Figure 1. Climatology of the summer and winter monsoon circulation. Surface winds for the (A) winter (January) and (B) summer (July) seasons along with areas of high (H) and low (L) pressure. Precipitation (6 and >9 mm/day contours) for the (C) winter (January) and (D) summer (July) seasons. The pressure gradients and resulting wind and precipitation patterns reflect the land-sea heating contrasts, which are a function of solar radiation, elevation, and land-surface boundary conditions. Monthly data, 1990-1997, from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate Data Assimilation System-1 (Kalnay et al., 1996).

Figure 2

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