Belt, S.T., Cooke, A.T., Robert, J.-M., and Rowland, D., 1996. Structural characterisation of widespread polyunsaturated isoprenoid biomarkers: a C25 triene, tetraene and panaene from the diatom Haslea Ostrearia Simonsen. Tetrahedron Lett., 27:4755-4758.

Berger, W.H., Wefer, G., Richter, C., Lange, C.B., Giraudeau, J., Hermelin, O., and Shipboard Scientific Party, 1998. The Angola-Benguela upwelling system: paleoceanographic synthesis of shipboard results from Leg 175. In Wefer, G., Berger, W.H., and Richter, C., et al., Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 175: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 505-531.

Boon, J.J., and de Leeuw, J.W., 1979. The analysis of wax esters, very long mid-chain ketones and sterol ethers isolated from Walvis Bay diatomaceous ooze. Mar. Chem., 7:117-132.

Boon, J.J., Rijpstra, W.I.C., de Lange, F., de Leeuw, J.W., Yoshioka, M., and Shimizu, Y., 1979. Black sea sterol—a molecular fossil for dinoflagellate blooms. Nature, 277:125-127.

Brassell, S.C., 1980. The lipids of deep sea sediments: their origin and fate in the Japan Trench [Ph.D. dissert.]. Univ. Bristol.

————, 1993. Applications of biomarkers for delineating marine paleoclimatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene. In Engel, M.H., and Macko, S.A. (Eds.), Organic Geochemistry: Principles and Applications: New York (Plenum), 699-738.

Brassell, S.C., and Eglinton, G., 1983. The potential of organic geochemical compounds as sedimentary indicators of upwelling. In Suess, E., and Thiede, J., (Eds.), Coastal Upwelling: its Sedimentary Record (Pt. A): New York (Plenum Press), 545-571.

Brassell, S.C., Eglinton, G., Marlowe, I.T., Pflaumann, U., and Sarnthein, M., 1986a. Molecular stratigraphy: a new tool for climatic assessment. Nature, 320:129-133.

Brassell, S.C., Lewis C.A., de Leeuw, J.W., de Lange, F., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 1986b. Isoprenoid thiophenes: novel diagenetic products in sediments? Nature, 320:160-162.

Brassell, S.C., McEvoy, J., Hoffmann, C.F., Lamb, N.A., Peakman, T.M., and Maxwell, J.R., 1984. Isomerization, rearrangement and aromatisation of steroids in distinguishing early stages of diagenesis. In Schenck, P.A., de Leeuw, J.W., and Lijmbach, G.W.M. (Eds.), Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1983: Oxford (Pergamon Press), 6:11-23.

Brassell, S.C., Wardroper, A.M.K., Thomson, I.D., Maxwell, J.R., and Eglinton, G., 1981. Specific acyclic isoprenoids as biological markers of methanogenic bacteria in marine sediments. Nature, 290:693-696.

Conte, M.H., Volkman, J.K., and Eglinton, G., 1994. Lipid biomarkers of Haptophyta. In Green, J.C., and Leadbeater, B.S.C. (Eds.), The Haptophyte Algae: Oxford (Clarendon Press), 351-377.

de Leeuw, J.W., Rijpstra, W.I.C., and Schenck, P.A., 1981. The occurrence and identification of C30, C31 and C32 alkan-1,15-diols and alkan-15-one-1-ols in Unit I and Unit II Black Sea sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 45:2281-2285.

Didyk, B.M., Simoneit, B.R.T., Brassell, S.C., and Eglinton, G., 1978. Organic geochemical indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions of sedimentation. Nature, 272:216-222.

Diester-Haass, L., Meyers, P.A., and Rothe, P., 1992. The Benguela Current and associated upwelling on the southwest African margin: a synthesis of the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary record at DSDP Sites 362 and 352. In Summerhayes, C.P., Prell, W.L., and Emeis, K.C. (Eds.), Upwelling Systems: Evolution Since the Early Miocene. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. London, 64:331-342.

Dowsett, H., and Willard, D., 1996. Southeast Atlantic marine and terrestrial response to middle Pliocene climate change. Mar. Micropaleontol., 27:181-193.

Dzvonik, J.P., 1996. Alkenones as records of oceanic paleotemperatures: studies of Eocene and Oligocene sediments from the North, South and Equatorial Atlantic [M.S. dissert.]. Indiana Univ., Bloomington.

Eglinton, G., Hamilton, R.J., Raphael, R.A., and Gonzalez, A.G., 1962. Hydrocarbon constituents of the wax coatings of plant leaves: a taxonomic survey. Nature, 193:739-742.

Emeis, K.-C., Doose, H., Mix, A., and Schulz-Bull, D., 1995. Alkenone sea-surface temperatures and carbon burial at Site 846 (eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean): the last 1.3 m.y. In Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 605-613.

Ensminger, A., Albrecht, P., Ourisson, G., and Tissot, B., 1977. Evolution of polycyclic alkanes under the effect of burial (Early Toarcian Shales, Paris Basin). In Campos, R., and Goni, J. (Eds.), Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1975: Madrid (ENADIMSA), 45-52.

Farrimond, P., Eglinton, G., and Brassell, S.C., 1986a. Alkenones in Cretaceous black shales, Blake-Bahama Basin, western North Atlantic. In Leythaeuser, D., and Rullkötter, J. (Eds.), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1985. Org. Geochem., 10:897-903.

Farrimond, P., Eglinton, G., and Brassell, S.C., 1986b. Geolipids of black shales and claystones in Cretaceous and Jurassic sediment sequences from the North American Basin. In Summerhayes, C.P., and Shackleton, N.J. (Eds.), North Atlantic Palaeoceanography. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. London, 21:347-360.

Farrimond, P., Poynter, J.G., and Eglinton, G., 1990. Molecular composition of sedimentary lipids off the Peru margin, Leg 112. In Suess, E., von Huene, R., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 112: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 539-546.

Gagosian, R.B., and Farrington, J.W., 1978. Sterenes in surface sediments from the southwest African shelf and slope. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 42:1091-1101.

Gagosian, R.B., Peltzer, E.T., and Merrill, J.T., 1987. Long-range transport of terrestrially derived lipids in aerosols from the south Pacific. Nature, 325:800-803.

Gagosian, R.B., Peltzer, E.T., and Zafiriou, O.C., 1981. Atmospheric transport of continently derived lipids to the tropical Pacific. Nature, 291:312-314.

Gagosian, R.B., and Smith, S.O., 1979. Steroids ketones in surface sediments from the south-west African Shelf. Nature, 277:287-289.

Goad, L.J., Holz, G.G., Jr., and Beach, D.H., 1983. Identification of (24s)-24-methylcholesta-5-22-dien-3-ol as the major sterol or a marine Cryptophyte and a marine Prymnesiophyte. Phytochemistry, 22:475-476.

Han, J., and Calvin, M., 1969. Hydrocarbon distribution of algae and bacteria and microbial activity in sediments. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 64:436-443.

Hartnett, H.E., Keil, R.G., Hedges, J.I., and Devol, A.H., 1998. Influence of oxygen exposure time on organic carbon preservation in continental margin sediments. Nature, 391:572-574.

Harvey, H.R., Bradshaw, S.A., O'Hara, S.C.M., Eglinton, G., and Corner, E.D.S., 1988. Lipid composition of the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella Trochoidea. Phytochemistry, 27:1723-1729.

Hay, W.W., and Brock, J.C., 1992. Temporal variation in intensity of upwelling off southwest Africa. In Summerhayes, C.P., Prell, W.L., and Emeis, K.C. (Eds.), Upwelling Systems: Evolution Since the Early Miocene. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. London, 64:463-497.

Herbert, T.D., and Schuffert, J.D., 1998. Alkenone unsaturation estimates of late Miocene through late Pliocene sea-surface temperatures at Site 958. In Firth, J.V., et al, Proc. ODP Sci. Results, 159T: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 17-21.

Hinrichs, K.-U., Schneider, R.R., Müller, P.J., and Rullkötter, J., 1999. A biomarker perspective on paleoproductivity variations in two Late Quaternary sediment sections from the Southeast Atlantic Ocean. Org. Geochem., 30:341-366.

Johns, L., Wraige, E.J., Belt, S.J., Lewis, C.A., Massé, G., Robert, J.-M., and Rowland, S.J., 1999. Identification of a C25 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) diene in Antarctic Sediments, Antarctic sea-ice diatoms and cultured diatoms. Org. Geochem., 30:1471-1475.

Kenig, F., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., de Leeuw, J.W., and Huc, A.Y., 1995. Occurrence and origin of mono-, di-and trimethylalkanes in modern and Holocene cyanobacterial mats from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59:2999-3015.

Kirst, G., Müller, P.J., Schneider, R.R., and von Storch, I., 1999. Late Quaternary temperature variability in the Benguela Current System derived from Alkenones. Quat. Res., 52:92-103.

Kohnen, M.E.L., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., and de Leeuw, J.W., 1991a. Biases from natural sulfurization in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on hydrocarbon biomarker distributions. Nature, 349:775-778.

Kohnen, M.E.L., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Kock-van Dalen, A.C., and de Leeuw, J.W., 1991b. Di- and polysulphide-bound biomarkers in sulphur rich geomacromolecules as revealed by selective chemolysis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55:1375-1394.

Kohnen, M.E.L., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Kock-van Dalen, A.C., ten Haven, H.L., Rullkötter, J., and de Leeuw, J.W., 1990. Origin and diagenetic transformations of C25 and C30 highly branched isoprenoid sulphur compounds: further evidence for the transformation of organically bound sulphur during early diagenesis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54:3053-3063.

Kohnen, M.E.L., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., ten Haven, H.L., Kock-van Dalen, A.C., Schouten, S., and De Leeuw, J.W., 1991c. Identification and geochemical significance of cyclic di- or trisulfides with linear and acyclic isoprenoid carbon skeletons in immature sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55:3685-3695.

Kolattukudy, P.E., 1976. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Natural Waxes: New York (Elsevier).

Lange, C.B, Berger, W.H., Lin, H.-L., Wefer, G., and Shipboard Scientific Party, 1999. The early Matuyama diatom maximum off SW Africa, Benguela Current System (ODP Leg 175). Mar. Geol., 161:93-114.

Lusby, W.R., Thompson, M.J., and Kochansky, J., 1984. Analysis of sterol esters by capillary gas chromatography-electron impact and chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Lipids, 19:888-901.

Lutjeharms, J.R.E., and Stockton, P.L., 1987. Kinematics of the upwelling front off southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci., 5:35-49.

Mackenzie, A.S., Brassell, S.C., Eglinton, G., and Maxwell, J.R., 1982. Chemical fossils: the geological fate of steroids. Science, 217:491-504.

Marlow, J.R., Lange, C.B., Wefer, G., and Rosell-Mele, A., 2000. Upwelling intensification as part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transition. Science, 290:2288-2291.

Marlowe, I.T., Brassell, S.C., Eglinton, G., and Green, J.C., 1990. Long-chain alkenones and alkyl alkenoates and the fossil coccolith record of marine sediments. Chem. Geol., 88:349-375.

Marlowe, I.T., Green, J.C., Neal, A.C., Brassell, S.C., Eglinton, G., and Course, P.A., 1984. Long chain (n-C37-C39) alkenones in the Prymnesiophyceae: distribution of alkenones and other lipids and their taxonomic significance. Br. Phycol. J., 19:203-216.

McCaffrey, M.A., Farrington, J.W., and Repeta, D.I., 1991. The organic geochemistry of Peru margin surface sediments, II. Paleoenvironmental implications of hydrocarbon and alcohol profiles. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55:483-498.

McEvoy, J., 1983. The origin and diagenesis of organic lipids in sediments from the San Miguel Gap [Ph.D. dissert.]. Univ. of Bristol.

Meyers, P.A., 1992. Organic matter variations in sediments from DSDP sites 362 and 532: evidence of upwelling changes in the Benguela Current upwelling system. In Summerhayes, C.P., Prell, W.L., and Emeis, K.C. (Eds.), Upwelling Systems: Evolution Since the Early Miocene. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. London, 64:323-329.

Müller, P.J., Cepek, M., Ruhland, G., Schneider, R.R., 1997. Alkenone and coccolithophorid species changes in late Quaternary sediments from the Walvis Ridge: implications for the alkenone paleotemperature method. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 135:71-96.

Müller, P.J., Kirst, G., Ruhland, G., von Storch, I., and Rosell-Melé, A., 1998. Calibration of the alkenone paleotemperature index (uk37') based on core-tops from the eastern South Atlantic and the global ocean (60°N-60°S). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 62:1757-1772.

Müller, P.J., and Suess, E., 1979. Productivity, sedimentation rate, and sedimentary organic matter in the oceans, I, Organic carbon preservation. Deep-Sea Res. Part A, 26:1347-1362.

Ourisson, G., Albrecht, P., and Rohmer, M., 1984. The microbial origin of fossil fuels. Sci. Am., 251:44-51.

Peakman, T.M., and Maxwell, J.R., 1988. Early diagenetic pathways of steroid alkenes. Org Geochem., 13:583-592.

Peltzer, E.T., Alford, J.B., and Gagosian, R.B., 1984. Methodology for sampling and analysis of lipids in aerosols from the remote marine atmosphere. Tech. Rep., Woods Hole Oceanogr. Inst.

Poynter, J.G., Farrimond, P., Brassell, S.C., and Eglinton, G., 1989. A molecular stratigraphic study of sediments from holes 658A and 660A, ODP Leg 108. In Ruddiman, W., Sarnthein, M., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 108: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 387-394.

Prahl, F.G., Dymond, J., and Sparrow, M., 2000. Annual biomarker record for export production in the central Arabian Sea. Deep-Sea Res., 47:1581-1604.

Prahl, F.G., Muehlhausen, L.A., and Zahnle, D.L., 1988. Further evaluation of long-chain alkenones as indicators of paleoceanographic conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 52:2303-2310.

Prahl, F.G., and Wakeham, S.G., 1987. Calibration of unsaturation patterns in long-chain ketone compositions for paleotemperature assessment. Nature, 330:367-369.

Repeta, D.J., McCaffrey, M.A., and Farrington, J.W., 1992. Organic geochemistry as a tool to study upwelling systems: recent results from the Peru and Namibian shelves. In Summerhayes, C.P., Prell, W.L., and Emeis, K.C. (Eds.), Upwelling Systems: Evolution Since the Early Miocene. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. London, 64:257-272.

Risatti, J.B., Rowland, S.J., Yon, D.A., and Maxwell, J.R., 1984. Stereochemical studies of acyclic isoprenoids—XII. Lipids of methanogenic bacteria and possible contributions to sediments. Org. Geochem., 6:93-104.

Robinson, N., Eglinton, G., Brassell, S.C., and Cranwell, P.A., 1984. Dinoflagellate origin for sedimentary 4-methylsteroids and 5(H)-stanols. Nature, 308:439-441.

Rosell-Melé, A., Carter, J.F., Parry A.T., and Eglinton, G., 1995a. Determination of the Uk37 index in geological samples. Anal. Chem., 67:1283-1289.

Rosell-Melé, A., Eglinton, G., Pflaumann, U., and Sarnthein, M., 1995b. Atlantic core-top calibration of the Uk37 index as sea-surface palaeotemperature indicator. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59:3099-3107.

Rowland, S.J., and Robson, J.N., 1990. The widespread occurrence of highly branched acyclic C20, C25 and C30 hydrocarbons in recent sediments and biota: a review. Mar. Sci. Rev., 30:191-216.

Rullkötter, J., Rinna, J., Bouloubassi, I., Scholz-Böttcher, B.M., Meyers, P.A., Johns, L., and Rowland, S.J., 1998. Biological marker significance of organic matter origin and transformation in sapropels from the Pisano Plateau, Site 964. In Robertson, A.H.F., Emeis, K.-C., Richter, C., and Camerlenghi, A. (Eds.). Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 160: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 271-283.

Schouten, S., Hoefs, M.J.L., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2000. A molecular and carbon isotopic study of lipids in late Quaternary sediments from the Arabian Sea. Org. Geochem., 31:509-521.

Shannon, L.V., 1985. The Benguela ecosystem, Part I: Evolution of the Benguela, physical features and processes. Annu. Rev. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol., 23:105-182.

Shiea, J., Brassell, S.C., and Ward, D.M., 1990. Mid-chain branched mono- and dimethyl alkanes in hot spring cyanobacterial mats: a direct biogenic source for branched alkanes in ancient sediments? Org. Geochem., 15:223-231.

Simoneit, B.R.T., Chester, R., and Eglinton, G., 1977. Biogenic lipids in particulates from the lower atmosphere over the eastern Atlantic. Nature, 267:682-685.

Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Rijpstra, W.I.C., Kock-van Dalen, A.C., De Leeuw, J.W., and Schenck, P.A., 1989a. Quenching of labile functionalized lipids by inorganic sulphur species: evidence for the formation of sedimentary organic sulfur compounds at the early stages of diagenesis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53:1343-1355.

Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Schouten, S., Rijpstra, W.I.C., Hopmans, E.C., Peletier, H., Gieskes, W.C., and Geenevasen, J.A.J., 1999. Structural identification of the C25 highly branched isoprenoid pentaene in the marine diatom Rhizsolenia Setigera. Org. Geochem., 30:1581-1583.

Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., van Koert, E.R., Kock-van Dalen, A.C., de Leeuw, J.W., and Schenck, P.A., 1989b. Characterisation of highly branched isoprenoid thiophenes occurring in sediments and immature crude oils. Org. Geochem., 14:555-567.

Summerhayes, C.P., Kroon, D., Rosell-Melé, A., Jordan, R.W., Schrader, H.-J., Hearn, R., Villanueva, J., Grimalt, J.O., and Eglinton, G., 1995. Variability in the Benguela Current upwelling system over the past 70,000 years. Prog. Oceanogr., 35:207-251.

ten Haven, H.L., de Leeuw, J.W., Rullkötter, J., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 1987. Restricted utility of the pristane/phytane ratio as a paleoenvironmental indicator. Nature, 330:641-643.

ten Haven, H.L., Eglinton, G., Farrimond, P., Kohnen, M.E.L., Poynter, J.G., Rullkötter, J., and Welte, D.H., 1992. Variations in the content and composition of organic matter in sediments underlying active upwelling regimes: a study from ODP Legs 108, 112, and 117. In Summerhayes, C.P., Prell, W.L., and Emeis, K.C. (Eds.), Upwelling Systems: Evolution Since the Early Miocene. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. London, 64:229-246.

ten Haven, H.L., Littke, R., Rullkötter, J., Stein, R., and Welte, D.H., 1990. Accumulation rates and composition of organic matter in late Cenozoic sediments underlying the active upwelling area off Peru. In Suess, E., von Huene, R., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 112: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 591-606.

ten Haven, H.L., Rullkötter, J., and Stein, R., 1989. Preliminary analysis of extractable lipids in sediments from the Eastern North Atlantic (Leg 108): comparison of a coastal upwelling area (Site 658) with a nonupwelling area (Site 659). In Ruddiman, W., Sarnthein, M., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 108: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 351-360.

Thierstein, H.R., Geitzenauer, K., Molfino, B., and Shackleton, N.J., 1977. Global synchroneity of late Quaternary coccolith datum levels: validation by oxygen isotopes. Geology, 5:400-404.

Van Graas, G., de Leeuw, J.W., Schenk, P.A., and Haverkamp. J., 1981. Kerogen in Toarcian shales of the Paris Basin: a study of its maturation by flash pyrolysis techniques. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 45:2465-2474.

Versteegh, G.J.M., Bosch, H.-J., and de Leeuw, J.W., 1997. Potential paleoenvironmental information of C24 to C36 mid-chain diols, keto-ols and mid-chain hydroxy fatty acids: a critical review. Org. Geochem., 27:113.

Versteegh, G.J.M., Jansen, J.H.F., de Leeuw, J.W., and Schneider, R.R., 2000. Mid-chain diols and keto-ols in SE Atlantic sediments: a new tool for tracing past sea surface water masses? Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 64:1879-1892.

Volkman, J.K., 1986. A review of sterol markers for marine and terrigenous organic matter. Org. Geochem., 9:83-99.

Volkman, J.K., Barrett, S.M., and Blackburn, S.I., 1999. Eustigmatophyte microalgae are potential sources of C29 sterols, C22-C28 n-alcohols and C28-C32 n-alkyl diols in freshwater environments. Org. Geochem., 30:307-318.

Volkman, J.K., Barrett, S.M., Blackburn, S.I., Mansour, M.P., Sikes, E.L., and Gelin F., 1998. Microalgal biomarkers: a review of recent research developments. Org. Geochem., 29:1163-1179.

Volkman, J.K., Barrett, S.M., and Dunstan, G.A., 1992. C30-C32 alkyl diols and unsaturated alcohols in microalgae of the class Eustigmatophyceae. Org Geochem., 18:131-138.

————, 1994. C25 and C30 highly branched isoprenoids in laboratory cultures of two marine diatoms. Org. Geochem., 21:407-414.

Volkman, J.K., Eglinton, G., Corner, E.D.S., and Forsberg, T.E.V., 1980. Long-chain alkenes and alkenones in the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. Phytochemistry, 19:2619-2622.

Wakeham, S.G., 1982. Organic matter from a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial North Atlantic: wax esters, steryl esters, triacylglycerols, and alkyldiacylglycerols. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 46:2239-2257.

Wefer, G., Berger, W.H., and Richter, C., et al., 1998. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 175: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program).

Wraige, E.J., Belt, S.J., Lewis, C.A., Cooke, D.A., Robert, J.-M., Massé, G., and Rowland, S.J., 1997. Variations in structures and distributions of C25 highly branched isoprenoid (hbi) alkenes in cultures of the diatom Halsea Ostearia (Simonsen). Org. Geochem., 27:497-506.