This work was conducted as an integral part of the master's of science degree in Quaternary Science, conducted jointly at Royal Holloway, University of London, and University College London, and gratitude is extended to the Course Director, Rob Kemp. The authors are also grateful to the Ocean Drilling Program for providing material and to the Natural Environment Research Council for supporting this study (grant GST/02/2690, "The role of the Benguela Current upwelling system in controlling the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation"). The authors would also like to acknowledge Carina Lange for valuable discussions concerning diatom taxonomy and Phil Meyers, Dyke Andreasen, and Marcus Kienast for great insight into the use of nitrogen isotopes. We thank Nick Branch, Janet Hope, and all members at the Centre for Quaternary Research (RHUL) and Environmental Change Research Centre (UCL) for technical assistance throughout this project; and Nick Mann and Catherine Pyke of the Department of Geography Drawing Office at UCL. The authors would also like to express their gratitude to Juliane Fenner and Steve Bohaty, who both provided valuable comments on an earlier version of this paper.