliced, vs. depth, A:38, 45

marine environment, lithologic units, A:24–25

Mazama Ash, photograph, A:25

methane, gases, B:37, 39

methane, headspace, vs. depth, A:47, 51

methane, vacutainer, vs. depth, A:47, 51

mica, lithologic units, A:21

mottling, lithologic units, A:24


age, A:26–27

lithologic units, A:22–23

photograph, A:21, 25–26

mud, diatomaceous

lithologic units, A:21–23

photograph, A:21

mud, silty, lithologic units, A:21


Nanaimo Lowlands, geology, A:14


gases, B:37, 39

sediments, A:48, 50

nitrogen, organic

organic matter, B:38–39

vs. depth, A:49, 52

nitrogen, vacutainer, vs. depth, A:48, 51



oceanography, A:15–16

sediments, B:39–40

ocean circulation, oceanography, A:15–16

oceanography, freshwater discharge, A:15–16

offset depths

Site 1033, A:37

Site 1934, A:45

ooze, lithologic units, A:21

ooze, diatom, photograph, A:21, 25

organic matter

composition, A:14

diagenesis, B:32, 36

oxygen, gases, B:37

oxygen, vacutainer, vs. depth, A:48, 51


Pacific Ocean E, cores, A:13


Holocene, A:14–15


diatoms, B:9

sediments, A:16–17

paleoenvironment, sediments, A:16–17

paleontology, A:40–41

paleoseismicity, proxy data, A:17

palynology, sediments, A:16–17


composition, A:26

lithologic units, A:21–22, 24


sediments, B:39

vs. depth, A:54, 57

physical properties

Site 1033, A:27–28

Site 1034, A:28, 31–32

plant debris

lithologic units, A:21

scanning electron microscopy, A:61

sediments, A:60


mud, A:26–27

See also Wisconsinan

Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, paleoclimatology, A:17

pollen, lithologic units, A:21

pore water, geochemistry, A:52–53

potassium, dissolved, vs. depth, A:56, 59

potassium, sediments, B:40

pseudomorphs, photograph, A:27


quartz, lithologic units, A:21

Quaternary See Holocene; Pleistocene; Pleistocene/Holocene boundary; Wisconsinan


remineralization, organic matter, B:32, 36

reservoir age, wood/shell pair, A:25–26


Saanich Inlet, geology, A:14


lithologic units, A:21–22, 24

photograph, A:26

Satellite Channel

cores, A:13

oceanography, A:15–16

scaphopods, sediments, A:60

sea-level changes, paleoclimatology, A:15

sedimentation rates

chronology, A:25

sediments, A:14

sediments, composition, A:14

seismic profiles, A:19

seismic surveys, A:17

shear strength, undrained

sediments, B:28, 32

vs. depth, A:38, 46


lithologic units, A:21

sediments, A:60

silica, sediments, B:40

silica, dissolved, vs. depth, A:56, 59

sills, geology, A:13–14


composition, A:14

lithologic units, A:21–22

Site 1033

coring, A:20

gas samples, A:36–39

inorganic geochemistry, A:39–40

lithostratigraphy, A:20–22

physical properties, A:27–28

Site 1034

coring, A:20

diatoms, B:3–10

gas samples, A:39

inorganic geochemistry, A:40

lithostratigraphy, A:22–27

paleontology, A:40–41

physical properties, A:28 31–32

Sites 1033–1034, A:11–61

background and scientific objectives, A:13–16

objectives, A:16–17

operations, A:18–20

organic chemistry, A:32–39

site description, A:11–61

summary, A:40

Skeletonema costatum, vs. depth, B:7

smear slides, sediments, A:24

sodium, sediments, B:40

sodium/chloride ratio

sediments, B:40

vs. depth, A:55, 58

solar radiation, paleoclimatology, A:15

Strait of Georgia, oceanography, A:15–16

stratigraphic units, age, A:26

stratigraphy, composite section, B:27–28, 31

strontium, sediments, B:40

strontium, dissolved, vs. depth, A:55, 58

sulfate, sediments, B:39–40

sulfate, dissolved, vs. depth, A:47, 51, 54, 57

sulfate/chloride ratio

gases, B:37, 39

vs. depth, A:47, 51


sediments, A:48, 50

vs. depth, A:49, 52

sulfur, organic, organic matter, B:38–39


temperature, oceanography, A:15–16

Thalassionema nitzschioides, vs. depth, B:8

Thalassiosira eccentrica, vs. depth, B:8

Thalassiosira lineata, vs. depth, B:8

Thalassiosira oestrupii, vs. depth, B:8

Thalassiosira pacifica, vs. depth, B:8

Thalassiosira spp., vs. depth, B:8

Thuja plicata, scanning electron microscopy, A:61

tides, oceanography, A:15–16


Vancouver Island, geology, A:14


lithologic units, A:24–25

X-ray radiograph, A:28

Vashon Drift, geology, A:14

vegetation, paleoclimatology, A:14–15

velocity, acoustic

corrected and uncorrected values, A:38, 45

sediments, B:28, 31–32

Victoria, geology, A:14

volcanic ash

lithologic units, A:21–23

photograph, A:25


Wisconsinan, geology, A:14



scanning electron microscopy, A:61

sediments, A:60

Younger Dryas, paleoclimatology, A:17