Figure F6. Summary of late Cenozoic 18O climate evolution, major tectonic events, and changes in polar ice volume (modified from Zachos et al., 2001). Studies on orbital-scale climate variability by Steph et al. (this volume), Groeneveld et al. (this volume), Tiedemann et al. (this volume), and Holbourn et al. (2005) considered the highlighted time intervals. Modifications to the figure of Zachos et al. (2001): first occurrence of ash layers at Site 1237 (~9 Ma) and frequency of ash layers according to Mix, Tiedemann, Blum, et al. (2003); uplift of the Andes (Gregory-Wodzicki, 2000), aridification of the Atacama Desert (Hartley, 2003), closure history of the Central American Seaway (CAS, Haug and Tiedemann, 1998); timing for the opening of the Drake Passage (Scher and Martin, 2006). FO = first occurrence.