Figure 1. Climatology of the summer and winter monsoon circulation. Surface winds for the (A) winter (January) and (B) summer (July) seasons along with areas of high (H) and low (L) pressure, and precipitation (6 and >9 mm/day contours) for the (C) winter (January) and (D) summer (July) seasons. The pressure gradients and resulting wind and precipitation patterns reflect the land-sea heating contrasts, which are a function of solar radiation, elevation, and land surface boundary conditions. Monthly data for 1990-1997 from NOAA NCEP-NCAR CDAS-1 (Kalnay, et al., 1996).

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