SUBJECT INDEX

A

abundance, planktonic foraminifers, B11:1–21
Actinocyclus ellipticus, vs. depth, B6:7
age models
biogenic opal, B21:2
stable isotope stratigraphy, B3:3
age vs. depth
magnetic polarity, A6:58; A7:88; A8:40; A9:108
sedimentation rates, A6:59; A7:89; A8:41; A9:109
Site 1143, A4:50, 56; B8:33
Site 1144, A5:43, 51; B19:14
Site 1145, A6:32, 36
Site 1146, A7:49, 53; B8:34
Site 1147, A8:17, 21
Site 1148, A9:61, 64
age vs. depth models
sedimentation rates, A4:94; A5:83; B21:6
South China Sea, A1:70
alkalinity
pore water, A4:21; A5:18; A6:13–14; A7:18; A8:8; A9:22
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
alkenones
stratigraphy, B17:1–17
vs. age, B17:14
alkenones, long-chain
sediments, B18:5
vs. depth, B18:13, 15
alkyl diols
sediments, B18:5
vs. depth, B18:13, 15
alkyl keto-ols
sediments, B18:5
vs. depth, B18:13, 15
Allerød. See Bølling/Allerød level
aluminum. See arsenic/aluminum ratio; barium/aluminum ratio; chromium/aluminum ratio; cobalt/aluminum ratio; magnesium/aluminum ratio; manganese/aluminum ratio; nickel/aluminum ratio; phosphorus/aluminum ratio; potassium/aluminum ratio; rubidium/aluminum ratio; silicon/aluminum ratio; titanium/aluminum ratio; vanadium/aluminum ratio; zirconium/aluminum ratio
aluminum/potassium ratio, nannofossil clay, B12:6
aluminum oxide
nannofossil clay, B12:1–25
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B12:19–20, 22; B19:19
vs. titanium oxide, B12:18
See also potassium oxide/aluminum oxide ratio; silica/aluminum oxide ratio
ammonium
pore water, A4:21; A5:18; A6:13–14; A7:18; A8:8; A9:22
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
Andaman Sea, paleoceanography, A1:9
Arabian Sea, monsoon, A1:13
aridification
lithologic units, A9:11
nannofossil clay, B14:2–3
arsenic, clay geochemistry, B12:10
arsenic/aluminum ratio, vs. age, B12:24
Asia E, global climate, A1:1–77
Asian monsoon system, global climate, A1:1–77
astronomical forcing, faunal responses to climate change, B11:8
Atlantic-type carbonate cycle, nannofossil clay, B12:5
atmospheric circulation, evolution, A1:4–7, 45
Australian Plate, collision, A1:4
authigenesis
lithologic units, A5:7–9
siderite, B13:5–6
Azpeitia nodulifer, vs. depth, B6:7

B

barium, green clay, B15:5
barium/aluminum ratio
biomediation, B12:8–10
vs. age, B12:23
Bashi Strait, tectonics, A1:4
basins
evolution, A1:13–14
sediments, A1:7–8
basins, margins, paleoclimatology, A1:14
Bay of Bengal, paleoceanography, A1:9
bicarbonate, vs. depth, A9:51
Big Lost Event, sediments, A1:23
biodegradation, green clay, B15:5–8
Biogenic Bloom Event, mass accumulation rates, B21:3
biogenic material, sediments, A1:8
biohorizons
biostratigraphy, A9:14
summary, A4:90; A5:80; A6:55; A7:82–83; A8:37; A9:98–99
biomarkers, lipids, B18:5–6
biomediation, clay geochemistry, B12:8–10
biostratigraphic datums, planktonic foraminifers, B2:29
biostratigraphy
sedimentation rates, A7:12; A8:7; B2:10–11
Site 1143, A4:11–14
Site 1144, A5:9–11
Site 1145, A6:7–8
Site 1146, A7:10–12
Site 1147, A8:4–5
Site 1148, A9:12–14
bioturbation
lithologic units, A4:8–10; A6:5; A7:6, 8–9; A8:4; A9:7–11
photograph, A4:48; A9:56
sediments, A1:27–28
Bølling/Allerød level, oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:5
Borneo, subduction, A1:4
Bouma sequence, lithologic units, A4:9–11; A9:8
Brunhes/Matuyama boundary
sediments, A1:21, 23; A4:16; A6:10; A7:13; A8:6; A9:15
stratigraphy, B2:9
bulk density logs
vs. bulk density, A4:76
vs. depth, A4:73–74; A7:69; A9:84–85
vs. porosity logs, A5:70
burrows
lithologic units, A6:5; A7:6, 8; A8:4; A9:7–11
photograph, A6:30
butane, sediments, A9:18, 110–112

C

calcareous sediment, green, photograph, A7:47
calcite
green clay, B15:4
nannofossil clay, B14:2
vs. depth, A5:40; A6:31; A7:44; A9:60; B14:5
calcium
pore water, A4:22; A5:18–19; A6:14; A7:18–19; A8:8; A9:22
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
vs. magnesium, A4:22, 59; A9:69
calcium oxide
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B19:19
vs. carbonate carbon, B12:16
calcium oxide–quartz–clay minerals, ternary diagram, B12:17
caliper logs, vs. depth, A4:73–74; A5:68–69; A7:67; A9:80
carbon. See sulfur/carbon ratio
carbon, carbonate, vs. calcium oxide, B12:16
carbon, inorganic, sediments, A4:19, 96–99; A5:15, 85–87; A6:11, 60; A7:15–16, 92–94; A8:7, 42; A9:18–19, 113–115; B16:1–9
carbon, total, sediments, A4:96–99; A5:85–87; A6:60; A7:16, 92–94; A8:42; A9:113–115
carbon, total organic
organic matter, A9:20–21
Rock-Eval pyrolysis, A6:61; A7:95; A9:116
Rock-Eval pyrolysis vs. by difference, A5:54, 88
sediments, A4:19–20, 96–99; A5:85–87; A6:11, 60; A7:92–94; A8:7, 42; A9:19–20, 113–116; B16:1–9
vs. age, B16:7
vs. chlorin, A5:56
vs. depth, A4:58; A5:53; A6:37; A7:55; A8:22; A9:65; B16:5–6
vs. total nitrogen, A5:55
carbon/nitrogen ratio
organic matter, A5:16; A6:12–13; A7:16; A8:7; A9:20–21
sediments, A4:19; A5:85–87; A7:92–94; A9:18, 113–115
vs. depth, A5:53; A6:37; A7:55; A8:22; A9:65
carbon dioxide
evolution, A1:4–7
sediments, A5:14–15
carbon isotopes
chronostratigraphy, B2:11–15
foraminifers, B3:1–8; B4:1–8
Globigerinoides ruber, B2:1–29
methane, B13:4, 15
organic matter, B20:1–13
vs. age, A1:48; B2:24; B3:6; B4:5; B5:6–7; B20:10–11
vs. depth, B2:22; B3:5; B4:6; B5:5
carbon isotopes, methane, vs. methane/(ethane + propane) ratio, B13:13
carbon number predominance, sediments, B18:3, 10
carbon preference index, sediments, B18:3, 10
carbonate compensation depth
foraminifer datums, B9:8–9
nannofossil clay, B12:5
sediments, A1:8
carbonate content
lithologic units, A6:4–5; A7:9
nannofossil clay, B12:1–25
sediments, A4:9–11, 96–99; A5:85–87; A6:60; A7:92–94; A8:42; A9:18–19, 113–115; B16:1–9; B19:5
vs. age, B12:19, 23; B16:7–8; B19:21
vs. depth, A5:53; A6:37; A7:55, 69; A8:22; A9:51, 65, 84–85; B9:21; B16:5–6
carbonate cycles. See Atlantic-type carbonate cycle
carbonates
sedimentation, A1:34–35
ternary diagram, B12:17
vs. age, A1:73
vs. depth, A4:57, 78
Cavolinia, lithologic units, A7:6
Cenozoic
stratigraphy, A1:50
tectonics, A1:4
chalcophile elements, clay geochemistry, B12:10
Changjiang River, paleoclimatology, A1:6–7
chemical index of alteration
nannofossil clay, B12:6; B19:7–8
vs. age, B19:20
China, monsoon stages, A1:49
chloride
pore water, A4:20; A5:17–18; A6:13; A7:17–18; A8:8; A9:21–22; B13:3, 11
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
chlorin
organic carbon, A5:16–17
sediments, A5:89–91
vs. depth, A5:56
vs. total organic carbon, A5:56
chlorite
green clay, B15:4, 14
nannofossil clay, B14:2
paleoclimatic cyclicity, B22:3–4
paleoclimatology, B19:6–7
reflectance, B22:9
sediments, B19:5
vs. age, B19:18
vs. depth, A5:40; A6:31; A7:44; A9:60; B14:5–6
See also kaolinite/chlorite ratio; smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio
chlorite/quartz ratio
nannofossil clay, B14:2
vs. depth, B14:7
chlorite–smectite mixed minerals, green clay, B15:4, 14
Chondrites
lithologic units, A4:9–10; A7:9; A9:8–11
sediments, A1:27
chromium/aluminum ratio, nannofossil clay, B12:6–7
chronostratigraphy
nannofossils, B10:16–17
oxygen isotopes, B2:4–10
sedimentation rates, A5:13
Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, stable isotope stratigraphy, B3:1–8; B15:16; B17:15
clasts, mud, lithologic units, A9:8–9
clasts, rip-up, photograph, A9:57
clay
lithologic units, A4:8–10; A5:6–9; A6:4–7; A7:5–9; A8:3–4; A9:6–11
vs. depth, A9:51; B9:21
clay, carbonate-rich
lightness, A7:80; A8:35; A9:93–96
lithologic units, A6:5–7; A7:6; A8:4
clay, green
autocorrelogram of interval between clay layers, B15:17
bulk density, B15:18–19
clay mineralogy, B15:4
depths and ages, B15:18
diagenetic origin, B15:5–8
geochemistry, B15:4–5, 22
grain size, B15:4
lithologic units, A6:5; A7:6; A8:3–4; A9:9–11
paleoenvironment, A1:30–31; B15:1–23
photograph, A4:46
spatial and temporal distribution, B15:5, 15
vs. depth, A4:45; A7:45; A8:15; A9:52
clay, nannofossil
geochemistry, B12:1–25
lithologic units, A7:5–9; A9:8–11
mineralogy, B14:1–10
photograph, A9:54
clay fraction, siliciclastics, B19:8–9
clay mineralogy
green clay, B15:4
paleoclimatic cyclicity, B22:1–10
reflectance, B22:9
sediments, B19:5
See also calcium oxide–quartz–clay minerals
clay minerals
lithologic units, A9:11
ternary diagram, B12:17
climate, evolution, A1:4–7
climate change, faunal responses, B11:8
coarse fraction
sediments, B16:9
vs. age, B16:7
vs. depth, B11:14; B16:5–6
cobalt, clay geochemistry, B12:10
cobalt/aluminum ratio, vs. age, B12:24
coccolithophores, alkenone stratigraphy, B17:1–17
coccoliths, vs. depth, A5:44
coercivity
hysteresis, B1:3–4
vs. depth, B1:8
coercivity ratio, vs. depth, B1:8
coercivity remanence
hysteresis, B1:3–4
vs. depth, B1:8
coercivity remanence/coercivity ratio
hysteresis, B1:3–4
vs. depth, B1:8
cold water. See warm/cold water ratio
collision, Philippine Sea Plate, A1:4
color changes
lithologic units, A7:5–9; A9:6–11
photograph, A9:56
See also lightness; reflectance
composite depths
Site 1143, A4:84
Site 1144, A5:77
Site 1145, A6:51
Site 1146, A7:76–77
Site 1147, A8:33
Site 1148, A9:91
composite section
Site 1143, A4:6–7
Site 1144, A5:4–6
Site 1145, A6:3–4
Site 1146, A7:4–5
Site 1147, A8:2–3
Site 1148, A9:5
compressional wave velocity
sediments, A4:25–26; A5:21; A6:16
vs. depth, A4:67; A6:44; A7:60; A8:29; A9:75
vs. velocity logs, A4:76
See also velocity logs
concretions
authigenic siderite, B13:1–15
lithologic units, A9:6–7, 10–11
continental slope, paleoenvironment, A1:29–37
convoluted bedding, lithologic units, A9:8
cooling, alkenone stratigraphy, B17:1–17
coral reefs, tectonics, A1:4
coring, summary, A1:76–77
coring penetration, vs. age, A1:66
correlation
composite section, A4:6–7
foraminifer datums, B9:6–7
gamma-ray attenuation bulk density, A4:38–40; A5:33–35; A7:35–38; A8:13; A9:41–45
gamma rays, A5:30–32; A7:31–34; A8:12; A9:36–40
magnetic susceptibility, A4:32–34; A5:5, 27–29; A6:3–4; A7:4, 27–30; A8:3, 11; A9:5, 31–35
reflectance, A4:41–43; A5:36–38; A7:39–42; A8:14; A9:46–50
correlation between Site 1146 and Site 1148, B9:19
Cretaceous–Paleocene sequence, topography, A1:3–4
crust, oceanic, plate tectonics, A1:4
cyclic sedimentation, clay geochemistry, B12:10–11
Cyclotella spp., vs. depth, B6:7

D

Dansgaard–Oeschger Events
interstadials, B2:6–10
paleoceanography, A1:9
turbidite, A4:11
deep resistivity logs, vs. depth, A5:68–69; A7:67; A9:80
demagnetization
overprints, A4:15–17; A6:35
sediments, A5:12–13
demagnetization, alternating-field sediments, A4:52; A5:49
density. See bulk density logs
density, bulk
green clay, B15:20–21
paleoceanographic proxies, A1:13
sediments, A4:23–24; A5:20–21; A6:15–16
vs. bulk density logs, A4:76
vs. depth, A1:55–56, 58, 60–62, 64–65; A5:58; A6:39; A7:59; A9:72
density, core log, vs. depth, A5:72
density, dry, vs. depth, A5:62; A6:42; A7:61; A8:27; A9:73
density, gamma-ray attenuation bulk
correlation, A4:38–40; A5:33–35; A6:23–24; A7:35–38; A8:13; A9:41–45
vs. moisture and density bulk density, A4:62; A5:61
density, grain
sediments, A4:23–24; A5:20–21; A6:15–16
vs. depth, A4:60; A5:62; A6:42; A7:61; A8:27; A9:73
density, log bulk, vs. depth, A5:72
density, moisture and density bulk
vs. gamma-ray attenuation bulk density, A4:62; A5:61; A8:26
vs. thermal conductivity, A4:69
density logs. See bulk density logs
detrital component elements, vs. benthic foraminifer elements, B12:22
diagenesis
geochemistry, B12:24
green clay, B15:5–8
lithologic units, A5:7–9
pore water, A6:13–14
diatom abundance, vs. depth, B6:8–9
diatoms
biostratigraphy, B6:1–9
lithologic units, A6:5; A7:6
zonation, B6:6
dinoflagellates
abundance, B7:24–25
biostratigraphy, B7:1–29
comparison, B7:8–9
range chart, B7:26–27
zonation, B7:5–9
dissolution
foraminifer datums, B9:7–8
lithologic units, A7:9
vs. depth, B11:14
dolomite
lithologic units, A7:8–9; A9:10
vs. depth, A5:40; A6:31; A7:44

E

Earth's orbit, evolution, A1:4–7
East China Sea Shelf, paleoceanography, A1:8–10
Eocene, paleoclimatology, A1:6–7
eolian transport, sediments, A1:13
Equatorial Warm Current, paleoclimatology, A1:14
erosion, uplifts, A1:11
ethane
carbon isotopes, B13:15
sediments, A5:14–15; A7:14–15, 90–91; A9:17–18, 110–112; B13:4
vs. depth, B13:12
See also methane/ethane ratio; methane/(ethane + propane) ratio
ethene, sediments, A9:18, 110–112
ethyl ketones, sediments, B18:5, 9

F

fatty acids, long-chain, sediments, B18:4, 9
faults, lithologic units, A9:10–11
faults, normal, photograph, A9:58
ferromagnetism, magnetic susceptibility, B1:2–3, 6
flaser bedding, photograph, A9:59
foraminifer datums
distribution, B8:42–43; B9:24, 26; B21:9
geochronology, B11:3–4
zonation, B9:5–6, 14
foraminiferal fragmentation, vs. depth, A5:45; A6:33; B11:14
foraminifers
lithologic units, A5:8–9; A7:5–9; A8:3–4; A9:8
paleoenvironment, A1:30–31
vs. depth, A5:45
foraminifers, benthic
biomediation, B12:9, 19, 22–23
biostratigraphy, A4:14; A5:10–11; A6:8; A7:11; A8:5; A9:14
stable isotope stratigraphy, B3:1–8; B4:1–8; B5:1–12
vs. depth, A5:45
foraminifers, cold water, abundance vs. depth, B11:16
foraminifers, deep water, abundance vs. depth, B11:17
foraminifers, planktonic
biostratigraphy, A4:13–14; A5:10; A6:7–8; A7:10–11; A8:5; A9:13–14; B8:1–43; B9:1–26
checklist, A4:93; A5:82; A6:57; A7:86–87; A8:39; A9:105–107
cyclic abundance spectrum, B11:19
distribution, B8:38–41
first and last occurrences, B8:35
middle Pleistocene, B11:1–21
monsoon, A1:12
stable isotope stratigraphy, B2:1–29; B4:1–8; B5:1–12; B19:14–15, 18–21
zonation, B8:3–7
See also pteropods/planktonic foraminifers ratio
foraminifers, warm water, abundance vs. depth, B11:15
forcing, precession, A1:11
Formation MicroScanner imagery
resistivity, A5:73; A7:71; A9:86
turbidite, A4:80
vs. lightness, A4:79
fractures, lithologic units, A9:10–11

G

gamma-ray logs
vs. depth, A1:74; A4:75, 77–78; A5:68–69, 71; A7:68, 70; A9:81–83
vs. gamma rays, A4:77
gamma rays, correlation, A5:30–32; A6:21–22; A7:31–34; A8:12; A9:36–40
paleoceanographic proxies, A1:13
sediments, A4:25
vs. depth, A4:35–37, 65; A5:56, 59; A6:41; A7:58; A8:25; A9:71
vs. gamma-ray logs, A4:77
gas hydrates, geochemistry, B13:5–6
gases, headspace, geochemistry, B13:4
gases, sediments, A9:17–18
Gauss/Matuyama boundary, sediments, A6:9
geochemistry
changes in time, B12:4–5
sediments, B12:1–25
geochemistry, inorganic
Site 1143, A4:20–23
Site 1144, A5:17–19
Site 1145, A6:13–15
Site 1146, A7:17–19
Site 1147, A8:7–9
Site 1148, A9:21–23
upper Pliocene, B12:25
geochemistry, organic
Site 1143, A4:18–20
Site 1144, A5:13–17
Site 1145, A6:11–13
Site 1146, A7:14–17
Site 1147, A8:7
Site 1148, A9:16–21
geochronology, foraminifer datums, B11:3–4
geothermal gradient
hydrocarbons, A1:32
sediments, A6:17; A7:22; A9:26
glaciation
alkenone stratigraphy, B17:1–17
clay geochemistry, B12:5–7
foraminifer datums, B11:4–5
oxygen isotopes, B4:1–8
paleoceanography, A1:9
paleoclimatology, B19:7–8
stratigraphy, B2:6–14
glauconite, green clay, B15:4
glauconitization, green clay, B15:4–8
global climate, Asian monsoon system, A1:1–77
Globigerina bulloides, vs. age, A1:48
Globigerinoides ruber, stable isotope stratigraphy, B2:1–29; B3:1–8; B19:14–15, 18–21
Globorotalia inflata. See Globorotalia menardii/Globorotalia inflata ratio
Globorotalia menardii/Globorotalia inflata ratio, vs. depth, A5:45
grain size
coercivity remanence/coercivity ratio, B1:4
green clay, B15:4, 20–21
sediments, B19:4–5
siliciclastics, B19:8–9
standard deviation values vs. grain size class, B19:17
volume percent of each grain size class of interglacial and glacial samples, B19:16
vs. age, B19:15
grain size, mean, vs. age, B19:21
Great Asian Bank, paleoceanography, A1:8–10
Great Australian Bank, paleoceanography, A1:8–10
Greenland ice core GISP2, oxygen isotopes, B2:23
gypsum, paleoclimatology, A1:6–7

H

halite, paleoclimatology, A1:6–7
haptophyte algae, sediments, B18:5
heat flow, sediments, A4:26; A5:22; A6:17; A7:22; A9:26
Heinrich events, stratigraphy, B2:6–10
hemipelagic material
paleoenvironment, A1:30–31
sediments, A1:8
hiatuses, stratigraphy, B2:9–10
Himalayan–Tibetan orography, evolution, A1:4–7
Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau Complex, evolution, A1:5–7
Holocene
oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:5
See also Miocene–Holocene interval
Holocene/Preboreal summer monsoon maximum, paleoceanography, A1:9
humic material, carbon isotopes, B20:6–7, 13
hydrocarbons
geothermal gradient, A1:32
sediments, A5:14–15; A7:14–15; A9:17–18
vs. depth, A9:66
hydrocarbons, headspace, vs. depth, A7:54
hydrocarbons, volatile, sediments, A4:18
hydrogen index
organic matter, A5:16; A9:20–21
sediments, A5:88; A6:61; A7:95; A9:116
vs. oxygen index, A9:67
hydrogen isotopes, pore water, B13:11
hysteresis, saturation magnetization, B1:3–4

I

illite
nannofossil clay, B14:2
paleoclimatic cyclicity, B22:3–4
paleoclimatology, B19:6–7
reflectance, B22:9
sediments, B19:5
vs. age, B19:18
vs. depth, A5:40; A6:31; A7:44; A9:60; B14:5–6
See also smectite–illite mixed minerals; smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio
illite/quartz ratio
nannofossil clay, B14:2
vs. depth, B14:7
impedance, acoustical
reflectors, A2:3
vs. seismic stratigraphy, A2:16, 21, 29, 35
iron, ferric, green clay, B15:4–5, 20–21
iron oxide
clay geochemistry, B12:10
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B12:24; B19:19
iron sulfide
green clay, B15:4–7
lithologic units, A9:6–7
vs. depth, A7:45; A8:15; A9:52
iron sulfide, dispersed, vs. depth, A5:41

J

Jaramillo Subchron, sediments, A1:23; A6:10; A7:13; A8:6; A9:15

K

kaolinite
lithologic units, A7:10
nannofossil clay, B14:2
paleoclimatic cyclicity, B22:3–4
paleoclimatology, B19:7
reflectance, B22:9
sediments, B19:5
vs. age, B19:18
vs. depth, A7:44; A9:60; B14:5–6
kaolinite/chlorite ratio
nannofossil clay, B14:2
vs. depth, B14:7
kaolinite/quartz ratio, vs. depth, B14:7
kerogen, sediments, A4:96–99
Kuroshio Current
paleoceanography, A1:9
paleoclimatology, A1:14

L

laminations
lithologic units, A4:10; A9:8
photograph, A9:59
Laschamp Event, sediments, A1:19
Last Glacial Maximum
oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:5
paleoceanography, A1:8–10
leaf wax, sediments, B18:4
lightness
carbonate-rich clay, A6:6–7; A7:80; A8:35; A9:93–96; B9:21
lithologic units, A7:9
vs. age, B19:21
vs. depth, A4:41–43, 66; A6:27, 43; A7:43, 62; A8:15; A9:51, 53
vs. Formation MicroScanner imagery, A4:79
See also reflectance
lipids, biomarkers, B18:5–6
lipids, marine and terrigenous, sediments, B18:1–16
lithium
pore water, A4:22–23; A5:19; A6:14; A7:19; A8:8–9; A9:23; B13:3, 11
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
lithologic units
Site 1143, A4:8–11
Site 1144, A5:6–9
Site 1145, A6:4
Site 1146, A7:5–10
Site 1147, A8:3–4
Site 1148, A9:5–11
Unit I, A4:8–10; A5:6–7; A6:4–7; A7:5–7; A8:3–4; A9:6–7
Unit II, A7:7–8; A9:7
Unit III, A7:8–9; A9:8
Unit IV, A9:8
Unit V, A9:8–9
Unit VI, A9:9–10
Unit VII, A9:10–11
vs. age, A1:66
lithology
paleoenvironment, A1:30–31
vs. depth, A1:55–56, 58, 60, 62, 64–65; A4:44; A5:39; A6:27; A7:43; A8:15; A9:52
lithostratigraphy
Site 1143, A4:8–11
Site 1144, A5:6–9
Site 1145, A6:4–7
Site 1146, A7:5–10
Site 1147, A8:3–4
Site 1148, A9:5–12; B9:22
Liyue Bank, sediments, A1:7–8
Luzon Arc, tectonics, A1:4

M

magnesium
pore water, A4:22; A5:18; A6:14; A7:18–19; A8:8; A9:22
vs. calcium, A4:22, 59; A9:69
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
magnesium/aluminum ratio, nannofossil clay, B12:6–7
magnesium oxide
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B19:19
magnetic anomalies, plate tectonics, A1:4
magnetic declination
sediments, A4:51
vs. depth, A4:53–54; A5:47–48; A6:34; A7:50–52; A8:18–20; A9:62–63
magnetic field, vs. depth, A5:70; A7:70; A9:82–83
magnetic inclination, vs. depth, A4:53–55; A5:47–48; A6:34; A7:50–52; A8:18–20; A9:62–63
magnetic intensity, vs. depth, A5:46
magnetic intensity/magnetic susceptibility ratio, vs. depth, A5:50
magnetic polarity
age vs. depth, A6:58; A7:88; A8:40; A9:108
remanent magnetization, A5:11–13
magnetic properties, sediments, B1:1–8
magnetic reversals, remanent magnetization, A5:11–13
magnetic susceptibility
correlation, A4:32–34; A5:5, 27–29; A6:3, 19–20; A7:27–30; A8:3, 11; A9:5, 31–35
paleoceanographic proxies, A1:13
sediments, A4:25; B1:2–3
vs. depth, A1:55–56, 58, 60, 62, 64–65; A4:64; A5:46, 60; A6:40; A7:57; A8:24
See also magnetic intensity/magnetic susceptibility ratio
magnetic susceptibility logs, vs. depth, A1:75; A5:72; A7:67, 69; A9:80, 84–85
magnetization, normalized, sediments, A5:12–13
major elements
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B12:20–21; B19:19
manganese, clay geochemistry, B12:10
manganese/aluminum ratio
clay geochemistry, B12:10
vs. age, B12:24
marine isotope stages
foraminifers, B9:8–9
oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:5–10; B19:14–15, 18–21
position, B11:20
marine isotope Stages 2–5, oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:5–8
marine isotope Stages 6–11, oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:8–9
marine isotope Stages 12–25, oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:9
marine isotope Stages 26–(?)34, oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:9–10
"maritime continent," paleoceanography, A1:8–10
mass accumulation rates
age vs. depth models, A5:83
biogenic opal, B21:2–3
planktonic foraminifers, B8:7–8
sedimentation, A1:37–38
Site 1143, A4:17–18
Site 1144, A5:13
Site 1145, A6:10
Site 1146, A7:13–14
Site 1147, A8:7
Site 1148, A9:16
vs. age, B8:36–37; B16:8; B19:14; B21:7
vs. depth, A1:6, 55–56, 58, 60, 62, 64–65; A9:70; B1:6
vs. linear sedimentation rates, A4:56; A5:51; A6:36; A7:53; A8:21; A9:64
mass accumulation rates, carbonate
vs. age, B21:7
vs. linear sedimentation rates, A1:71–72
mass accumulation rates, total
vs. age, A1:71–72
vs. linear sedimentation rates, A1:71–72
mass flows, lithologic units, A9:11
Matuyama Chron. See Brunhes/Matuyama boundary; Gauss/Matuyama boundary
medium resistivity logs, vs. depth, A4:74, 78; A5:68–69; A7:67; A9:80
Mekong River, sediments, A1:8
methane
carbon isotopes, B13:4, 15
sediments, A1:24–25, 29; A4:18; A5:14–15, 84; A7:14–15, 90–91; A9:17–18, 110–112; B13:4
vs. depth, A1:69; A5:52; B13:12
methane/ethane ratio
sediments, A5:14–15; A7:14–15, 90–91; B13:4
vs. depth, A7:54; A9:66
methane/(ethane + propane) ratio, vs. carbon isotopes of methane, B13:13
methyl ketones, sediments, B18:5, 9
microalgae, sediments, B18:3–5
microfaults, lithologic units, A4:10
microtektites, stratigraphy, B2:9
Mid-Pleistocene Revolution, foraminifer datums, B11:4–5
millenial variations
monsoon, A1:12
stratigraphy, B2:6–7
Mindanao Warm Current, paleoclimatology, A1:14
mineralogy, bulk
green clay, B15:20–21
lithologic units, A5:7–9
sediments, B19:5
vs. depth, A5:40; A7:44; A9:60
mineralogy, nannofossil clay, B14:1–10
Miocene
biostratigraphy, A7:10–12; A9:12–14
mass accumulation rates, B8:7–8
nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:7–8
paleoclimatology, A1:7, 15–18
planktonic foraminifer distribution, B9:23
planktonic foraminifer ranges, B9:16
planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, B8:1–43; B9:1–26
sedimentation rates, A7:14; A9:16; B10:10
zonal boundaries, B9:25
See also Oligocene/Miocene boundary; Oligocene–Miocene interval; Oligocene–Miocene transition
Miocene, lower
dinoflagellate biostratigraphy, B7:1–29
green clay layers, B7:1–29
lithologic units, A7:8–9; A9:9–10
sedimentation, A1:34–35
siderite concretions, B13:5
Miocene, middle
lithologic units, A7:7–9; A9:7–8
sedimentation, A1:35
Miocene, upper
biogenic opal, B21:1–12
lithologic units, A4:8–10; A9:6–7
nannofossils, A4:11–13
sediment mineralogy, B14:1–10
sedimentation, A1:35–36
Miocene/Pliocene boundary
foraminifer datums, B9:6
nannofossils, B10:9
Miocene–Holocene interval, summary, A1:15–18
Miocene–Pleistocene interval, summary, A1:22–25
Miocene–Pliocene interval, reticulofenestrids, A1:12
mixed-layer clays, vs. depth, A9:60
monsoon
evolution, A1:4–7, 45, 51; B2:23
global climate, A1:1–77
millenial-scale variability, A1:12
nannofossil clay, B12:4–11
Neogene, A1:12
paleoceanographic proxies, A1:13
stages, A1:49
monsoon, summer, evolution, A1:10
monsoon, winter, evolution, A1:10–11
Monterey carbon positive excursion, stable isotope stratigraphy, B5:2
mottling
carbonate-rich clay, A6:6–7
lithologic units, A4:9–10; A5:7–9; A8:4
mudline, lithologic units, A6:4
muscovite, iron-rich, green clay, B15:14

N

n-alcohols, long-chain
sediments, B18:4, 9
vs. depth, B18:11–12
n-alkanes, long-chain
sediments, B18:3, 9–10
vs. depth, B18:11–12
n-fatty acids, long-chain, vs. depth, B18:11–12
nannofossil events, depths and ages, B10:23–24
nannofossils
abundance around NP25/NN1 zonal boundary, B10:19
chronostratigraphy, B10:16–17
lithologic units, A4:8–10; A5:6–9; A7:5–9; A8:3–4; A9:6–11; B10:1–24
paleoenvironment, A1:30–31
photograph, A9:59
vs. depth, A5:41, 44; A8:16
zonal correlation, B10:18
nannofossils, calcareous
biostratigraphy, A4:11–13; A5:9–10; A6:7; A7:10; A8:4–5; A9:12
checklist, A4:91–92; A5:81; A6:56; A7:84–85; A8:38; A9:100–104
Nansha Terrain, tectonics, A1:4
Neogene
alkenone stratigraphy, B17:1–17
diatoms, B6:1–9
monsoon, A1:12
paleoclimatology, A1:7
sediments, A1:24–25
stable isotope stratigraphy, B3:3; B4:1–8; B5:1–12
neotectonics, green clay, B15:16
nickel
clay geochemistry, B12:10
green clay, B15:6–7
nickel/aluminum ratio, vs. age, B12:24
nitrogen. See carbon/nitrogen ratio
nitrogen, total
sediments, A4:96–99; A5:85–87; A6:60; A7:92–94; A8:7, 42; A9:19–20, 113–115
vs. total organic carbon, A5:55
North Atlantic climate change, paleoceanography, A1:9

O

Oeschger Events. See Dansgaard–Oeschger Events
Olduvai Subchron, sediments, A1:23; A6:9; A7:13; A9:15
Oligocene
biostratigraphy, A9:12–14
dinoflagellate biostratigraphy, B7:1–29
paleoclimatology, A1:6–7
planktonic foraminifer distribution, B9:15
planktonic foraminifer ranges, B9:17
planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, B9:1–26
sedimentation, A1:33–34
sedimentation rates, A9:16; B10:10
unconformities, B9:18
Oligocene, lower
lithologic units, A9:10–11
nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:5–7
Oligocene, upper, lithologic units, A9:9–10
Oligocene/Miocene boundary
dinoflagellates, B7:7–8
nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:6–7
nannofossil marker species, B10:20
sedimentation, A1:34
Oligocene–Miocene interval, paleoceanography, B9:8–9
Oligocene–Miocene transition, unconformities, B10:10
ooze, bluish green pyrite-rich nannofossil, lithologic units, A7:8
ooze, clayey nannofossil, lithologic units, A7:5–9
ooze, foraminifer, lithologic units, A4:8–10
ooze, lithologic units, A6:4–5
ooze, nannofossil, lithologic units, A9:8
opal, biogenic
mass accumulation rates, B21:2–3, 7
upper Miocene–Quaternary, B21:1–12
vs. age, B21:7
opal, sediments, A1:8
organic matter
carbon isotopes, B20:1–13
carbon/nitrogen ratio, A5:16; A6:12–13; A7:16; A9:20–21
green clay, B15:5–8
paleoenvironment, A1:31
overprints, magnetization, A4:17
oxygen index
organic matter, A5:16
sediments, A5:88; A6:61; A7:95; A9:116
vs. hydrogen index, A9:67
oxygen isotope stage boundary 2/1, organic carbon, A5:15
oxygen isotope stage boundary 6/5e, organic carbon, A5:15
oxygen isotopes
biomediation, B12:9
chronostratigraphy, B2:4–10
foraminifers, B3:1–8; B4:1–8
Globigerinoides ruber, B2:1–29
pore water, B13:4
vs. age, B2:23–24; B3:6; B4:5; B5:6–7; B11:14, 18; B12:19, 22–23; B15:16; B17:15; B19:14–15
vs. depth, B2:21; B3:5; B4:6; B5:5; B9:21; B13:11
paleoceanographic proxies, monsoon, A1:13
paleoceanography
Oligocene–Miocene, B9:8–9
sediments, A1:8–10
Paleocene, paleoclimatology, A1:6–7
paleoclimatic cyclicity, Pleistocene, B22:1–10
paleoclimatology
alkenone stratigraphy, B17:1–17
biomarkers, B18:5–6
bulk and clay mineralogy, B19:6–9
comparison of Northern and Southern South China Sea, B11:8
evolution, A1:4–7, 51
planktonic foraminifers, B11:1–21
Quaternary, B2:13–15
paleoenvironment, sedimentation, A1:29–37; B15:1–23
Paleogene. See Cretaceous–Paleocene sequence
paleomagnetism
Site 1143, A4:15–17
Site 1144, A5:11–13
Site 1145, A6:8–10
Site 1146, A7:12–13
Site 1147, A8:5–6
Site 1148, A9:15
paleoproductivity
mass accumulation rates, B21:3
sediments, B18:5–6
See also productivity
Paralia sulcata, vs. depth, B6:7
paramagnetic minerals, magnetic susceptibility, B1:2–3
Pearl River, sediments, A1:8; B19:6
Pearl River Mouth Basin
sediments, A1:7–8
stratigraphy, A1:50
pellets, fecal, photograph, A6:28
pentane, sediments, A9:18, 110–112
petroleum, organic matter, A9:20–21
pH
pore water, A4:21; A5:18; A6:13–14; A7:18; A8:8; A9:22
vs. depth, A7:56
Philippine Sea Plate, collision, A1:4
phosphate
pore water, A4:21; A5:18; A6:13–14; A7:18; A8:8; A9:22
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
phosphorus, authigenic, green clay, B15:4–5, 20–21
phosphorus, detrital, green clay, B15:4–5
phosphorus, iron-bound, green clay, B15:4–5, 20–21
phosphorus, organic-bound, green clay, B15:4–5
phosphorus/aluminum ratio
biomediation, B12:9–10
vs. age, B12:23
photoelectric effect logs, vs. depth, A1:75; A4:78; A5:72; A7:69; A9:84–85
physical properties
Site 1143, A4:23–26
Site 1144, A5:19–22
Site 1145, A6:15–17
Site 1146, A7:19–22
Site 1147, A8:9
Site 1148, A9:23–26
physical properties unit interval 1, sediments, A7:20; A9:24
physical properties unit interval 2, sediments, A7:20; A9:24
physical properties unit interval 3, sediments, A7:20–21; A9:24–25
physical properties unit interval 4, sediments, A7:21; A9:25
physical properties unit interval 5, sediments, A7:21–22; A9:25
physical properties unit interval 6, sediments, A9:25
physical properties unit interval 7, sediments, A9:25
physical properties unit interval 8, sediments, A9:25
plagioclase
green clay, B15:4
lithologic units, A9:11
nannofossil clay, B14:2
vs. depth, A5:40; A6:31; A7:44; A9:60; B14:5–6
Planolites, lithologic units, A9:8–11
plate tectonics, seafloor spreading, A1:4
plateaus, evolution, A1:5–7
Pleistocene
biostratigraphy, A5:9–11; A8:4–5; A9:12–14
green clay layers, B15:1–23
lithologic units, A4:8–10; A5:6–9; A7:5–7; A8:3–4; A9:6–7
nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:9–10
paleoclimatic cyclicity, B22:1–10
sediment mineralogy, B14:1–10
sedimentation, A1:36–37
sedimentation rates, A5:13; A7:14; A9:16; B10:10
sediments, A1:18–20; B19:1–21
stable isotope stratigraphy, B2:13–15
See also Mid-Pleistocene Revolution; Miocene– Holocene interval; Miocene–Pleistocene interval; Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary
Pleistocene, middle, paleoclimatology, B11:1–21
Pliocene
biogenic opal, B21:1–12
biostratigraphy, A7:10–12; A9:12–14
lithologic units, A4:8–10; A9:6–7
nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:8–9
nannofossils, A4:11–13
sediment mineralogy, B14:1–10
sedimentation, A1:36–37
sedimentation rates, A7:14; A9:16; B10:10
sediments, A1:21; B12:1–25
See also Miocene–Holocene interval; Miocene–Pleistocene interval; Miocene/Pliocene boundary; Miocene–Pliocene interval
Pliocene, upper
biostratigraphy, A6:7–8
diatoms, B6:1–9
green clay layers, B15:1–23
inorganic geochemistry, B12:25
lithologic units, A6:4–7; A7:5–7
Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary
biostratigraphy, A9:14
nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:9
nannofossils, A4:12
paleoclimatology, A1:15–18
pore water
geochemistry, A1:31–32; A4:100; A5:92–93; A6:62; A7:96; A8:42; A9:117; B13:1–15
salinity, B13:5–6
porosity
green clay, B15:20–21
sediments, A4:23–24; A5:20–21; A6:15–16
vs. depth, A1:56, 58, 60, 62, 64–65; A4:63; A5:62; A6:42; A7:61; A8:27; A9:73
porosity logs
vs. bulk density logs, A5:70
vs. depth, A4:73–74; A5:68–69; A7:67, 70; A9:80, 82–83
potassium
pore water, A4:21–22; A5:18; A6:14; A7:18–19; A8:8; A9:23
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
See also aluminum/potassium ratio
potassium/aluminum ratio
nannofossil clay, B12:6–7
vs. age, B12:21
potassium feldspar, green clay, B15:4
potassium logs, vs. depth, A4:75; A5:71; A7:68; A9:81
potassium oxide
nannofossil clay, B12:5
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B12:20; B19:19
See also silica/potassium oxide ratio
potassium oxide/aluminum oxide ratio
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B19:20
Preboreal summer monsoon maximum. See Holocene/Preboreal summer monsoon maximum
precession, forcing, A1:11
preservation
planktonic foraminifers, B9:4–5
vs. depth, A8:16
production index, sediments, A5:88; A6:61; A7:95; A9:116
productivity
biomediation, B12:8–10
diatoms, B6:1–9
See also paleoproductivity
propane
carbon isotopes, B13:15
sediments, A7:90–91; A9:17–18, 110–112; B13:4
vs. depth, B13:12
See also methane/(ethane + propane) ratio
provenance
nannofossil clay, B12:6–7
sediments, B19:6
Pseudoemiliania lacunosa, vs. depth, A5:44
pteropods, lithologic units, A6:5; A7:5–9
pteropods/planktonic foraminifers ratio, vs. depth, A5:45; A6:33
pyrite
green clay, B15:4–7
lithologic units, A5:7–9; A6:5; A7:6, 8; A8:4; A9:6–7, 10–11
photograph, A6:28; A7:47
vs. depth, A7:45; A8:15; A9:52
pyrite, macrocrystalline, vs. depth, A5:41

Q

quartz
chemical index of alteration, B19:7–8
green clay, B15:4
lithologic units, A8:3–4; A9:6–7, 11
nannofossil clay, B14:2
paleoclimatology, B19:6–7
sediments, B19:5
vs. age, B19:18, 21
vs. depth, A5:40; A6:31; A7:44; A9:60; B14:5–6
See also calcium oxide–quartz–clay minerals; chlorite/quartz ratio; illite/quartz ratio; kaolinite/quartz ratio; smectite/quartz ratio
Quaternary
biogenic opal, B21:1–12
biostratigraphy, A6:7–8; A7:10–12
diatoms, B6:1–9
lithologic units, A6:4–7
nannofossils, A4:11–13
paleoceanography, A1:9
paleoclimatology, B2:13–15
sediments, A1:20–22
See also Miocene–Holocene interval

R

radiolarians, lithologic units, A6:4; A7:6
red parameter, vs. depth, A6:27; A7:43; A8:15; A9:51; B9:21
Red River, sediments, A1:8
Red River fault zone, tectonics, A1:4
redox, clay geochemistry, B12:10, 24
reduction
green clay, B15:5–8
pore water, A6:13–14
Reed Bank
sediments, A1:7–8
See also Liyue Bank
reflectance
clay mineralogy, B22:9
correlation, A4:41–43; A5:36–38; A6:25–26; A7:39–42; A8:14; A9:46–50; B22:9
intervals of lighter colored sediments, A6:53
paleoceanographic proxies, A1:13
sediments, A4:25; A5:21; A6:16
vs. depth, A1:55–56, 58, 60, 62, 64–65; A4:66; A5:63; A6:43; A7:62; A8:28; A9:53, 74
See also lightness
reflectors
impedance, A2:3
sediments, A1:7–8; A2:1–37
remanence ratio, vs. depth, B1:7
remanent magnetization, anhysteretic
sediments, B1:3
vs. depth, B1:6
remanent magnetization, natural, sediments, A4:15–17; A5:11–13; A6:8–10; A7:12–13; A8:5–6; A9:15
remanent magnetization, saturation, vs. depth, B1:7
remanent magnetization, saturation/saturation magnetization ratio, vs. depth, B1:7
resistivity, Formation MicroScanner imagery, A5:73; A7:71; A9:86
resistivity logs
vs. depth, A4:73–74; A5:68–69; A7:67; A9:80
See also deep resistivity logs; medium resistivity logs
Reticulofenestra asanoi, vs. depth, A5:44
reticulofenestrids, Miocene/Pliocene sequence, A1:12
reworking, green clay, B15:7–8
rifting, lithologic units, A9:11
rubidium/aluminum ratio
nannofossil clay, B12:7
vs. age, B12:21
runoff
nannofossil clay, B12:7
vs. age, A1:48
Rupelian, dinoflagellates, B7:7–8

S

Sahul Bank, paleoceanography, A1:8–10
salinity
pore water, A4:20; A5:17–18; A6:13; A7:17–18; A8:8; A9:21–22; B13:4–6, 11
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
sandstone, photograph, A9:59
saturation magnetization
hysteresis, B1:3–4
vs. depth, B1:7
seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, A1:4
sea-level changes
clay geochemistry, B12:7
green clay, B15:16
lithologic units, A9:11
sediment flux, vs. age, A1:48
sedimentation
history, A1:32–37
paleoenvironment, A1:29–37
summary, A1:25–29
sedimentation rates
age vs. depth, A6:59; A7:89; A8:41; A9:109
age vs. depth models, A4:94; A5:83
biogenic opal, B21:3
biostratigraphy, A4:17–18; A6:8; A7:12; A8:7; A9:14; B2:10–11
chronostratigraphy, A5:13
Miocene, B10:10
Oligocene, B10:10
planktonic foraminifers, B8:7–8
Pleistocene, A5:13; B10:10
Pliocene, B10:10
Site 1143, A4:17–18
Site 1144, A5:13; B2:10–11, 25
Site 1145, A6:10
Site 1146, A7:13–14
Site 1147, A8:7
Site 1148, A9:16
vs. depth, B10:21
sedimentation rates, linear
vs. carbonate mass accumulation rates, A1:71–72
vs. mass accumulation rates, A4:56; A5:51; A6:36; A7:53; A8:21; A9:64
vs. total mass accumulation rates, A1:71–72
sediments
basins, A1:7–8
clay and bulk mineralogy, B19:5
geochemistry, B12:1–25
magnetic properties, B1:1–8
mineralogy, B14:1–10
Pleistocene, B19:1–21
stable isotope stratigraphy, B4:1–8
thickness, A4:95
vs. depth, A4:44
seismic profiles
Site 1143, A1:54; A2:12–16
Site 1144, A1:57; A2:18–20
Site 1145, A1:59; A2:22–23
Site 1146, A1:61; A2:24–28
Site 1147, A1:63; A2:31–34
Site 1148, A1:63; A2:30–34
seismic reflection, summary, A2:1–37
seismic stratigraphy
Site 1143, A2:4–5
Site 1144, A2:5–6
Site 1145, A2:6–7
Site 1146, A2:7–8
Site 1147, A2:8–9
Site 1148, A2:8–9
summary, A2:1–37
vs. acoustical impedance, A2:16, 21, 29, 35
shelf basins, tectonics, A1:4
shell fragments, lithologic units, A6:5
siderite, authigenic, concretion geochemistry, B13:1–15
silica
nannofossil clay, B12:1–25
pore water, A1:31–32; A4:21–22; A5:19; A6:14–15; A7:19; A8:8–9; A9:23
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B12:19–20; B19:19
vs. depth, A1:67; A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
silica, biogenic
lithologic units, A6:5
vs. depth, A9:51
silica, opaline, ternary diagram, B12:17
silica/aluminum oxide ratio
chemical index of alteration, B19:7–8
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B19:20–21
silica/potassium oxide ratio
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B19:20
siliceous microfossils, vs. depth, A5:45; A6:33
siliceous organisms, vs. depth, A5:41
siliciclastics
grain size, B19:8–9
lithologic units, A6:5–6
Pleistocene, B19:4–5
silicoflagellates, lithologic units, A6:5; A7:6
silicon/aluminum ratio
nannofossil clay, B12:5
vs. age, B12:20
silt, nodular, lithologic units, A6:6
silt, quartz, lithologic units, A5:6–9
silt fraction, siliciclastics, B19:8–9
Site 849, oxygen isotopes, B15:16
Site 1143, A4:1–103
background and objectives, A4:1–2
biogenic opal, B21:1–12
biostratigraphy, A4:11–14
carbonate and organic carbon, B16:1–9
composite depth, A4:84
composite section, A4:6–7
coring summary, A4:81–83
diatoms, B6:1–9
foraminiferal biostratigraphy, B8:1–43
inorganic geochemistry, A4:20–23
interval length between green clay events, B15:16
lithostratigraphy, A4:8–11
operations, A4:3–6
organic geochemistry, A4:18–20
organic matter carbon isotopes, B20:1–13
paleomagnetism, A4:15–17
physical properties, A4:23–26
sediment geochemistry, B12:1–25
sedimentation and accumulation rates, A4:17–18
seismic stratigraphy, A2:4–5
site description, A4:1–103
splice tie points, A4:85
summary, A1:15–18
wireline logging, A4:26–29
Site 1144, A5:1–97
background and objectives, A5:1–3
biostratigraphy, A5:9–11
composite depths, A5:77
composite section, A5:4–6
coring summary, A5:74–76
high-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy, B2:1–29
inorganic geochemistry, A5:17–19
lithostratigraphy, A5:6–9
magnetic properties, B1:1–8
operations, A5:3–4
organic geochemistry, A5:13–17
organic matter carbon isotopes, B20:1–13
paleomagnetism, A5:11–13
physical properties, A5:19–22
planktonic foraminifers, B11:1–21
sedimentation and accumulation rates, A5:13
sediments, B19:1–21
seismic stratigraphy, A2:5–6
site description, A5:1–97
splice tie points, A5:78
summary, A1:18–20
wireline logging, A5:22–24
Site 1145, A6:1–63
background and objectives, A6:1–2
biostratigraphy, A6:7–8
composite depths, A6:51
composite section, A6:3–4
coring summary, A6:48–50
inorganic geochemistry, A6:13–15
interval length between green clay events, B15:16
lithostratigraphy, A6:4–7
operations, A6:2–3
organic geochemistry, A6:11–13
paleomagnetism, A6:8–10
physical properties, A6:15–17
sedimentation and accumulation rates, A6:10
seismic stratigraphy, A2:6–7
site description, A6:1–63
splice tie points, A6:52
summary, A1:20–22
Site 1146, A7:1–101
background and objectives, A7:1–2
biostratigraphy, A7:10–12
calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:1–24
carbonate and organic carbon, B16:1–9
composite depths, A7:76–77
composite section, A7:4–5
coring summary, A7:72–75
foraminiferal biostratigraphy, B8:1–43
inorganic geochemistry, A7:17–19
interval length between green clay events, B15:16
lithostratigraphy, A7:5–10
Miocene–Pleistocene sediment mineralogy, B14:1–10
operations, A7:3–4
organic geochemistry, A7:14–17
organic matter carbon isotopes, B20:1–13
paleomagnetism, A7:12–13
physical properties, A7:19–22
Pleistocene paleoclimatic cyclicity, B22:1–10
pore water geochemistry, B13:1–15
sedimentation and accumulation rates, A7:13–14
seismic stratigraphy, A2:7–8
site description, A7:1–101
splice tie points, A7:78–79
stable isotope stratigraphy, B3:1–8
summary, A1:22–25
wireline logging, A7:22–25
Site 1147, A8:1–43
alkenone stratigraphy, B17:1–17
background and objectives, A8:1
biostratigraphy, A8:4–5
calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:1–24
composite depths, A8:33
composite section, A8:2–3
coring summary, A8:31–32
inorganic geochemistry, A8:7–9
lithostratigraphy, A8:3–4
operations, A8:2
organic geochemistry, A8:7
paleomagnetism, A8:5–6
physical properties, A8:9
sedimentation and accumulation rates, A8:7
seismic stratigraphy, A2:8–9
site description, A8:1–43
splice tie points, A8:34
stable isotope stratigraphy, B5:1–12
summary, A1:25–29
Site 1148, A9:1–122
alkenone stratigraphy, B17:1–17
background and objectives, A9:1–3
biostratigraphy, A9:12–14; B9:20
calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, B10:1–24
composite depths, A9:91
composite section, A9:5
coring summary, A9:87–90
dinoflagellate stratigraphy, B7:1–29
inorganic geochemistry, A9:21–23
interval length between green clay events, B15:16–17
lithostratigraphy, A9:5–12
marine and terrigenous lipids, B18:1–16
operations, A9:3–4
organic geochemistry, A9:16–21
organic matter carbon isotopes, B20:1–13
paleomagnetism, A9:15
physical properties, A9:23–26
planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy, B9:1–26
sedimentation and accumulation rates, A9:16
seismic stratigraphy, A2:8–9
site description, A9:1–122
splice tie points, A9:92
stable isotope stratigraphy, B5:1–12
summary, A1:25–29
wireline logging, A9:26–29
slumps, lithologic units, A4:9; A9:11
smectite
green clay, B15:4
lithologic units, A7:9
nannofossil clay, B14:2
paleoclimatic cyclicity, B22:3–4
paleoclimatology, B19:7
reflectance, B22:9
sediments, B19:5
vs. age, B19:18
vs. depth, A5:40; A6:31; A7:44; A9:60; B14:5–6
See also chlorite–smectite mixed minerals
smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio
paleoclimatology, B19:7
reflectance, B22:9
sediments, B19:5
vs. age, B19:18
smectite/quartz ratio, vs. depth, B14:7
smectite–illite mixed minerals
green clay, B15:4, 14
paleoclimatic cyclicity, B22:3–4
sodium, pore water, B13:4
sodium oxide
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B19:19
soft sediment deformation, photograph, A9:57
solar radiation, evolution, A1:4–7
South China Sea
global climate, A1:1–77
green clay layers, B15:1–23
splice tie points
Site 1143, A4:6–7, 85
Site 1144, A5:78
Site 1145, A6:52
Site 1146, A7:78–79
Site 1147, A8:34
Site 1148, A9:92
sponge spicules, lithologic units, A5:8–9; A6:4; A7:6
stable isotope stratigraphy, sediments, B2:1–29; B3:1–8; B4:1–8; B5:1–12
stratification, water column, B11:89
stratigraphy
Cenozoic, A1:50
stable isotopes, B3:1–8
stratigraphy, marine, vs. terrestrial stratigraphy, A1:12–13, 48
stratigraphy, terrestrial, vs. marine stratigraphy, A1:12–13, 48
strontium
clay geochemistry, B12:10
green clay, B15:5
pore water, A4:22–23; A5:19; A6:14; A7:19; A8:8–9; A9:23
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
subduction, Borneo, A1:4
submillenial-scale variations, stratigraphy, B2:6–7
subtropical fauna, monsoon, A1:12
sulfate
pore water, A1:31–32; A4:21; A5:17–18; A6:13; A7:18; A8:8; A9:22; B13:11
vs. depth, A4:59; A5:57; A6:38; A7:56; A8:23; A9:68
sulfur, total, sediments, A4:19, 96–99; A5:15–16, 85–87; A6:11, 60; A7:16–17, 92–94; A8:7, 42; A9:20, 113–115
sulfur/carbon ratio, sediments, A9:113–115
Sunda Shelf, paleoceanography, A1:8–10

T

Taiwan Island, tectonics, A1:4
tectonics, Asia E, A1:3–4, 47
temperature
alkenone stratigraphy, B17:1–17
sediments, A8:9
vs. depth, A1:68; A4:70–71; A5:65–66; A6:46–47; A7:64–65; A9:77–78
vs. time, A8:30
temperature, sea-surface
foraminifer datums, B11:4–5
paleoceanography, A1:8–9; B17:11
vs. age, B11:18; B17:13, 15
vs. depth, B18:14
tephra, photograph, A9:54
Termination Event I, organic carbon, A5:15
Termination Event II, organic carbon, A5:15
terrigenous material
composition, A6:6
geochemistry, B12:5–8, 20–21
sedimentation, A1:36–37
sediments, A1:8
Tethys, Cretaceous–Paleocene sequence, A1:3–4
Thalassionema nitzschioides, vs. depth, B6:7
thermal conductivity
sediments, A4:26, 101–102; A5:21, 94–96; A6:16–17, 63; A7:22, 97–100; A9:26, 118–120
vs. bulk density, A4:68
vs. depth, A4:67; A5:64; A6:45; A7:63; A9:76
thermocline, foraminifer datums, B11:7
thorium logs, vs. depth, A4:75; A5:71–72; A7:68–69; A9:81, 84–85
Tibetan Plateau, uplift, A1:3–4
titanium/aluminum ratio
nannofossil clay, B12:5
vs. age, B12:21
titanium oxide
nannofossil clay, B12:5–6
sediments, B19:6
vs. age, B12:20, 22; B19:19
vs. aluminum oxide, B12:18
trace elements
clay geochemistry, B12:10
vs. age, B12:20–21
trans-Himalyan volcanic arc, Cretaceous–Paleocene sequence, A1:3–4
transgression, sedimentation, A1:34–35
tropical fauna, monsoon, A1:12
troposphere, evolution, A1:4–7
turbidite
Formation MicroScanner imagery, A4:80
lithologic units, A4:8–10; A9:8
photograph, A4:49
sedimentation rates, A4:17–18
sediments, A4:87–89
turbidite, carbonate, photograph, A9:55
turbidite, foraminifer
lithologic units, A6:6
photograph, A7:46

U

unconformities
foraminifer datums, B9:7–8
Oligocene, B9:18
Oligocene–Miocene transition, B10:10
photograph, A4:47
uplifts
erosion, A1:11
Tibetan Plateau, A1:3–4
Upper Pacific Deep Water, paleoclimatology, B2:13
upper water stratification, foraminifer datums, B11:7
uranium logs, vs. depth, A4:75; A5:71; A7:68; A9:81
Uvigerina peregrina, stable isotope stratigraphy, B3:1–8; B17:15

V

vanadium/aluminum ratio, vs. age, B12:24
velocity logs
vs. compressional wave velocity, A4:76
vs. depth, A1:74; A4:73–74; A5:68–69; A7:67, 70; A9:80, 82–83
Vietnam, climate, A1:10
volcanic ash
green clay, B15:15
lithologic units, A4:9–10; A5:8; A7:7–8; A8:4; A9:7–8
paleoenvironment, A1:30
photograph, A4:48; A6:30; A7:46
sediments, A4:86; A5:79; A6:54; A7:81; A8:36; A9:97
vs. depth, A5:42
volcaniclastics
green clay, B15:5–8, 15
lithologic units, A6:5–6; A7:7; A8:4

W

warm/cold water ratio, vs. depth, B11:14
water/sediment interface, green clay, B15:6–7
water currents, nannofossil clay, B12:7–8
weathering
nannofossil clay, B12:6
uplifts, A1:11
weathering, chemical
nannofossil clay, B14:2–3
paleoclimatology, B19:7
well-log unit interval 1, sediments, A4:28–29; A7:23–24; A9:27–28
well-log unit interval 2, sediments, A4:29; A7:24; A9:28
well-log unit interval 3, sediments, A7:24; A9:28
well-log unit interval 4, sediments, A7:24–25; A9:28
well-log unit interval 5, sediments, A9:28
well-log unit interval 6, sediments, A9:28–29
well-logging, summary, A4:72, 103; A5:67, 97; A7:66, 101; A9:79, 121
Western Pacific Warm Pool
paleoceanography, A1:8
paleoclimatology, A1:14
wind, evolution, A1:45
wireline logging
Site 1143, A4:26–29
Site 1144, A5:22–24
Site 1146, A7:22–25
Site 1148, A9:26–29
wood fragments
carbon isotopes, B20:6, 13
lithologic units, A6:5
photograph, A6:29

X

X-ray diffraction data, lithologic units, A9:11
xenophyophorians, lithologic units, A7:6
Xisha–Zongsha Terrain, tectonics, A1:4

Y

Yangtze River. See Changjiang River
Younger Dryas, oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy, B2:5

Z

zirconium/aluminum ratio, vs. age, B12:21
zonation
diatoms, B6:6
dinoflagellates, B7:5–9, 23
foraminifer datums, B9:5–6
planktonic foraminifers, B8:3–7, 32
Zone A, biostratigraphy, B7:5–7, 9–10, 26–27
Zone B, biostratigraphy, B7:7–8, 10–12, 23, 26, 28
Zoophycos
lithologic units, A4:9–10; A7:8–9; A9:8–11
photograph, A7:48
sediments, A1:27

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