164 Subject Index

acetate, pore water, B:389

acoustic logs, gas hydrates, B:193–198

acoustic reflection tomography, gas hydrates, B:273–281

adenosine 5'-triphosphate proxy

bacteria, B:393–398

principal component analysis, B:396–398

vs. depth, B:396

vs. luminescence, B:396


chloride profiles, B:132–136

evidence, A:270

methane, A:266, 272

pore water, B:221–228

age vs. depth

Blake Ridge, B:258, 310, 336

Site 994, A:118

Site 995, A:188

Site 996, A:260

Site 997, A:291; B:136

Sites 991–993, A:81; B:326

Alaska North Slope, gas hydrates, B:180

algae, sediments, B:48, 50–51, 53–56


pore water, A:89, 128, 264, 300–301

sediments, A:249

sulfate depletion, A:90

vs. depth, A:93, 131, 203, 271, 303; B:89, 91–92, 144, 305


sediments, B:48–51

See also isoalkanes; n-alkanes

alteration, flora, B:337–338

aluminum logs, vs. depth, A:140

aluminum/titanium ratio, sediments, B:149


pore water, A:89, 128, 264, 300; B:171–172

vs. depth, A:93, 131, 203, 271, 303; B:172

ammonium/chloride ratio, vs. depth, A:273

Anomaly 5/Gilbert boundary, sediments, A:190


authigenic carbonates, B:287–289

lithologic units, A:75, 246–247, 249

photomicrograph, A:255; B:290

scanning electron microscopy, B:291

vs. depth, A:255

Archie relation, well-logging, B:187–189

argon, time–pressure–volume plots, A:265

arsenic, vs. depth, B:159

ascidians, Site 991, A:81


planktonic foraminifers, B:350

See also gyre-margin/slope-water assemblage; Mid-Pleistocene Revolution; subpolar assemblage; subtropical gyre assemblage; warm-water (Gulf Stream) assemblage

Atlantic Ocean W, gas hydrates, A:5–12

attenuation, compressional wave velocity, B:265–271


carbonates, B:285–311

lithologic units, A:78–79, 96

photomicrograph, A:75

sediments, A:190

See also diagenesis



adenosine 5'-triphosphate proxy, B:393–398

biogeochemical cycling, B:388–389

biomass, B:387–388

gas hydrates, B:8–9

populations, B:383–384, 386

potential activity, B:384–386

productivity, B:387–388

proxy, B:393–398

sediments, B:381–391, 393–398

vs. depth, B:383, 385, 387–389, 397

See also geomicrobiology

banding. See color bands

barium, vs. depth, B:161

basement, contours, A:10


contours, A:10

Site 994, A:102, 104

beta-hopanes, sediments, B:48–51

biocalcarenite, photomicrograph, A:255


lithologic units, A:246–247

photograph, A:252

See also calcirudite


photograph, A:252

See also clasts

biogenic components, lithologic units, A:110–111

biogeochemical cycling, bacteria, B:388–389

biomass, bacteria, B:387–388

biostratigraphic datum events

calcareous nannofossils, B:333–334, 336

new, B:336

biostratigraphic datums. See nannofossil datums


diatoms, B:365–376

nannofossils, B:331–341

Site 991, A:81–82

Site 992, A:82

Site 993, A:82

Site 994, A:114–117

Site 995, A:185–189

Site 996, A:256, 258

Site 997, A:290–292; B:344–351

vs. depth, A:80


lithologic units, A:106–107, 109–110, 179–182, 246, 283–284

photograph, A:285

See also burrows

bituminite, composition, B:50–56

bivalves, lithologic units, A:246

Blake Outer Ridge, lithology, B:229–236

Blake Ridge

authigenic carbonates, B:301–312

biostratigraphy, B:331–341

compressional wave velocity, B:265–272

diagenesis, B:139–146

gas hydrates, A:5–12; B:3–10, 13–46, 247–249

gas sources, B:67–78

geochemical logs, B:199–215

geology, A:9–10

geomicrobiology, B:379–391

geotechnical properties, B:421–429

grain size, B:237–245

hydrocarbons, B:47–58

magnetostratigraphy, B:411–418

methane, B:79–85, 87–128

noble gases, B:165–170

oxygen isotopes, B:59–66

pore-water geochemistry, A:300–301; B:129–137

pressure core sampler, B:439–443

reflectors, B:273–281

rock magnetism, B:401–409

sediment composition, B:313–324

seismic profiles, A:47–56, 59

seismic and thermal surveys, B:253–264

structure, A:47–48

water content and porosity, B:431–434

well-logging, B:179–191, 193–198

See also Blake Outer Ridge; Blake Ridge Diapir; Cape Fear Diapir

Blake Ridge Diapir

authigenic carbonates, B:285–300

gas hydrates, B:219–228

geotechnical properties, B:421–429

origin, A:272

salinity, B:5–7

seafloor pockmarks, A:249–250

Blake Ridge Transect, sediments, B:3–4

blanking, gas hydrates, B:260

Bolliella, vs. depth, B:356


gas hydrates, B:8

vs. depth, B:134

Brunhes/Matuyama boundary

sediments, A:119, 189, 258, 292

water masses, B:359

Brunhes Chron

sediments, A:119

water masses, B:358, 362

See also Brunhes/Matuyama boundary; Matuyama/Brunhes boundary

buried faults, gas hydrates, A:49–51


lithologic units, A:107–108, 180–182, 284

photograph, A:285

butanes. See isobutane; isobutane/n-butane ratio; n-butane


cadmium, vs. depth, B:161


lithologic units, A:246–247

photograph, A:253

See also biocalcirudite


authigenic carbonates, B:287–289, 303–306

carbon/oxygen ratio, B:206–207

diagenesis, B:139–146

lithologic units, A:75, 110–111, 182–183, 246–247

photomicrograph, A:255

vs. depth, A:74, 78, 80, 112, 182, 255, 286; B:155, 207–210, 308

X-ray diffraction data, A:112

calcite, magnesian, authigenic carbonates, B:287– 289


lithologic units, A:285

pore water, A:89, 128, 264, 300–301

vs. depth, A:131, 203, 271, 303; B:155, 303, 305

water-sampling probe, A:196

See also magnesium/calcium ratio; strontium/calcium ratio

calcium/chloride ratio, vs. depth, A:273

caliper logs, vs. depth, A:138, 209, 307; B:182

Cape Fear Diapir

diagenesis, B:139–145

geology, A:9–10, 94–96

geotechnical properties, B:421–429

salinity, B:5–7

Cape Fear Slide

geochronology, B:325–327

geology, A:9–10


anaerobic methane oxidation, B:94

gas hydrates, A:143–144, 215

sediments, A:91

carbon, dissolved inorganic, carbon isotopes, B:67–77

carbon, in-situ dissolved inorganic, origin, B:72–73

carbon, total organic

mass accumulation rates, A:149, 221; B:53

sediments, A:87, 125, 128, 197, 263–264, 269, 297–298, 301; B:48–51, 395

vs. depth, A:90, 129, 149, 202, 221, 269, 302, 314; B:48, 396

carbon/nitrogen ratio

sediments, A:88, 126–128, 197, 297–298, 301; B:395–398

vs. depth, A:90, 129, 202, 302; B:396

carbon/oxygen ratio

gas hydrates, A:143–144; B:203–211

logs, A:144

reservoir models, B:200–203

vs. porosity, B:201, 203–204

carbon-14 age

sediments, B:325–327

vs. depth, B:326

See also geochronology

carbon dioxide

gas hydrates, A:255; B:40–45

isotopes, B:67–77

mass balance, B:76

sediments, A:197, 263

vs. depth, Blake Ridge, A:199–200, 268–269; B:91, 383

See also methane/carbon dioxide ratio

carbon dioxide, total dissolved, vs. depth, B:89

carbon isotopes

anaerobic methane oxidation, B:94

aragonite cemented vein-like void filling, B:299

authigenic carbonates, B:289–290, 292–294

carbonates, B:140–146, 303–311

degassing of methane-saturated water, B:111–112

dissolved inorganic carbon, B:67–77

gases, B:51, 53, 67–77, 140–146, 303–311

methane in gas hydrates, B:21–23, 40–45, 79–85, 101– 112

pore water and authigenic carbonates, B:292

pore-water carbon dioxide vs. depth, B:298

time series plots of methane values, B:105–107

vs. depth, B:45, 54, 74, 84, 104, 144, 308–310; B:299

vs. deuterium, B:23, 75

vs. methane volume, B:108–110

vs. methane/ethane + propane ratio, B:58

vs. methane/ethane ratio, B:75

vs. molecular ratios of hydrocarbons, B:23

vs. oxygen isotopes, B:297, 308

vs. successive increments in models, B:77

carbon isotopes, in ethane, vs. carbon isotopes in propane, Blake Ridge, B:58

carbon isotopes, in propane, carbon isotopes in ethane, B:58

carbonate, diagenetic, vs. depth, A:74, 78, 80

carbonate cement, photograph, A:253

carbonate concretions

depth, A:251

lithologic units, A:246

See also carbonate nodules

carbonate concretions, authigenic

distribution, A:275

lithologic units, A:246–247

carbonate content

authigenic carbonates, B:289, 303–306

carbon/oxygen ratio, B:203–206

lithologic units, A:179–182, 284

sedimentation, A:220–221

sediments, A:91, 128, 201, 269, 301; B:231–236, 315–316, 395

vs. depth, A:90, 129, 202, 269, 302; B:232, 256–257, 316, 396

carbonate crusts, lithologic units, A:248–249

carbonate nodules

photograph, A:79, 252–253, 285

See also carbonate concretions

carbonate nodules, authigenic, gas hydrates, B:8–9

carbonate rhombs, authigenic, photograph, A:183

carbonate rhombs, sediments, A:183


cement, A:271–272

diagenesis, A:8

lithologic units, A:111

mass accumulation rates, A:149

percentage vs. depth, B:292

precipitation, A:266; B:290–291

spectral data, B:319–322

stable isotopes, B:139–146

X-ray diffraction data, B:307

See also aragonite; biocalcarenite; biocalcirudite; calcirudite; calcite; carbonate cement; carbonate concretions; carbonate crusts; carbonate nodules; carbonate rhombs; dolomite; dolomite nodules; dolomite rhombs; sparite

carbonates, authigenic

methane-derived, B:285–300

mineralogy, B:305–306

photomicrograph, B:290

zonation, B:301–312

carbonates, diagenetic

lithologic units, A:285

vs. depth, A:111, 181, 283

Carolina Rise

gas hydrates, A:5–12; B:3–10

geology, A:9–10

Carolina Rise Diapirs

geology, A:9–10

rock magnetism, B:401–409

Carolina Trough

diapirs, A:272

geology, A:9–10


authigenic carbonates, B:287–289

carbonates, A:271–272

scanning electron microscope photomicrograph, B:291

See also carbonate cement

cement, peloidal micritic, photomicrograph, A:255


photograph, A:253, 285

sediments, A:249

See also carbonate cement

chemosynthetic communities

lithologic units, A:248–249

photograph, A:249


advecting fluids, A:272

diffusion, A:130–132

enrichment, A:89–90, 96

gas-hydrate estimates, A:315–316

gas hydrates, A:200; B:7–8, 220

gradients, A:130–132

pore water, A:88–89, 128, 198, 264, 296, 298–301; B:4

remanent magnetization, A:260–261

vs. chlorine isotopes, B:135

vs. depth, A:93, 130, 151, 154, 203–204, 223–224, 271, 303, 316–317; B:6, 63–64, 91, 131–135, 222, 224, 230, 256–257

vs. deuterium, B:223

vs. sodium/chloride ratio, A:93

vs. temperature, A:204

water-sampling probe, A:196

See also ammonium/chloride ratio; calcium/chloride ratio; chlorinity; magnesium/chloride ratio; sodium/chloride ratio; strontium/chloride ratio

chloride anomalies, vs. oxygen isotopes, B:61, 63

chlorine isotopes

pore water, B:129–137

vs. chloride, B:135

vs. depth, B:131–135


gas hydrates, A:317; B:40, 42–43, 247–249

vs. depth, B:238–245

vs. grain size, B:238–245

See also chloride

chlorite, spectral data, B:319–322

chromium, vs. depth, B:157

chromium/nickel ratio, vs. depth, B:162

Chron C1n, sediments, A:119, 189

Chron C1n/C1r boundary, sediments, A:119, 189, 292

Chron C1n/C1r.1r boundary, sediments, A:258

Chron C1r, sediments, A:119, 189

Chron C1r.1r/C1r.1n boundary, sediments, A:258

Chron C2An, sediments, A:119

Chron C2An/C2r boundary, sediments, A:189, 292

Chron C2Ar/C2An boundary, sediments, A:190

Chron C2n, sediments, A:119, 189, 292

Chron C2r, sediments, A:119

Chron C3An/C3r boundary, sediments, A:190

Chron C3r/C3n boundary, sediments, A:190


cement, A:271–272

lithologic units, A:246

See also bioclasts; clay clasts; intraclasts; mud clasts

clay, foraminifer-bearing, lithologic units, A:281–283

clay, nannofossil

lithologic units, A:69–72, 74–75, 78–79, 94–96, 105–109, 179–181, 245–246, 281–284

photograph, A:107–109

clay, silty

lithologic units, A:73–75, 245–246

photograph, A:108

clay clasts

lithologic units, A:69–75, 78, 94–96, 110

photograph, A:76–77, 110

clay conglomerate

lithologic units, A:69–70, 75–80, 110

sediments, A:247–249

clay minerals

carbon/oxygen ratio, B:205–206

lithologic units, A:110–111, 284–286

sediments, A:182–183

vs. depth, B:375

X-ray diffraction data, A:112

See also chlorite; illite; kaolinite; montmorillonite; nontronite; smectite


lithologic units, A:75

photograph, A:61, 183

vs. depth, A:74, 78, 80, 112, 182, 255, 286; B:233, 375

claystone, bioturbated, photograph, A:285

claystone, lithologic units, A:110, 181–182, 284

claystone, nannofossil-bearing, photograph, A:285

cobalt, vs. depth, B:158


greigite, B:403–404

magnetite, A:191–192

sediments, A:85–86, 121, 261; B:404

coercivity spectra

demagnetization, A:85

sediments, A:121–122; B:405, 407, 408

color. See variegated color

color bands, lithologic units, A:70–73, 77–78, 246

color reflectance, lithologic units, A:179–182, 281–284

composite section

Site 995, A:180

Site 997, A:282

vs. depth, A:70

compressional wave velocity

attenuation, B:257, 265–272

gas hydrates, B:254–255, 257

in-situ measurements, B:265–272

vs. depth, A:217

concretions. See carbonate concretions

conglomerate. See clay conglomerate


sediments, B:422–423, 426

vs. void ratio, B:427–428

contamination, samples, A:132

continental margin

hydrocarbon gases, B:29–46

sediment instability, A:6

contourite, lithologic units, A:111, 286

cooling, faunal assemblages, B:361–362

copper, vs. depth, B:158

core recovery, vs. depth, A:150, 223, 314


gas hydrates, B:247–249

porosity, B:185

correlation coefficients, major elements, B:148

crenulated structures, photograph, A:72

cross laminations, lithologic units, A:284

crystal habit, gas-hydrate, photomicrograph, A:257

crystal structure, gas hydrates, A:8; B:9, 39, 41–42

cyclopentane, gas hydrates, B:30–35


Davis/Villinger Temperature Probe, sediments, A:311

debris flows

lithologic units, A:246–249

photograph, A:110

See also landslides; mass transport deposits; slumps

decomposition, gas hydrates, B:285–300


hysteresis parameters, B:407

lithologic units, A:69–73, 94–96

photograph, A:71–74, 76–77

See also crenulated structures; liquid limit; overconsolidation; plasticity index; recumbent folds; soft sediment deformation


lithologic units, A:109, 284

methane, B:101–112

photograph, A:108

pressure core sampler, B:113–126

water-sampling probe, A:196


plots, A:84

sediments, A:190–191

Zijderveld plots, A:119, 262, 293; B:412

demagnetization, thermal

sediments, B:404

vs. temperature, A:193

density, grain, vs. depth, A:94–95, 134, 205, 274, 304

density, wet-bulk, vs. depth, A:94–95, 134, 205, 274, 304

density logs

porosity, B:185

vs. depth, A:139, 142–143, 210, 212–214, 308

See also gamma ray–density logs; gamma ray–density–porosity logs


shallow hydrates, B:233–234

See also precipitation; sedimentation


gas hydrates, A:8; B:40–45, 220–221

methane in gas hydrates, B:21–23, 67–77

pore water, B:129–137

vs. carbon isotopes, B:23, 75

vs. chloride, B:223

vs. depth, B:132, 222


authigenic carbonates, B:301–312

cement, A:271–272

lithologic units, A:285

lithology, A:313–314

methanogenesis, B:82–84, 88–92, 227–228

photograph, A:109

photomicrograph, A:75

sedimentation, A:220–221

sediments, A:6, 190, 247–249; B:139–146

siderite and dolomite, A:149

sulfate models, B:93, 95

zonation, B:306–307

See also authigenesis; cementation; induration; magnetic diagenesis


echograms, A:251

geology, A:9–10, 79–80

origin, A:272

rock magnetism, B:401–409

salinity, B:5–7

seafloor pockmarks, A:270–272

side-scan sonar, A:67

diatom abundance

vs. age, B:376

vs. sedimentation rates, B:375


biostratigraphy, B:365–376

lithologic units, A:78, 110, 180–182, 245–246, 284

photograph, B:236

supersaturation, B:233–234

vs. depth, A:78, 111, 181, 283; B:375

Didemnidae, Site 991, A:81

diffusion, chloride profiles, B:132–136


lithologic units, A:75

planktonic foraminifers, B:351


authigenic carbonates, B:287–289, 303–306

crystallography and stable isotopes, B:145

diagenesis, A:149, 314; B:139–146

lithologic units, A:75, 78, 109–111, 180–182, 285

nodules, B:293

photograph, A:109, 182–183

sediments, A:247

vs. depth, A:74; B:155

X-ray diffraction data, A:112

dolomite, authigenic, photomicrograph, A:75

dolomite, ferroan, paramagnetism, A:84

dolomite, microcrystalline, photomicrograph, A:80

dolomite beds, lithologic units, A:283

dolomite nodules

lithologic units, A:283–284

photograph, A:108

dolomite rhombs, scanning electron microscope photomicrographs, B:306

domain structure

magnetite, B:404

See also pseudo single domains

downhole measurements

Site 994, A:122–124, 136–144

Site 995, A:193–197, 207–215

Site 996, A:261–262

Site 997, A:295–297, 307–310

See also well-logging


echograms, diapirs, B:287

epithermal neutron porosity logs, vs. depth, A:141

equilibrium dissociation, gas hydrates, B:22–26


gas hydrate occurring zone, B:55–56

gas hydrates, A:255; B:30–35, 40–45, 51, 53–56

isotopes, B:71–72

lithologic units, A:113

microbial origin, B:73–75

sediments, A:87, 125, 197, 262–263, 297

vs. depth, A:199–200, 268–269, 299; B:53

See also methane/ethane + propane ratio; methane/ethane ratio

ethene, gas hydrates, B:30–35

euphotic zone, nannoflora, B:338


diatom abundance, B:376

See also sea level changes



authigenic carbonates, B:287–289

gas hydrates, A:7

fabric, in-situ, gas hydrates, B:8

factor analysis, spectral data, B:318–323


gas hydrates, A:49–51, 289–290; B:8–9, 262

lithologic units, A:70, 77

seismic controls, B:257–258

See also buried faults; microfaults; shallow faults


lithologic units, A:75, 78, 110–111, 285

vs. depth, A:74

X-ray diffraction data, A:112

See also potassium feldspar

ferrimagnetism, sediments, B:402–404

ferromanganese oxide, photograph, A:107

Fisseler Water Sampler, pore water, A:296

fissility, lithologic units, A:284

fluid flow

gas hydrates, A:7; B:9, 219–228

precipitation, B:290–291

salinity, A:130–132

shallow hydrates, B:233–234

fluid seepage, diagenesis, A:247

fluid venting, gas hydrates, B:285–300


lithologic units, A:70, 77

photograph, A:72

See also recumbent folds

foliation, magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, A:86

foraminifer beds, lithologic units, A:283


isotope stratigraphy, B:173–175

lithologic units, A:69, 79, 110–111, 179–181, 245–246, 284

Neogene, B:343–363

photograph, A:107

photomicrograph, B:290

scanning electron microscopy, B:291

Varimax factore matrix, B:358

vs. depth, B:351–362

foraminifers, planktonic

assemblages, B:350

biostratigraphy, B:344–363

coiling change, B:350

preservation and dissolution, B:351

species diversity, B:351, 353

formation evaluation, geochemical logs, B:199–215


gas hydrates, A:8; B:45, 102–104

oxygen isotopes, B:59–66

fractionation factor

noble gases, B:167–168

vs. depth, B:76


lithologic units, A:110

photograph, A:62, 259

fragmentograms, sediments, B:50

frequency, vs. depth, B:270


gamma ray–density logs, A:323–326

gamma ray–density–porosity logs

Site 994, A:158–160, 167–170

Site 995, A:230–233

gamma ray–resistivity–sonic logs

Site 994, A:161–163, 171–174

Site 995, A:234–237

Site 997, A:327–330

gamma-ray logs

Site 995, A:227–229

vs. depth, A:139–140, 156–157, 210–211, 227–229, 308, 320–322

gamma rays

sediments, A:91–93, 133, 201, 269, 304

vs. depth, A:94–95, 134, 205, 274, 304

gas/water volume ratio, gas hydrates, B:39–43

gas composition

collection chambers, A:301

pressure core sampler, A:296

gas fields, gas hydrate detection, B:169

gas hydrate concentration

estimate, B:221–224

vs. depth, B:195–197, 214–215, 223, 281

gas hydrate occurring zone, gas composition, B:55–56

gas hydrates

acoustic velocity, A:144

bacteria, B:387–388

carbonate nodules, B:9, 309–310

Carolina Rise, A:5–12

catwalk temperature, A:288

chloride, A:200

chloride enrichment, A:89–90

chlorinity, A:317

composition, A:255, 287–288, 297; B:13–28, 30–46

composition and gas volume, A:257

compressional wave velocity, B:265–272

concentration, B:247–249, 277–278

continental margin, B:29–36

cores, A:184

crystal structure, A:8; B:9, 39, 41–42

decomposition, B:285–300

defining zone of occurrence, A:151

depth to base, A:316

detection and indications, A:221–222, 314–317; B:169, 179–191

direct sampling, A:314

discrepancy between observed and predicted base of stability, A:151, 315

dissociation, A:130–132

distribution, A:275, 316

equilibrium dissociation, B:22–26

estimates, A:151–152, 315–316

gas-collection chambers, A:185, 288–289

habit, A:223, 317

hydration number, B:16–20

in-situ fabric, B:8

isothermal decompression analysis system, B:437–438

lateral variability, B:8

lithologic units, A:111–114; B:229–236

log units, A:142–144

microscale distribution, B:261–262

migration, B:8–9

noble gases, B:165–170

nodules, A:305

occurrence, A:222, 270–271, 289–290, 315; B:13–15, 183–185

origin of fresher pore water, A:317

overview, B:3–10

photograph, B:5, 15, 41

photomicrograph, A:257–258

physical properties, B:8

physical properties units, A:213–215

pore water, B:59–66

pressure–temperature conditions, B:22–26

proxy measurements, A:150–151, 221–222, 314–315

reflectors, B:8, 273–281

saturation, B:61–63, 187–189, 210–212

seafloor pockmarks, A:271

seismic and thermal surveys, B:253–264

Site 996, A:249–255

Site 997, A:286–290

sources, A:7; B:168–170

stability zone, A:193, 222, 294

structure, B:16–20

temperature, A:144, 255

volume, A:194–195, 222–223; B:189–191, 193–198

vs. depth, A:154, 224, 317; B:66

well-logging, A:309–310; B:193–198

X-ray CT imagery, B:14–15

See also methane; natural gas

gas hydrates, massive, photograph, A:287

gas hydrates, vein-type, photograph, A:259

gas hydrates and indications, detection, A:149–152

gas release, sediment recovery, B:125–126

gas venting, seafloor, hydrogen sulfide, B:6

gas voids, sediments, A:87

gas volume

collection chambers, A:255–256

vs. depth, A:116, 187, 260, 289

vs. methane/ethane ratio, A:266


collection chambers, A:125, 127, 197, 201, 268, 297

composition, A:89–90, 124; B:384, 386–387

continental margin, B:29–36

gas hydrates, B:20–22

geochemistry, B:30–46

hydrate gas vs. sediment gas, B:43–45

in-situ sampling, B:5

isotopes, B:67–77

pressure core sampler, A:194, 266, 295

release experiments, A:193–194

sources, B:224–225

time–pressure–volume plots, A:265

volume, A:89, 114, 186

See also methane; microbial gases; natural gas; thermogenic gases; water/gas molar ratio

gases, free

chromatograms, A:200, 300

composition, A:126, 199, 268, 299

samplers, A:197

sediments, A:125, 297

volume, B:189–191, 277–278

gases, headspace

composition, A:88, 125, 199, 267, 297–298

sediments, A:125–128, 262–263

gases, residual, gas hydrates, B:30–36

Gauss Chron. See Gilbert/Gauss boundary

Gauss/Matuyama boundary, sediments, A:189, 292

geochemical logs

formation evaluation, B:199–215

Site 995, A:238–240

Site 997, A:331–334

vs. depth, A:140, 156–157, 164–165, 211

See also aluminum logs; potassium logs; thorium logs; uranium logs

geochemical stratigraphy, trace elements, B:155–163


authigenic carbonates, B:291–294

gases, B:30–35, 40–45

sample storage effects, A:199

sediments, B:147–149

See also biogeochemical cycling

geochemistry, inorganic

Site 994, A:128–132

Site 995, A:198–200

Site 996, A:264–266

Site 997, A:298, 300–301; B:147–149, 151–163

Sites 991–993, A:88–90

geochemistry, organic

Site 994, A:124–128; B:49

Site 995, A:197; B:49

Site 996, A:262–264

Site 997, A:297–298; B:49

Sites 991–993, A:87–88


sediments, B:325–327

See also carbon-14 age


deep-marine sediments, B:379–391

See also bacteria


Site 994, A:135–136

Site 995, A:204–207

Site 997, A:305–307

geotechnical properties

sediments, B:421–429

See also physical properties

geothermal gradient

free gases, B:261

heat flow, A:146, 219–220

sediments, A:312–313

vs. depth, A:149, 152, 216

Gephyrocapsa taxa, intermittent occurrence, B:333, 336

Gilbert Chron. See Anomaly 5/Gilbert boundary

Gilbert/Gauss boundary, sediments, A:190

glacial/interglacial cycles

lithologic units, A:111

lithology, A:184

Neogene, B:358–362

glaciation, sea-level changes, A:6


lithologic units, A:108–110, 283–284

spectral data, B:319–322

glauconite beds, lithologic units, A:283

Globigerina, vs. depth, B:354, 356

Globigerinella, vs. depth, B:353

Globigerinita, vs. depth, B:354

Globigerinoides, vs. depth, B:353

Globorotalia, vs. depth, B:355–356

goethite, spectral data, B:319–320

graded bedding, photograph, A:107

grain size

porosity, B:434

sediments, B:237–245, 395–396

vs. chlorinity, B:238–245

vs. depth, B:238–245


coercivity, A:191, 261; B:403–404

rock magnetism, A:120–122

Gulf Stream. See warm-water (Gulf Stream) assemblage

gyre-margin/slope-water assemblage, faunal assemblages, B:357–358


faunal assemblages, B:357–362

Pliocene, B:339


hafnium, vs. depth, B:161

heat flow

geothermal gradient, A:146, 219–220

sediments, A:312–313

helium, time–pressure–volume plots, A:265

helium isotopes, gas hydrates, B:169


coercivity, A:191–192

Perkin-Elmer data vs. depth, B:317–318

sediments, B:316–317

spectral data, B:319–320

heptanes. See isoheptane; n-heptane

hexanes. See isohexane; methylcyclohexane; n-hexane; neohexane

Holocene, lithologic units, A:69, 75–78, 94–96, 105–108, 179, 245–246, 281–283


vs. depth, B:50

See also beta-hopanes

hopenes, sediments, B:48–51, 54

huminite. See vitrinite

hydration number, gas hydrates, A:8; B:16–20

hydrocarbon molecular ratios, vs. carbon isotopes, B:23


continental margin, B:29–46

sediments, B:47–58, 68–77

thermogenesis, A:298

See also hexanes; hopanes; hopenes; isoprenoids; methane; pentanes; propane; triterpenoids

hydrocarbons, visible, sediments, A:297–298

hydrocarbons, volatile, sediments, A:87–88, 125, 197, 262–263, 297

hydrogen index

sediments, A:87, 298; B:54

vs. oxygen index, B:53

hydrogen isotopes. See deuterium

hydrogen sulfide

gas venting, B:6

sediments, A:263

vs. depth, A:268


carbonates, A:266

gas hydrates, A:8

hydrophones, seismic surveys, A:45

hysteresis, parameters

anoxic conditions, B:402–404

vs. depth, B:404, 406


ice, photomicrograph, A:258

IDAS. See isothermal decompression analysis system


carbon/oxygen ratio, B:205–206

spectral data, B:320–321

vs. depth, B:207–208

in-situ measurements, compressional wave velocity, B:265–272

index properties, sediments, A:91–94, 133, 201, 205, 269, 273, 303–304; B:421, 423


carbonates, A:266

cement, A:271–272

photograph, A:182

inertinite, sediments, B:50–56

interglacials. See glacial/interglacial cycles

interstitial water. See pore water

Intertropical Convergence Zone, faunal assemblages, B:360


authigenic carbonates, B:287–289

lithologic units, A:247

photomicrograph, A:255; B:290

iodide, vs. depth, B:134

ion exclusion, chloride enrichment, A:89–90

ions, diffusion, A:130–132

iron, vs. depth, B:155

iron oxides, spectral data, B:319–322

iron sulfides, magnetic susceptibility, A:119–120

isoalkanes, sediments, A:197


gas hydrates, B:30–35, 40–45

sediments, A:263, 296

isobutane/n-butane ratio, vs. depth, A:300

isoheptane, gas hydrates, B:30–35

isohexane, gas hydrates, B:30–35


gas hydrates, B:30–35

sediments, A:263

isopentane/n-pentane ratio, vs. depth, A:300

isoprenoids, sediments, B:48–51

isothermal decompression analysis system, status, B:437–438

isotope stratigraphy

carbon isotopes, B:77

oxygen isotopes, B:173–175


gas hydrates, A:8; B:41, 44–45

noble gases, B:169

vs. depth, B:89

See also chlorine isotopes; helium isotopes; nitrogen isotopes; oxygen isotopes; stable isotopes