Recent drilling in the eastern Mediterranean Sea south of Cyprus has revealed important insights into fundamental tectonic processes asso-ciated with continental collision and ophiolite emplacement. A transect of four sites was drilled across the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary. The results show that the African plate, represented by the Eratosthenes Seamount, underwent rapid subsidence and related faulting in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. The driving force was tectonic loading by the Eurasian plate. In this area the leading edge is represented by the Troodos ophiolite. The breakup and subsidence history of the Eratosthenes Seamount, as revealed by drilling during Leg 160, is clearly linked with the emplacement of the Troodos ophiolite. This underwent strong surface uplift during active tectonic emplacement, associated with collision of the seamount with the Cyprus margin.