Figure F25. Schematic diagram showing inferred surface-water circulation of the Australian-Antarctic region during the earliest Oligocene (33 Ma). Plate tectonic reconstruction is modified from Cande et al. (2000). At this time, the Tasmanian Gateway was initially open to deep-water Antarctic circumpolar circulation between the South Tasman Rise and Antarctica. Note that early development of Antarctic circumpolar circulation began to decrease the influence of the East Australian Current on the Antarctic continental margin. N.Z. = New Zealand.