Next Section | Table of Contents


Aharonov, E., Whitehead, J.A., Kelemen, P.B., and Spiegelman, M., 1995. Channeling instability of upwelling melt in the mantle. J. Geophys. Res., 100:20433–20450.

Barclay, A.H., Toomey, D.R., and Solomon, S.C., 1988. Seismic structure and crustal magmatism at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 35°N. J. Geophys. Res., 103:17827–17844.

Barnouin-Jha, K., Parmentier, E.M., and Sparks, D.W., 1997. Buoyant mantle upwelling and crustal production at oceanic spreading centers; on-axis segmentation and off-axis melting. J. Geophys. Res., 102:11979–11989.

Barth, G.A., and Mutter, J.C., 1996. Variability in oceanic crustal thickness and structure: multichannel seismic reflection results from the northern East Pacific Rise. J. Geophys. Res., 101:17951–17975.

Bonatti, E., Peyve, A., Kepezhinskas, P., Kurentsova, N., Seyler, M., Skolotnev, S., and Udintsev, G., 1992. Upper mantle heterogeneity below the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 0°–15°N. J. Geophys. Res., 97:4461–4476.

Boudier, F., MacLeod, C.J., and Bolou, L., 1996. Structures in peridotites from Site 895, Hess Deep: implications for the geometry of mantle flow beneath the East Pacific Rise. In Mével, C., Gillis, K.M., Allan, J.F., and Meyer, P.S. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 147: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 347–356.

Bougault, H., Dmitriev, L., Schilling, J.G., Sobolev, A., Joron, J.L., and Needham, H.D., 1988. Mantle heterogeneity from trace elements: MAR triple junction near 14°N. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 88:27–36.

Bougault, H., and others, 1990. Campagne RIDELENTE: Structure de la dorsale Atlantique Heterogeniete du manteau et hydrothermalisme, Oceanologica Acta (special issue), 10:366–381.

Braun, M.G., and Kelemen, P.B., in press. Dunite distribution in the Oman ophiolite: implications for melt flux through porous dunite conduits. Geochem., Geophys., Geosys.

Buck, W.R., and Su, W., 1989. Focused mantle upwelling below mid-ocean ridges due to feedback between viscosity and melting. Geophys. Res. Lett., 16:641–644.

Cannat, M., 1996. How thick is the magmatic crust at slow-spreading oceanic ridges? J. Geophys. Res., 101:2847–2857.

Cannat, M., Karson, J.A., Miller, D.J., et al., 1995. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 153: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program).

Cannat, M., Lagabrielle, Y., Bougault, H., Casey, J., de Coutures, N., Dmitriev, L., and Fouquet, Y., 1997. Ultramafic and gabbroic exposures at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: geological mapping in the 15 degrees N region. Tectonophysics.

Cannat, M., Mével, C., Maia, M., Deplus, C., Durand, C., Gente, P., Agrinier, P., Belarouchi, A., Dubuisson, G., et al., 1995. Thin crust, ultramafic exposures, and rugged faulting patterns at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22°–24°N). Geology, 23:49–52.

Casey, J.F., 1997. Comparison of major- and trace-element geochemistry of abyssal peridotites and mafic plutonic rocks with basalts from the MARK region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In Karson, J.A., Cannat, M., Miller, D.J., and Elthon, D. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 153: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 181–241.

Casey, J.F., Braun, M., Kelemen, P.B., Fujiwara, T., Matsumoto, T. and Shipboard Scientific Party, 1998. Megamullions along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 14° and 16°N: results of Leg 1, JAMSTEC/WHOI MODE 98 Survey. Eos, 79:F920.

Casey, J.F., Bryan, W.B., Xia, C., Smith, S., Dmitriev, L., Silantiev, S., and Melson, W.G., 1992. Basalt compositional trends, 12° to 38°N along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: local paradigms. Eos, 73:584.

Casey, J.F., Bryan, W.F., and Silantyev, S., 1994. Comparison of the geochemistry of basaltic, plutonic and residual mantle rocks from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: evidence of near fractional melting and mixing. Eos, 75:657.

Casey, J.F., Smith, S.E., Bryan, W.B., and Silantyev, S., 1995. Major and trace element geochemistry of basalts, gabbros, and peridotites from the northern MAR: an assessment of the range of subaxial parental and evolved melt compositions. Eos, 76:694.

Ceuleneer, G., 1991. Evidences for a paleo-spreading center in the Oman ophiolite: mantle structures in the Maqsad area. In Peters, T., Nicolas, A., and Coleman, R.G. (Eds.), Ophiolite Genesis and Evolution of Oceanic Lithosphere: Dordrecht (Kluwer), 147–173.

Ceuleneer, G., and Cannat, M., 1997. High-temperature ductile deformation of Site 920 peridotites. In Karson, J.A., Cannat, M., Miller, D.J., and Elthon, D. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 153: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 23–34.

Ceuleneer, G., Nicolas, A., and Boudier, F., 1988. Mantle flow patterns at an oceanic spreading centre: the Oman peridotite record. Tectonophysics, 151:1–26.

Ceuleneer, G., and Rabinowicz, M., 1992. Mantle flow and melt migration beneath ocean ridges: models derived from observations in ophiolites. In Phipps Morgan, J.B., Blackman, D.K., and Sinton, J.M. (Eds.), Mantle Flow and Melt Generation at Mid-Ocean Ridges. Geophys. Monogr., Am. Geophys. Union, 71:123–154.

Christensen, N.I., and Salisbury, M.H., 1975. Structure and constitution of the lower oceanic crust. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 13:57–86.

Crane, K., 1985. The spacing of rift axis highs: dependence upon diapiric processes in the underlying asthenosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 72:405–414.

Daines, M.J., and Kohlstedt, D.L., 1997. Influence of deformation on melt topology in peridotites. J. Geophys. Res., 102:10257–10271.

Dick, H.J.B., 1989. Abyssal peridotites, very slow spreading ridges and ocean ridge magmatism. In Saunders, A.D., and Norry, M.J. (Eds.), Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Spec. Publ.—Geol. Soc. London, 42:71–105.

Dick, H.J.B., and Kelemen, P.B., 1992. Light rare earth element enriched clinopyroxene in harzburgites from 15°05'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Eos, 73:584.

Dosso, L., Hanan, B.B., Bougault, H., Schilling, J.G., and Joron, J.L., 1991. Sr-Nd-Pb geochemical morphology between 10 degrees N and 17 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge—a new MORB isotope signature. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 106:29–43.

Dunn, R.A., and Toomey, D.R., 1997. Seismological evidence for three-dimensional melt migration beneath the East Pacific Rise. Nature, 388:259–262.

Elthon, D., Stewart, M., and Ross, D.K., 1992. Compositional trends of minerals in oceanic cumulates. J. Geophys. Res., 97:15189–15199.

Forsyth, D.W., Webb, S.C., Dorman, L.M., and Shen, Y., 1998. Phase velocities of Rayleigh waves in the MELT Experiment from the East Pacific Rise. Science, 280:1235–1237.

Fujiwara, T., Lin, J., Matsumoto, T., Kelemen, P.B., Tucholke, B.E., and Casey, J.F., in press. Crustal Evolution of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone in the last 5 Ma. Geochem., Geophys., Geosys.

Ghose, I., Cannat, M., and Seyler, M., 1996. Transform fault effect on mantle melting in the MARK area (Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Kane transform). Geology, 24:1139–1142.

Gillis, K., Mével, C., Allan, J., et al., 1993. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 147: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program).

Hart, S.R., Schilling, J.-G., and Powell, J.L., 1973. Basalts from Iceland and along the Reykjanes Ridge: Sr isotope geochemistry. Nature, 246:104–107.

Hurst, S.D., Gee, J.S., and Lawrence, R.M., 1997. Data report: Reorientation of structural features at Sites 920 to 924 using remanent magnetization and magnetic characteristics. In Karson, J.A., Cannat, M., Miller, D.J., and Elthon, D. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 153: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 547–559.

Ishizuka, H., Fujimoto, H., Bryan, W., Fujiwara, T., Furuta, T., Kelemen, P., Kinoshita, H., Kobayashi, K, Matsumoto, T., Takeuchi, A., and Tivey, M., 1995. Oceanic lower crust and upper mantle materials in transform fault zone of WMARK (Japanese with English abstr.). JAMSTEC J. Deep Sea Res., 11:37–52.

Jha, K., Parmentier, E.M., and Phipps Morgan, J., 1994. The role of mantle-depletion and melt-retention buoyancy in spreading-center segmentation. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 125:221–234.

Jousselin, D., Nicolas, A., and Boudier, F., 1998. Detailed mapping of a mantle diapir below a paleo-spreading center in the Oman ophiolite. J. Geophys. Res., 103:18153–18170.

Kelemen, P.B., Braun, M.G., Hirth, G., and Garrido, C.J., 1998a. Size/frequency statistics for dunite veins in the shallow mantle. Eos, 79:S225.

Kelemen, P.B., Hirth, G., Shimizu, N., Spiegelman, M., and Dick, H.J.B., 1997. A review of melt migration processes in the asthenospheric mantle beneath oceanic spreading centers, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A355:283–318.

Kelemen, P.B., Matsumoto, T., and Shipboard Scientific Party, 1998b. Geological Results of MODE 98, Leg 1: JAMSTEC/WHOI Shinkai 6500 Cruise to 15 N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Eos, 79:F45.

Kelemen, P.B., Shimizu, N., and Salters, V.J.M., 1995a. Extraction of mid-ocean-ridge basalt from the upwelling mantle by focused flow of melt in dunite channels. Nature, 375:747–753.

Kelemen, P.B., Whitehead, J.A., Aharonov, E., and Jordahl, K.A., 1995b. Experiments on flow focusing in soluble porous media, with applications to melt extraction from the mantle. J. Geophys. Res., 100:475–496.

Kelso, P.R., Richter, C., and Pariso, J.E., 1996. Rock magnetic properties, magnetic mineralogy, and paleomagnetism of peridotites from Site 895, Hess Deep. In Mével, C., Gillis, K.M., Allan, J.F., and Meyer, P.S. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 147: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 405–413.

Kikawa, E., Kelso, P.R., Pariso, J.E., and Richter, C., 1996. Paleomagnetism of gabbroic rocks and peridotites from Sites 894 and 895, Leg 147, Hess Deep: results of half-core and whole-core measurements. In Mével, C., Gillis, K.M., Allan, J.F., and Meyer, P.S. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 147: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 383–391.

Kohlstedt, D.L., and Zimmerman, M.E., 1996. Rheology of partially molten mantle rocks. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 24:41–62.

Kuo, B.-Y., and Forsyth, D.W., 1988. Gravity anomalies of the ridge transform system in the South Atlantic between 31° and 34°S. Mar. Geophys. Res., 10:205–232.

Langmuir, C.H., and Bender, J.F., 1984. The geochemistry of oceanic basalts in the vicinity of transform faults: observations and implications. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 69:107–127.

Lawrence, R.M., Gee, J.S., and Hurst, S.D., 1997. Magnetic anisotropy in serpentinized peridotites from Site 920: its origin and relationship to deformation fabrics. In Karson, J.A., Cannat, M., Miller, D.J., and Elthon, D. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 153: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 419–427.

Lin, J., and Phipps Morgan, J., 1992. The spreading rate dependence of three-dimensional midocean ridge gravity structure. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19:13–16.

Lin, J., Purdy, G.M., Schouten, H., Sempéré, J.-C., and Zervas, C., 1990. Evidence from gravity data for focused magmatic accretion along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature, 344:627–632.

Magde, L.S., Dick, H.J.B., and Hart, S.R., 1995. Tectonics, alteration and the fractal distribution of hydrothermal veins in the lower ocean crust. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 129:103–119.

Magde, L.S., Sparks, D.W., and Detrick, R.S., 1997. The relationship between buoyant mantle flow, melt migration, and gravity bull's eyes at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 33°N and 35°N. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 148:59–67.

Matsumoto, T., Kelemen, P.B., and O.S. Party, 1998. Preliminary results of the precise geological and geophysical mapping of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 14-16 N—tectonic extension along the magma-poor ridge axis. Eos, 79:F46.

Miller, D.J., and Christensen, N.I., 1997. Seismic velocities of lower crustal and upper mantle rocks from the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge, south of the Kane Transform Zone (MARK). In Karson, J.A., Cannat, M., Miller, D.J., and Elthon, D. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 153: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 437–454.

Nicolas, A., 1986. A melt extraction model based on structural studies in mantle peridotites J. Petrol., 27:999–1022.

————, 1990. Melt extraction from mantle peridotites: hydrofracturing and porous flow, with consequences for oceanic ridge activity. In Ryan, M.P. (Ed.), Magma Transport and Storage: Chichester (Wiley), 159–173.

Nicolas, A., and Boudier, F., 1995. Mapping oceanic ridge segments in Oman ophiolites. J. Geophys. Res., 100:6179– 6197.

Nicolas, A., Boudier, F., and Ildefonse, B., 1996. Variable crustal thickness in the Oman ophiolite: implication for oceanic crust. J. Geophys. Res., 101:17941–17950.

Nicolas, A., and Rabinowicz, M., 1984. Mantle flow pattern at oceanic spreading centres: relation with ophiolitic and oceanic structures. In Gass, I.G., Lippard, S.J., and Shelton, A.W., (Eds.), Ophiolites and Oceanic Lithosphere, Spec. Publ.—Geol. Soc. London, 13:147–151.

Nicolas, A., and Violette, J.F., 1982. Mantle flow at oceanic spreading centers: models derived from ophiolites. Tectonophysics, 81:319–339.

Parmentier, E.M., and Phipps Morgan, J., 1990. Spreading rate dependence of three-dimensional structure in oceanic spreading centers. Nature, 348:325–328.

Peyve, A.A., Raznitsin, Y.N., Lyapunov, S.M., and Scolotnev, S.G., 1988a. Mantle heterogeneity in the area of Cape Verde Fracture Zone in the central Atlantic according to the data on basalts (in Russian). Dok. Acad. Sci. USSR, 301:165–168.

Peyve, A.A., Suchevskaya, N.M., Lyapunov, S.M., and Konokova, N.N., 1988b. Peculiarities of tholeiitic magmatism in the area of the Cape Verde Fracture Zone in the Atlantic (13°–15°N) (in Russian). Dok. Acad. Sci. USSR, 302:1174–1178.

Phipps Morgan, J., 1987. Melt migration beneath mid-ocean spreading centers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14:1238–1241.

Phipps Morgan, J., and Forsyth, D.W., 1988. Three-dimensional flow and temperature perturbations due to a transform offset: effects on oceanic crustal and upper mantle structure, J. Geophys. Res., 93:2955–2966.

Rabinowicz, M., Ceuleneer, M., and Nicolas, A., 1987. Melt segregation and flow in mantle diapirs below spreading centers: evidence from the Oman ophiolites. J. Geophys. Res., 92:3475–3486.

Rabinowicz, M., Nicolas, A., and Vigneresse, J.L., 1984. A rolling mill effect in asthenosphere beneath oceanic spreading centers. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 67:97–108.

Richter, C., Kelso, P.R., and MacLeod, C.J., 1996. Magnetic fabrics and sources of magnetic susceptibility in lower crustal and upper mantle rocks from Hess Deep. In Mével, C., Gillis, K.M., Allan, J.F., and Meyer, P.S. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 147: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 393–403.

Schilling, J.-G., 1973. Iceland mantle plume: geochemical study of Reykjanes Ridge. Nature, 242:565–571.

Schouten, H., Klitgord, K.D., and Whitehead, J.A., 1985. Segmentation of mid-ocean ridges. Nature, 317:225–229.

Seyler, M., and Bonatti, E., 1997. Regional-scale melt-rock interaction in lherzolitic mantle in the Romanche Fracture Zone (Atlantic Ocean), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 146:273–287.

Silantyev, S.A., Dmitriev, L.V., Bazylev, B.A., Casey, J.F., Bougault, H., Levsky, L.K., Belyatsky, B.V, and Ovchinikova, G.V., 1996. An examination of genetic conformity between co-existing basalt, gabbro and residual peridotites from 15°20'N fracture zone, central Atlantic: evidence from isotope composition of Sr, Nd, and Pb, InterRidge Newsletter, 4:18–21.

Sobolev, A.V., Dmitriev, L.V., Tsamerian, O.P., Simonov, V.A., Skolotnev, S.G., and Basilev, B.A., 1992a. On the structure and origin of geochemical anomaly in basalts from Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 12 and 18°N (in Russian). Dok. Akad. Nauk USSR, 326:541–546.

Sobolev, A.V., Tsamerian, O.P., and Dmitriev, L.V., 1992b. The geochemical anomaly in Mid-Atlantic Ridge basalts between 12°–18°N: geochemical structure and origin. Proc. 29th International Geol. Cong., 29:58.

Sobolov, A.V., Tsamerian, G.P., Dmitriev, L.V., and Basilev, B., 1992. The correlation between the mineralogy of basalt and the associated peridotites: the data from the MAR between 8°–18°N. Eos, 73:584.

Sparks, D.W., and Parmentier, E.M., 1991. Melt extraction from the mantle beneath spreading centers. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 105:368–377.

————, 1993. The structure of three-dimensional convection beneath oceanic spreading centres. Geophys. J. Int., 112:81–91.

————, 1994. The generation and migration of partial melt beneath oceanic spreading centers. In Ryan, M.P. (Ed), Magmatic Systems: San Diego CA, (Academic Press, Inc.), 55-76.

Sparks, D.W., Parmentier, E.M., and Phipps Morgan, J., 1993. Three-dimensional mantle convection beneath a segmented spreading center; implications for along-axis variations in crustal thickness and gravity. J. Geophys. Res., 98:21977–21995.

Spiegelman, M., 1993. Physics of melt extraction: theory, implications and applications. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A., 342:23–41.

Spiegelman, M., and McKenzie, D., 1987. Simple 2-D models for melt extraction at mid-ocean ridges and island arcs. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 83:137–152.

Staudacher, T., Sarda, P., Richardson, S.H., Allegré, C.J., Sagna, I., and Dimitriev, L.V., 1989. Noble gases in basalt glasses from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge topographic high at 14°N: geodynamic consequences. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 96:119–133.

Su, W., and Buck, W.R., 1993. Buoyancy effects on mantle flow under mid-ocean ridges. J. Geophys. Res., 98:12191–12205.

Team, T.M.S., 1998. Imaging the deep seismic structure beneath a mid-ocean ridge: the MELT experiment. Science, 280:1215–1218.

Tolstoy, M.A., Harding, J.A., and Orcutt, J.A., 1992. Crustal thickness at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: bull's eye gravity anomalies and focused accretion. Science, 262:726–729.

Toomey, D.R., Wilcock, W.S.D., Solomon, S.C., Hammond, W.C., and Orcutt, J.A., 1998. Mantle seismic structure beneath the MELT region of the East Pacific Rise from P and S wave tomography. Science, 280:1224–1227.

Tucholke, B.E., Lin, J., Kleinrock, M.C, Tivey, M.A., Reed, T.B., Goff, J., and Jaroslow, G., 1997. Segmentation and crustal structure of the western Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank, 25°25'–27°10'N and 0–29 m.y. J. Geophys. Res., 102:10203–10223.

Turcotte, D.L., and Phipps Morgan, J., 1992. The physics of melt migration and mantle flow beneath a mid-ocean ridge. In Phipps Morgan, J., Blackman D., and Sinton, J. (Eds.), Mantle Flow and Melt Generation at Mid-Ocean Ridges. Geophys. Mono., 71:155–182.

White, R.S., McKenzie, D., and O'Nions, R.K., 1992. Oceanic crustal thickness from seismic measurements and rare earth element inversions. J. Geophys. Res., 97:19683–19715.

Whitehead, J.A., Dick, H.J.B., and Shouten, H., 1984. A mechanism for magmatic accretion under spreading centers. Nature, 312:146–148.

Xia, C., Casey, J.F., Silantiev, S., and Dmitriev, L., 1991. Geochemical structure of the 14°N mantle source anomaly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and geochemical changes across the 15°20'N Fracture Zone. Eos, 72:518.

Xia, C., Casey, J.F., Silantiev, S., Dmitriev, L., and Bougault, H., 1992. Geochemical variations between 12° to 16°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: a region with high degrees of partial melting yet magma starved? Eos, 73:553.

Next Section | Table of Contents