Abrantes, F., Lopes, C., Mix, A., and Pisias, N., 2007. Diatoms in southeast Pacific surface sediments reflect environmental properties. Quat. Sci. Rev., 26(1–2):155–169. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.02.022

Alley, R.B., Anandakrishnan, S., and Jung, P., 2001. Stochastic resonance in the North Atlantic. Paleoceanography, 16(2):190–198. doi:10.1029/2000PA000518

Anand, P., Elderfield, H., and Conte, M.H., 2003. Calibration of Mg/Ca thermometry in planktonic foraminifera from a sediment trap time series. Paleoceanography, 18(2):1050. doi:10.1029/2002PA000846

Behl, R.J., and Kennett, J.P., 1996. Brief interstadial events in the Santa Barbara Basin, NE Pacific, during the last 60 kyr. Nature (London, U. K.), 379(6562):243–246. doi:10.1038/379243a0

Bemis, B.E., Spero, H.J., Bijma, J., and Lea, D.W., 1998. Reevaluation of the oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera: experimental results and revised paleotemperature equations. Paleoceanography, 13(2):150–160. doi:10.1029/98PA00070

Benway, H.M., Haley, B.A., Klinkhammer, G.P., and Mix, A.C., 2003. Adaptation of a flow-through leaching procedure for Mg/Ca paleothermometry. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 4(2):8403. doi:10.1029/2002GC000312

Benway, H.M., and Mix, A.C., 2004. Oxygen isotopes, upper-ocean salinity, and precipitation sources in the eastern tropical Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 224(3–4):493–507. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.05.014

Benway, H.M., Mix, A.C., Haley, B.A., and Klinkhammer, G.P., 2006. Eastern Pacific warm pool paleosalinity and climate variability: 0–30 kyr. Paleoceanography, 21(3):PA3008. doi:10.1029/2005PA001208

Berger, A., Li, X.S., and Loutre, M.F., 1999. Modeling northern hemisphere ice volume over the last 3 Ma. Quat. Sci. Rev., 18(1):1–11. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(98)00033-X

Berger, W.H., and Jansen, E., 1994. Mid-Pleistocene climate shift: the Nansen connection. In Overland, J.E., Muench, R.D., and Johannessen, O.M. (Eds.), The Polar Oceans and their Role in Shaping the Global Environment. Geophys. Monogr., 85:295–311.

Berger, W.H., and Wefer, G., 1996. Central themes of South Atlantic circulation. In Wefer, G., Berger, W.H., Siedler, G., and Webb, D.J. (Eds.), The South Atlantic: Present and Past Circulation: Berlin (Springer-Verlag), 1–11.

Billups, K., Ravelo, A.C., Zachos, J.C., and Norris, R.D., 1999. Link between oceanic heat transport, thermohaline circulation, and the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the early Pliocene Atlantic. Geology, 27(4):319–322. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0319:LBOHTT>2.3.CO;2

Blunier, T., and Brook, E.J., 2001. Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period. Science, 291(5501):109–112. doi:10.1126/science.291.5501.109

Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M.N., Showers, W., Hoffmann, S., Lotti-Bond, R., Hajdas, I., and Bonani, G., 2001. Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Science, 294:2130–2136. doi:10.1126/science.1065680

Bond, G., Showers, W., Cheseby, M., Lotti, R., Almasi, P., deMenocal, P., Priore, P., Cullen, H., Hajdas, I., and Bonani, G., 1997. A pervasive millenial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science, 278(5341):1257–1266. doi:10.1126/science.278.5341.1257

Broecker, W.S., 2006. Was the Younger Dryas triggered by a flood? Science, 312(5777):1146–1148. doi:10.1126/science.1123253

Cacho, I., Ferretti, P., Pena, L., and Shackleton, N., 2006. Last glacial rapid climate variability in surface water properties from the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Abstr., 8:09817.

Calvo, E., Pelejero, C., Herguera, J.C., Palanques, A., and Grimalt, J.O., 2001. Insolation dependence of the southeastern subtropical Pacific sea surface temperature over the last 400 kyrs. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(12):2481–2484. doi:10.1029/2000GL012024

Cande, S.C., and Kent, D.V., 1995. Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J. Geophys. Res., 100(B4):6093–6095. doi:10.1029/94JB03098

Cane, M.A., and Molnar, P., 2001. Closing of the Indonesian Seaway as a precursor to East African aridification around 3–4 million years ago. Nature (London, U. K.), 411(6834):157–162. doi:10.1038/35075500

Cannariato, K.G., and Ravelo, A.C., 1997. Pliocene–Pleistocene evolution of the eastern tropical Pacific surface water circulation and thermocline depth. Paleoceanography, 12(6):805–820. doi:10.1029/97PA02514

Chaisson, W.P., and Ravelo, A.C., 2000. Pliocene development of the East–West hydrographic gradient in the equatorial Pacific. Paleoceanography, 15(5):497–505. doi:10.1029/1999PA000442

Clark, P.U., Archer, D., Pollard, D., Blum, J.D., Rial, J.A., Brovkin, V., Mix, A.C., Pisias, N.G., and Roy, M., in press. The middle Pleistocene transition: characteristics, mechanisms, and implications for long-term changes in atmospheric pCO2. Quat. Sci. Rev. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.07.008

Clark, P.U., Marshall, S.J., Clarke, G.K.C., Hostetler, S.W., Licciardi, J.M., and Teller, J.T., 2001. Freshwater forcing of abrupt climate change during the last glaciation. Science, 293:283–287. doi:10.1126/science.1062517

Clark, P.U., McCabe, A.M., Mix, A.C., and Weaver, A.J., 2004. Rapid rise of sea level 19,000 years ago and its global implications. Science, 304(5674):1141–1144. doi:10.1126/science.1094449

Clark, P.U., and Mix, A.C., 2002. Ice sheets and sea level of the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21(1–3):1–7. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00118-4

Clark, P.U., and Pollard, D., 1998. Origin of the middle Pleistocene transition by ice sheet erosion of regolith. Paleoceanography, 13(1):1–9. doi:10.1029/97PA02660

Clement, A.C., Seager, R., and Cane, M.A., 1999. Orbital controls on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the tropical climate. Paleoceanography, 14(4):441–456. doi:10.1029/1999PA900013

CLIMAP Project Members, 1981. Seasonal reconstructions of the Earth's surface at the Last Glacial Maximum. Geol. Soc. Am., Map Chart Ser., MC36.

Collins, L.S., Coates, A.G., Berggren, W.A., Aubry, M.-P., and Zhang, J., 1996. The late Miocene Panama isthmian strait. Geology, 24(8):687–690. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1996)024<0687:TLMPIS>2.3.CO;2

Crowley, T.J., Kim, K.-Y., Mengel, J.G., and Short, D.A., 1992. Modeling 100,000-year climate fluctuations in pre-Pleistocene time series. Science, 255(5045):705–707. doi:10.1126/science.255.5045.705

Curry, W.B., Shackleton, N.J., Richter, C., et al., 1995. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 154: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/

De Pol-Holz, R., Ulloa, O., Dezileau, L., Kaiser, J., Lamy, F., and Hebbeln, D., 2006. Melting of the Patagonian ice sheet and deglacial perturbations of the nitrogen cycle in the eastern South Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(4):L04704. doi:10.1029/2005GL024477

Dekens, P.S., Lea, D.W., Pak, D.K., and Spero, H.J., 2002. Core top calibration of Mg/Ca in tropical foraminifera: refining paleotemperature estimation. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 3(4):1022. doi:10.1029/2001GC000200

Dengo, G., 1985. Tectonic setting for the Pacific margin from southern Mexico to northwestern Columbia. In Naim, A.E., Stehli, F.G., and Uyeda, S. (Eds.), The Pacific Ocean: The Ocean Basins and Margins, 7A: New York (Plenum Press), 123–180.

Denton, G.H., Heusser, C.J., Lowell, T.V., Moreno, P.I., Andersen, B.G., Heusser, L.E., Schlüchter, C., and Marchant, D.R., 1999. Interhemispheric linkage of paleoclimate during the last glaciation. Geografiska Annaler, Ser. A: Phys. Geogr., 81(2):107–153. doi:10.1111/j.0435-3676.1999.00055.x

Driscoll, N.W., and Haug, G.H., 1998. A short circuit in thermohaline circulation: a cause for Northern Hemisphere glaciation? Science, 282(5388):436–438. doi:10.1126/science.282.5388.436

Duque-Caro, H., 1990. Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and paleobiogeography in northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama seaway. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 77(3–4):203–234. doi:10.1016/0031-0182(90)90178-A

EPICA Community Members, 2004. Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature (London, U. K.), 429(6992):623–62. doi:10.1038/nature02599

Farrell, J.W., Raffi, I., Janecek, T.C., Murray, D.W., Levitan, M., Dadey, K.A., Emeis, K.-C., Lyle, M., Flores, J.-A., and Hovan, S., 1995. Late Neogene sedimentation patterns in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. In Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 717–756. doi:10.2973/

Feldberg, M.J., and Mix, A.C., 2003. Planktonic foraminifera, sea surface temperatures, and mechanisms of oceanic change in the Peru and south equatorial currents, 0–150 ka BP. Paleoceanography, 18(1):1016. doi:10.1029/2001PA000740

Ganopolski, A., and Rahmstorf, S., 2002. Abrupt glacial climate changes due to stochastic resonance. Phys. Rev. Lett., 88(3):038501. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.038501

Garzione, C.N., Molnar, P., Libarkin, J.C., and MacFadden, B.J., 2006. Rapid late Miocene rise of the Bolivian Altiplano: evidence for removal of mantle lithosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 241(3–4):543–556. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.026

Gildor, H., and Tziperman, E., 2001. A sea ice climate switch mechanism for the 100-kyr glacial cycles. J. Geophys. Res., 106(C5):9117–9134. doi:10.1029/1999JC000120

Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., and Smith, A. (Eds.), 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004: Cambridge (Cambridge Univ. Press).

Gregory-Wodzicki, K.M., 2000. Uplift history of the central and northern Andes: a review. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 112(7):1091–1105. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(2000)112<1091:UHOTCA>2.3.CO;2

Grevemeyer, I., Diaz-Naveas, J.L., Ranero, C.R., Villinger, H.W., and Ocean Drilling Program Leg 202 Scientific Party, 2003. Heat flow over the descending Nazca plate in central Chile, 32°S to 41°S: observations from ODP Leg 202 and the occurrence of natural gas hydrates. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 213(3–4):285–298. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00303-0

Grootes, P.M., and Stuiver, M., 1997. Oxygen 18/16 variability in Greenland snow and ice with 10–3- to 105-year resolution. J. Geophys. Res., 102(C12):26455–26470. doi:10.1029/97JC00880

Gu, D., and Philander, S.G.H., 1997. Interdecadal climate fluctuations that depend on exchanges between the tropics and extratropics. Science, 275(5301):805–807. doi:10.1126/science.275.5301.805

Harris, S.E., and Mix, A.C., 2002. Climate and tectonic influences on continental erosion in tropical South America, 0–13 Ma. Geology, 30(5):447–450. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0447:CATIOC>2.0.CO;2

Hartley, A.J., 2003. Andean uplift and climate change. Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 160:7–10.

Hartley, A.J., and Chong, G., 2002. Late Pliocene age for the Atacama Desert: implications for the desertification of western South America. Geology, 30(1):43–46. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0043:LPAFTA>2.0.CO;2

Haug, G.H., Ganapolski, A., Sigman, D.M., Rosell-Mele, A., Swann, G.E.A., Tiedemann, R., Jaccard, S.L., Bollmann, J., Maslin, M.A., Leng, M.J., and Eglington, G., 2005. North Pacific seasonality and the glaciation of North America 2.7 million years ago. Nature (London, U. K.), 433(7028):821–825. doi:10.1038/nature03332

Haug, G.H., and Tiedemann, R., 1998. Effect of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama on Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. Nature (London, U. K.), 393(6686):673–676. doi:10.1038/31447

Haug, G.H., Tiedemann, R., Zahn, R., and Ravelo, A.C., 2001. Role of Panama uplift on oceanic freshwater balance. Geology, 29(3):207–210. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0207:ROPUOO>2.0.CO;2

Hay, W.W., 1996. Tectonics and climate. Geol. Rundsch., 85(3):409–437. doi:10.1007/s005310050086

Haywood, A.M., Dekens, P., Ravelo, A.C., and Williams, M., 2005. Warmer tropics during the mid-Pliocene? Evidence from alkenone paleothermometry and a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 6(3):1–20. doi:10.1029/2004GC000799

Hendy, I.L., Kennett, J.P., Roark, E.B., and Ingram, B.L., 2002. Apparent synchroneity of submillennial scale climate events between Greenland and Santa Barbara Basin, California from 30–10 ka. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21(10):1167–1184. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00138-X

Heusser, L., Heusser, C., Mix, A., and McManus, J., 2006b. Chilean and southeast Pacific paleoclimate variations during the last glacial cycle: directly-correlated pollen and 18O records from ODP Site 1234. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25(23–24):3404–3415. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.03.011

Heusser, L., Heusser, C., and Pisias, N., 2006a. Vegetation and climate dynamics of southern Chile during the past 50,000 years: results of ODP Site 1233 pollen analysis. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25(5–6):474–485. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.04.009

Holbourn, A., Kuhnt, W., Schulz, M., and Erlenkeuser, H., 2005. Impacts of orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide on Miocene ice-sheet expansion. Nature (London, U. K.), 438(7067):483–487. doi:10.1038/nature04123

Hostetler, S., Pisias, N., and Mix, A., 2006. Sensitivity of Last Glacial Maximum climate to uncertainties in tropical and subtropical ocean temperatures. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25(11–12):1186–1185. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.12.010

Hovan, S.A., and Rea, D.K., 1991. Post-Eocene record of Eolian deposition at ODP Site 752, 754, and 756, eastern Indian Ocean. In Weissel, J., Peirce, J., Taylor, E., Alt, J., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 121: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 219–228. doi:10.2973/

Hulton, N.R.J., Purves, R.S., McCulloch, R.D., Sugden, D.E., and Bentley, M.J., 2002. The Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation in southern South America. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21(1–3):233–241. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00103-2

Imbrie, J., Berger, A., Boyle, E., Clemens, S., Duffy, A., Howard, W., Kukla, G., Kutzbach, J., Martinson, D., McIntyre, A., Mix, A., Molfino, B., Morley, J., Peterson, L., Pisias, N., Prell, W., Raymo, M., Shackleton, N., and Toggweiler, J., 1993. On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles, 2. The 100,000-year cycle. Paleoceanography, 8:699–735.

Imbrie, J., Boyle, E.A., Clemens, S.C., Duffy, A., Howard, W.R., Kukla, G., Kutzbach, J., Martinson, D.G., McIntyre, A., Mix, A.C., Molfino, B., Morley, J.J., Peterson, L.C., Pisias, N.G., Prell, W.L., Raymo, M.E., Shackleton, N.J., and Toggweiler, J.R., 1992. On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles, 1. Linear responses to Milankovitch forcing. Paleoceanography, 7:701–738.

Imbrie, J., and Imbrie, J.Z., 1980. Modeling the climatic response to orbital variations. Science, 207(4434):943–953. doi:10.1126/science.207.4434.943

Imbrie, J., McIntyre, A., and Mix, A., 1989. Oceanic response to orbital forcing in the late Quaternary: observational and experimental strategies. In Berger, A., Schneider, S., and Duplessy, J.C. (Eds.), Climate and the Geosciences: Dordrecht (Kluwer Academic), 121–164.

Jousaumme, S., Sadourny, R., and Vignal, C., 1986. Origin of precipitating water in a numerical simulation of the July climate. Ocean-Air Interact., 1:43–56.

Kaiser, J., 2005. Sea-surface temperature variability in the southeast Pacific during the last glacial–interglacial cycle and relationships to paleoenvironmental changes in central and southern Chile [Ph.D. thesis]. Univ. Bremen.

Kaiser, J., Lamy, F., Arz, H., and Hebbeln, D., in press. Variability of sea surface temperatures off Chile and the dynamics of the Patagonian ice sheet during the last glacial period based on ODP Site 1233. Quat. Int.

Kaiser, J., Lamy, F., and Hebbeln, D., 2005. A 70-kyr sea surface temperature record off southern Chile (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1233). Paleoceanography, 20(4):PA4009. doi:10.1029/2005PA001146

Keigwin, L., 1982. Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and east Pacific: role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time. Science, 217(4557):350–353. doi:10.1126/science.217.4557.350

Knorr, G., and Lohmann, G., 2003. Southern Ocean origin for the resumption of Atlantic thermohaline circulation during deglaciation. Nature (London, U. K.), 424(6948):532–536. doi:10.1038/nature01855

Koutavas, A., Lynch-Steiglitz, J., Marchitto, T.M., Jr., and Sachs, J.P., 2002. El Niño-like pattern in ice age tropical Pacific sea surface temperature. Science, 297(5579):226–230. doi:10.1126/science.1072376

Lamy, F., Hebbeln, D., Röhl, U., and Wefer, G., 2001. Holocene rainfall variability in southern Chile: a marine record of latitudinal shifts of the southern westerlies. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 185(3–4):369–382. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00381-2

Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., and Stoner, J., 2004. Antarctic timing of surface water changes off Chile and Patagonian ice sheet response. Science, 304(5679):1959–1962. doi:10.1126/science.1097863

Laskar, J., Joutel, F., and Boudin, F., 1993. Orbital, precessional, and insolation quantities for the Earth from –20 Myr to +10 Myr. Astron. Astrophys., 270:522–533.

Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A.C.M., and Levrard, B., 2004. A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. Astron. Astrophys., 428(1):261–285. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041335

Lawrence, K.T., Liu, Z., and Herbert, T.D., 2006. Evolution of the eastern tropical Pacific through Plio–Pleistocene glaciation. Science, 312(5770):79–83. doi:10.1126/science.1120395

Lea, D.W., 2004. The 100,000-yr cycle in tropical SST, greenhouse forcing, and climate sensitivity. J. Climatol., 17(11):2170–2179. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2170:TYCITS>2.0.CO;2

Lea, D.W., Pak, D.K., Belanger, C.L., Spero, H.J., Hall, M.A., and Shackleton, N.J., 2006. Paleoclimate history of Galápagos surface waters over the last 135,000 yr. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25(11–12):1152–1167. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.11.010

Lear, C.H., Elderfield, H., and Wilson, P.A., 2000. Cenozoic deep-sea temperatures and global ice volumes from Mg/Ca in benthic foraminiferal calcite. Science, 287(5451):269–272. doi:10.1126/science.287.5451.269

Lee, S.-Y., and Poulsen, C.J., 2005. Tropical Pacific climate response to obliquity forcing in the Pleistocene. Paleoceanography, 20(4):PA4010. doi:10.1029/2005PA001161

Lee, S.-Y., and Poulsen, C.J., 2006. Sea ice control of Plio-Pleistocene tropical Pacific climate evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 248(1–2):253–262. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.05.030

Lisiecki, L.E., and Raymo, M.E., 2005. A Pliocene–Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic 18O records. Paleoceanography, 20(1):PA1003. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071

Liu, Z., and Yang, H., 2003. Extratropical control of tropical climate, the atmospheric bridge and oceanic tunnel. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(5)1230. doi:10.1029/2002GL016492

Lourens, L.J., Hilgen, F.J., Laskar, J., Shackleton, N.J., and Wilson, D., 2004. The Neogene period. In Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J., et al., (Eds.), A Geologic Time Scale 2004: Cambridge (Cambridge Univ. Press)., 409–440.

Lowell, T.V., Heusser, C.J., Andersen, B.G., Moreno, P.I., Hauser, A., Heusser, L.E., Schlüchter, C., Marchant, D.R., and Denton, G.H., 1995. Interhemispheric correlation of late Pleistocene glacial events. Science, 269(5230):1541–1549. doi:10.1126/science.269.5230.1541

Lyle, M., Dadey, K.A., and Farrell, J.W., 1995. The late Miocene (11–8 Ma) eastern Pacific carbonate crash: evidence for reorganization of deep-water circulation by the closure of the Panama Gateway. In Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 821–838. doi:10.2973/

Lynch-Stieglitz, J., 2004. Hemispheric asynchrony of abrupt climate change. Science, 304(5679):1919–1920. doi:10.1126/science.1100374

Maasch, K.A., and Saltzman, B., 1990. A low-order dynamical model of global climatic variability over the full Pleistocene. J. Geophys. Res., 95:1955–1963.

MacAyeal, D., 1993. Binge/purge oscillations of the Laurentide ice sheet as a cause of the North Atlantic's Heinrich events. Paleoceanography, 8(6):775–784.

Maier-Reimer, E., Mikolajewicz, U., and Crowley, T., 1990. Ocean general circulation model sensitivity experiment with an open Central American isthmus. Paleoceanography, 5:349–366.

Marlow, J.R., Lange, C.B., Wefer, G., and Rosell-Melé, A., 2000. Upwelling intensification as part of the Pliocene–Pleistocene climate transition. Science, 290(5500):2288–2291. doi:10.1126/science.290.5500.2288

Martinez, P., Lamy, F., Robinson, R.R., Pichevin, L., and Billy, I., 2006. Atypical 15N variations at the southern boundary of the east Pacific oxygen minimum zone over the last 50 ka. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25(21–22):3017–3028. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.04.009

McClymont, E.L., and Rosell-Melé, A., 2005. Links between the onset of modern Walker circulation and the mid-Pleistocene climate transition. Geology, 33(5):389–392. doi:10.1130/G21292.1

McManus, J.F., Francois, R., Gherardi, J.-M., Keigwin, L.D., and Brown-Leger, S., 2004. Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes. Nature (London, U. K.), 428(6985):834–837. doi:10.1038/nature02494

McManus, J.F., Oppo, D.W., and Cullen, J.L., 1999. A 0.5-million-year record of millennial-scale climate variability in the North Atlantic. Science, 283(5404):971–975. doi:10.1126/science.283.5404.971

Mikolajewicz, U., and Crowley, T.J., 1997. Response of a coupled ocean/energy balance model to restricted flow through the Central American isthmus. Paleoceanography, 12(3):429–442. doi:10.1029/96PA03542

Mix, A.C., 1987. Hundred-kiloyear cycle queried. Nature (London, U. K.), 327(6121):370. doi:10.1038/327370a0

Mix, A.C., Le, J., and Shackleton, N.J., 1995a. Benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphy of Site 846: 0–1.8 Ma. In Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 839–854. doi:10.2973/

Mix, A.C., Lund, D.C., Pisias, N.G., Bodén, P., Bornmalm, L., Lyle, M., and Pike, J., 1999. Rapid climate oscillations in the Northeast Pacific during the last deglaciation reflect Northern and Southern Hemisphere sources. In Webb, R.S., Clark, P.U., and Keigwin, L. (Eds.), Mechanisms of Millennial-scale Global Climate Change. Geophys. Monogr., 112:127–148.

Mix, A.C., Pisias, N.G., Rugh, W., Wilson, J., Morey, A., and Hagelberg, T.K., 1995b. Benthic foraminifer stable isotope record from Site 849 (0–5 Ma): local and global climate changes. In Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 371–412. doi:10.2973/

Mix, A.C., Tiedemann, R., Blum, P., et al., 2003. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 202: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/

Molina-Cruz, A., 1977. The relation of the southern trade winds to upwelling processes during the last 75,000 years. Quat. Res., 8:324–339. doi:10.1016/0033-5894(77)90075-8

Moore, T.C., Jr., 1995. Radiolarian stratigraphy, Leg 138. In Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 191–232. doi:10.2973/

Moreno, P.I., Jacobson, G.L., Jr., Lowell, T.V., and Denton, G.H., 2001. Interhemispheric climate links revealed by a late-glacial cooling episode in southern Chile. Nature (London, U. K.), 409(6822):804–808. doi:10.1038/35057252

Mudelsee, M., and Raymo, M.E., 2005. Slow dynamics of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Paleoceanography, 20(4):PA4022. doi:10.1029/2005PA001153

Mudelsee, M., and Schulz, M., 1997. The mid-Pleistocene climate transition: onset of 100 ka cycle lags ice volume build-up by 280 ka. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 151(1–2):117–123. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(97)00114-3

Müller, P.J., Kirst, G., Ruhland, G., von Storch, I., and Rosell-Melé, A., 1998. Calibration of the alkenone paleotemperature index Uk´37 based on core-tops from the eastern South Atlantic and the global ocean (60°N–60°S). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 62(10):1757–1772. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(98)00097-0

Muller, R.A., and MacDonald, G.J., 1997. Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing. Science, 277(5323):215–218. doi:10.1126/science.277.5323.215

Ninnemann, U.S., Kleiven, H., and Euler, C., 2006. Last glacial rapid climate variability in surface water properties from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Geophys. Res. Abstr., 8:09817.

Nürnberg, D., Müller, A., and Schneider, R.R., 2000. Paleo-sea surface temperature calculations in the equatorial east Atlantic from Mg/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera: a comparison to sea surface temperature estimates from Uk´37, oxygen isotopes, and foraminiferal transfer function. Paleoceanography, 15(1):124–134. doi:10.1029/1999PA000370

Oppo, D.W., McManus, J.F., and Cullen, J.L., 2003. Paleo-oceanography: deepwater variability in the Holocene epoch. Nature (London, U. K.), 422(6929):277–278. doi:10.1038/422277b

Ortiz, J.D., O'Connell, S.B., DelViscio, J., Dean, W., Carriquiry, J.D., Marchitto, T., Zheng, Y., and van Geen, A., 2004. Enhanced marine productivity off western North America during warm climate intervals of the past 52 k.y. Geology, 32(6):521–524. doi:10.1130/G20234.1

Paillard, D., 1998. The timing of Pleistocene glaciations from a simple multiple-state climate model. Nature (London, U. K.), 391(6665):378–381. doi:10.1038/34891

Palmer, M.R., and Pearson, P.N., 2003. A 23,000-year record of surface water pH and PCO2 in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Science, 300(5618):80–482. doi:10.1126/science.1080796

Pena, L.D., Calvo, E., Cacho, I., Eggins, S., and Pelejero, C., 2005. Identification and removal of Mn-Mg-rich contaminant phases on foraminiferal tests: implications for Mg/Ca past temperature reconstructions. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 6(9):Q09P02. doi:10.1029/2005GC000930

Philander, S.G., and Federov, A.V., 2003. Role of tropics in changing the response to Milankovitch forcing some three million years ago. Paleoceanography, 18(2):1045. doi:10.1029/2002PA000837

Pisias, N.G., Heusser, L., Heusser, C., Hostetler, S.W., Mix, A.C., and Weber, M., 2006. Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 50 ka at ODP Site 1233: continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25(5–6):455–473. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.06.009

Pisias, N.G., and Mix, A.C., 1997. Spatial and temporal oceanographic variability of the eastern equatorial Pacific during the late Pleistocene: evidence from radiolaria microfossils. Paleoceanography, 12(3):381–393. doi:10.1029/97PA00583

Pisias, N.G., Mix, A.C., and Zahn, R., 1990. Nonlinear response in the global climate system: evidence from benthic oxygen isotopic record in core RC13-110. Paleoceanography, 5:147–160.

Pisias, N.G., and Moore, T.C., Jr., 1981. The evolution of Pleistocene climate: a time series approach. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 52(2):450–458. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(81)90197-7

Pisias, N.G., and Shackleton, N.J., 1984. Modelling the global climate response to orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes. Nature (London, U. K.), 310(5980):757–759. doi:10.1038/310757a0

Prahl, F.G., Mix, A.C., and Sparrow, M.A., 2006. Alkenone paleothermometry: biological lessons from marine sediment records off western South America. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70(1):101–117. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.08.023

Prange, M., and Schulz, M., 2004. A coastal upwelling seasaw in the Atlantic Ocean as a result of the closure of the Central American seaway. J. Geophys. Res., 31:L17207. doi:10.1029/2004GL020073

Rahmstorf, S., 1995. Bifurcations of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to changes in the hydrological cycle. Nature (London, U. K.), 378:145–149. doi:10.1038/378145a0

Rahmstorf, S., 2002. Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years. Nature (London, U. K.), 419(6903):207–214. doi:10.1038/nature01090

Ravelo, A.C., Andreasen, D.H., Lyle, M., Lyle, A.O., and Wara, M.W., 2004. Regional climate shifts caused by gradual global cooling in the Pliocene epoch. Nature (London, U. K.), 429(6989):263–267. doi:10.1038/nature02567

Ravelo, A.C., Dekens, P.S., and McCarthy, M., 2006. Evidence for El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene. GSA Today, 16(3):4–11. doi:10.1130/1052-5173(2006)016<4:EFENLC>2.0.CO;2

Raymo, M.E., 1997. The timing of major climate terminations. Paleoceanography, 12(4):577–585. doi:10.1029/97PA01169

Raymo, M.E., Oppo, D.W., and Curry, W., 1997. The mid-Pleistocene climate transition: a deep sea carbon isotopic perspective. Paleoceanography, 12(4):546–559. doi:10.1029/97PA01019

Raymo, M.E., and Ruddiman, W.F., 1992. Tectonic forcing of late Cenozoic climate. Nature (London, U. K.), 359:117–122. doi:10.1038/359117a0

Robinson, R.S., Mix, A., and Martinez, P., 2007. Southern Ocean control on the extent of denitrification in the southeast Pacific over the last 70 ka. Quat. Sci. Rev., 26(1–2):201–212. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.08.005

Ruddiman, W.F., 2006. Ice driven CO2 feedback on ice volume. Clim. Past, 2(1):43–55.

Ruddiman, W.F., and Janecek, T.R., 1989. Pliocene–Pleistocene biogenic and terrigenous fluxes at equatorial Atlantic Sites 662, 663, and 664. In Ruddiman, W., Sarnthein, M., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 108: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 211–240. doi:10.2973/

Ruddiman, W.F., and Raymo, M.E., 1988. Northern Hemisphere climatic regimes during the past 3 Ma: possible tectonic connections. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, 318:411–430.

Sanfilippo, A., and Nigrini, C., 1998. Code numbers for Cenozoic low latitude radiolarian biostratigraphic zones and GPTS conversion tables. Mar. Micropaleontol., 33(1–2):109–117. doi:10.1016/S0377-8398(97)00030-3

Sarnthein, M., and Fenner, J., 1988. Global wind-induced change of deep-sea sediment budgets, new ocean production and CO2 reservoirs ca. 3.3–2.35 Ma BP. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 318:487–504.

Sarnthein, M., and Tiedemann, R., 1989. Toward a high-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the last 3.4 million years: Sites 658 and 659 off northwest Africa. In Ruddiman, W., Sarnthein, M., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 108: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 167–185. doi:10.2973/

Scher, H.D., and Martin, E.E., 2006. Timing and climatic consequences of the opening of Drake Passage. Science, 312(5772):428–430. doi:10.1126/science.1120044

Schmidt, M.W., Spero, H.J., and Lea, D.W., 2004. Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Nature (London, U. K.), 428(6979):160–163. doi:10.1038/nature02346

Schmittner, A., 2005. Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature (London, U. K.), 434(7033):628–633. doi:10.1038/nature03476

Schmittner, A., Saenko, O.A., and Weaver, A.J., 2003. Coupling of the hemispheres in observations and simulations of glacial climate change. Quat. Sci. Rev., 22(5–7):659–671. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(02)00184-1

Schneider, B., and Schmittner, A., 2006. Simulating the impact of the Panamanian seaway closure on ocean circulation, marine productivity and nutrient cycling. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 246(3–4):367–380. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.04.028

Schulz, M., Paul, A., and Timmermann, A., 2002. Relaxation oscillators in concert: a framework for climate change at millennial timescales during the late Pleistocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(24):2193. doi:10.1029/2002GL016144

Shackleton, N.J., 2000. The 100,000-year ice-age cycle identified and found to lag temperature, carbon dioxide, and orbital eccentricity. Science, 289(5486):1897–1902. doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1897

Shackleton, N.J., Hagelberg, T.K., and Crowhurst, S.J., 1995a. Evaluating the success of astronomical tuning: pitfalls of using coherence as a criterion for assessing pre-Pleistocene timescales. Paleoceanography, 10(4):693–698. doi:10.1029/95PA01454

Shackleton, N.J., and Hall, M.A., 1997. The late Miocene stable isotope record, Site 926. In Shackleton, N.J., Curry, W.B., Richter, C., and Bralower, T.J. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 154: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 367–373. doi:10.2973/

Shackleton, N.J., Hall, M.A., and Pate, D., 1995b. Pliocene stable isotope stratigraphy of Site 846. In Pisias, N.G., Mayer, L.A., Janecek, T.R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Andel, T.H. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 337–355. doi:10.2973/

Steph, S., 2005. Pliocene stratigraphy and the impact of Panama on changes in Caribbean and tropical east Pacific upper ocean stratification [Ph.D. thesis]. Univ. Kiel.

Steph, S., Tiedemann, R., Prange, M., Groeneveld, J., Nürnberg, D., Reuning, L., Schulz, M., and Haug, G.H., 2006. Changes in Caribbean surface hydrography during the Pliocene shoaling of the Central American seaway. Paleoceanography, 21(4):PA4221. doi:10.1029/2004PA001092

Stott, L., Poulsen, C., Lund, S., and Thunell, R., 2002. Super ENSO and global climate oscillations at millennial time scales. Science, 297(5579):222–226. doi:10.1126/science.1071627

Thunell, R., Tappa, E., Pride, C., and Kincaid, E., 1999. Sea-surface temperature anomalies associated with the 1997–1998 El Niño recorded in the oxygen isotope composition of planktonic foraminifera. Geology, 27(9):843–846. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0843:SSTAAW>2.3.CO;2

Tiedemann, R., and Franz, S.O., 1997. Deep-water circulation, chemistry, and terrigenous sediment supply in the equatorial Atlantic during the Pliocene, 3.3–2.6 Ma and 5–4.5 Ma. In Shackleton, N.J., Curry, W.B., Richter, C., and Bralower, T.J. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 154: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 299–318. doi:10.2973/

Tiedemann, R., Sarnthein, M., and Shackleton, N.J., 1994. Astronomic timescale for the Pliocene Atlantic 18O and dust flux records of Ocean Drilling Program Site 659. Paleoceanography, 9(4):619–638. doi:10.1029/94PA00208

Tziperman, E., and Gildor, H., 2003. On the mid-Pleistocene transition to 100-kyr glacial cycles and the asymmetry between glaciation and deglaciation times. Paleoceanography, 18(1):1001. doi:10.1029/2001PA000627

Visser, K., Thunell, R., and Stott, L., 2003. Magnitude and timing of temperature change in the Indo-Pacific warm pool during deglaciation. Nature (London, U. K.), 421(6919):152–155. doi:10.1038/nature01297

Voelker, A.H.L., 2002. Global distribution of centennial-scale records for marine isotope stage (MIS) 3: a database. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21(10):1185–1212. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00139-1

Waelbroeck, C., Labeyrie, L., Michel, E., Duplessy, J.C., McManus, J.F., Lambeck, K., Balbon, E., and Labracherie, M., 2002. Sea-level and deep water temperature changes derived from benthic foraminifera isotopic records. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21(1–3):295–305. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00101-9

Wara, M.W., Ravelo, A.C., and Delaney, M.L., 2005. Permanent El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene warm period. Science, 309(5735):758–761. doi:10.1126/science.1112596

Weaver, A.J., Saenko, O.A., Clark, P.U., and Mitrovica, J.X., 2003. Meltwater pulse 1A from Antarctica as a trigger of the Bølling-Allerød warm interval. Science, 299(5613):1709–1713. doi:10.1126/science.1081002

Weyl, P.K., 1968. The role of the oceans in climatic change: a theory of the ice ages. Meteorol. Monogr., 8:37–62.

Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E., and Billups, K., 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 292(5517):686–693. doi:10.1126/science.1059412

Zaucker, F., Stocker, T.F., and Broecker, W.S., 1994. Atmospheric freshwater fluxes and their effect on the global thermohaline circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 99(C6):12443–12458. doi:10.1029/94JC00526