172 Scientific Prospectus


Balsam, W.L., 1982. Carbonate dissolution and sedimentation on the Mid-Atlantic continental margin. Science, 217:929-931.

Biscaye, P.E., and Eittreim, S.L., 1977. Suspended particulate loads and transports in the nepheloid layer of the abyssal Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Geol., 23:155-172.

Blumsack, S.L., and Weatherly, G.L., 1989. Observations of the nearby flow and a model for the growth of mud waves. Deep-Sea Res., 36:1327-1339.

Borowski, W.S., Paull, C.K., and Ussler, W., III., 1996a. Marine pore water sulfate profiles indicate in situ methane flux from underlying gas hydrate. Geology, 24(7):655-658.

Borowski, W.S., Paull, C.K., and Ussler, W., III., 1996b. Carbon cycling at the base of the sulfate reduction zone. EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union, 77(17):S149.

Boyle, E.A., and Keigwin, L.D., 1987. North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20,000 years linked to high-latitude surface temperature. Nature, 330:35-40.

Carpenter, G., 1981. Coincident sediment slump/clathrate complexes on the U.S. Atlantic continental slope. Geo-Marine Letters, 1:29-32.

Curry, W.B., and Lohmann, G.P., 1983. Reduced advection into Atlantic Ocean deep eastern basins during last glaciation maximum. Nature, 306:577-580.

Dillon, W.P., and Paull, C.K., 1983. Marine gas hydrates - II: Geophysical evidence. In Cox, J.L. (Ed). Natural Gas Hydrates: Properties, Occurrence, and Recovery, Woburn (Butterworth Publishers), 73-90.

Flood, R.D., 1978. Studies of Deep-Sea Sedimentary Microtopology in the North Atlantic Ocean. Ph.D. Dissertation, WHOI/MIT.

Flood, R.D., 1988. A lee wave model for deep-sea mud wave activity. Deep-Sea Res., 35:973 983.

Haskell, B.J., 1991. The influence of deep western North Atlantic circulation on Late Quaternary sedimentation on the Blake Outer Ridge. Ph.D. Thesis, Duke University, 72pp.

Haskell, B.J., Johnson, T.C., Lynch, E.L., Showers, W.J., 1991. Fluctuations in deep western North Atlantic circulation on the Blake Outer Ridge during the last deglaciation. Paleoceanography, 6:21-31.

Hays, J.D., et al., 1972. Init. Repts. DSDP, 9: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office).

Heezen, B.C., Hollister, C.D., and Ruddiman, W.F., 1966. Shaping of the Continental Rise by Deep Geostrophic Contour Currents. Science 152:502-508.

Hesse, R. and Harrison, W.E., 1981. Gas hydrates (clathrates) causing pore water freshening and oxygen isotope fractionation in deep-water sedimentary sections of terrigeneous continental margins. Earth Planetary Science Letters, 55:453-462.

Hollister, C.D., Ewing, J.I., et al., 1972. Init. Repts. DSDP, 11: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office).

Hogg, N.G., 1983. A Note on the Deep Circulation of the Western North Atlantic: Its Nature and Causes. Deep-Sea Res., 9A:945-961.

Keigwin, L.D., Curry, W.B., Lehman, S.J., and Johnsen, S., 1994. The role of the deep ocean in North Atlantic climate change between 70 and 130 kyr ago. Nature, 371:323-326.

Keigwin, L.D., and Jones, G.A., 1989. Glacial-Holocene stratigraphy, chronology and some paleoceanographic observations on some North Atlantic sediment drifts. Deep-Sea Res., 36:845 867.

Keigwin, L.D., and Jones, G.A., 1994. Western North Atlantic evidence for millennial-scale changes in ocean circulation and climate. Jour. Geophys. Res., 99:12397-12410.

Keigwin, L.D., Jones, G.A., Lehman, S.J., and Boyle, E.A., 1991. Deglaciation meltwater discharge, North Atlantic deep circulation and abrupt climate change. Jour. Geophys. Res., 96:16811-16826.

Kidd, R.B., and Hill, P.R., 1987. Sedimentation on Feni and Gardar sediment drifts. In Ruddiman, W.F., Kidd, R.B., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 94 (Pt. 2): Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 1217-1244.

Kvenvolden, K., 1988. Methane hydrate: A major reservoir of carbon in the shallow geosphere? Chemical Geology, 71:41-51.

Laine, E.P., and Hollister, C.D., 1981. Geological effects of the Gulf Stream system on the northern Bermuda Rise. Mar. Geol., 39:277-310.

Laine, E.P., Gardner, W.D., Richardson, M.J., and Kominz, M.A., 1994. Abyssal currents and advection of resuspended sediment along the northeastern Bermuda Rise. Mar.Geol., 119:159 171.

Lancelot, Y., and Ewing, J.I., 1972. Correlation of natural gas zonation and carbonate diagenesis in Tertiary sediments from the north-west Atlantic. In Hollister, C.D., Ewing, J.I., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 11: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 791-799.

Lonsdale, P., 1982. Sediment drifts of the Northeast Atlantic and their relationship to the observed abyssal currents. Bull. Inst. Geol. Bassin d'Aquitain, Bordeaux, 31:141-149.

Manley, P.L., and Flood, R.D., 1992. Paleoflow history determined from mud wave migration: Argentine Basin. Deep-Sea Res., 40:1033-1055.

Matsumoto, R., 1983. Mineralogy and geochemistry of carbonate diagenesis of the Pliocene and Pleistocene hemipelagic mud on the Blake Outer Ridge, Site 533. In: Sheridan, R.E., and Gradstein, F.M., et al., Init. Repts. DSDP, 76: Washington (U. S. Govt. Printing Office), pp. 411 427.

McCave, I.N., and Swift, S.A., 1976. A physical model for the rate of deposition of fine-grained sediments in the deep sea. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 87:541-546.

McCave, I.N., and Tucholke, B.E., 1986. Deep current-controlled sedimentation in the western North Atlantic. In Vogt, P.R., and Tucholke, B., (Eds.), The Western North Atlantic Region, pp. 451-468. Geological Soc. of America.

Mienert, J., Flood, R.D., and Dullo, W.C., 1994. Research perspectives of sediment waves and drifts: monitors of global change in deepwater circulation. Paleoceanography, 9:893-895.

Nisbet, E.G., 1989. The end of the ice age. Canadian J. Earth Science, 27:148-157.

Paull, C. K., Buelow, W.J., Ussler, W., III, and Borowski, W.S., 1996. Increased continental margin slumping frequency during sea-level lowstands above gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Geology, 24(2):143-146.

Paull, C.K., Matsumoto, R., Wallace, P., et al., in press. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 164: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program).

Paull, C.K., Ussler, W., III, and Dillon, W.P., 1991. Is the extent of glaciation limited by marine gas hydrates? J. Geophysical Research, 18(3):432-434.

Popenoe, P., Schmuck, E.A., and Dillon, W.P., 1993. The Cape Fear Landslide: Slope failure associated with salt diapirism and gas hydrate decomposition. In: Submarine Landslides: Selective Studies in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 2002, p. 40-53.

Schmitz, W.J., and McCartney, M.S., 1993. On the North Atlantic circulation. Rev. Geophys., 31:29-49

Sheridan, R.E., and Gradstein, F.M., et al., 1983. Init. Repts. DSDP, 76: Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office).

Shipley, T.H., Houston, M.H., and Buffler, R.T., et al., 1979. Seismic reflection evidence for widespread occurrence of possible gas-hydrate horizons on continental slopes and rises. AAPG Bulletin, 63:2204-2213.

Stommel, H., 1958. The abyssal circulation. Deep-Sea Res., 5:80-82.
Tucholke, B.E., Bryan, G.M., and Ewing, J.I., 1977. Gas hydrate horizon detected in seismic reflection-profiler data from the western North Atlantic. AAPG Bulletin, 61:698-707.

Ussler, W., III, and Paull, C.K., 1995. Effects of ion exclusion and isotopic fractionation on pore water geochemistry during gas hydrate formation and decomposition. Geo-Marine Letters, 15:37 44.

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