168 Subject Index

accretionary prisms, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10

Acrodisk filter, transmission electron microscope data, B:172

advection, geochemistry, B:101–102

age vs. depth

Sites 1023–1025, A:78

Sites 1026–1027, A:141

Sites 1028–1032, A:176

age profiles

calcareous nannofossils, A:77–78

Sites 1023–1025, A:77–79

Sites 1026–1027, A:133–134

Sites 1028–1032, A:175

alkali metals, pore water, A:83

alkaline earths, pore water, A:83


diagenesis, A:80

fluid flow, A:84

pore water, A:176–177

vs. depth, A:83, 144, 180; B:98–102

vs. sulfate, A:84

alpha-quartz, alteration, A:73


basalts, A:70

basement, A:70–77, 103, 124, 126–133, 173–175

intensity, A:128; B:121, 133–134

mineralogy, A:75–77, 123–133

petrography, B:169

photomicrograph, A:121

pillow basalts, B:119–157

secondary clays, B:149–157

secondary minerals, A:173–175

sediments, A:112–113, 169; B:4

style, B:126, 128–131

thermal transport, A:11

transects, A:17, 19

See also rims; secondary minerals

alteration, massive

chemical variations across layers, B:130

diffusion, B:131

hypocrystalline and holocrystalline pillows interiors, B:128–131

volcanic glass, B:129

alteration, reducing, fractures, B:131–133

alteration halos

composition, A:73–74, 77

petrology, A:129, 174

photograph, A:73

photomicrograph, A:74–75, 135

secondary minerals, B:132

See also oxidation halos


microorganisms, B:170–171

vs. iron/(iron + magnesium) ratio, B:154

aluminum, tetrahedral, vs. interlayer potassium, B:154

aluminum oxide

alteration, A:124

altered glass, B:128

diabase, A:123

vs. copper oxide, B:171

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125, 139

amino acids, fluid flow, B:4–5


bacteria, B:164

diagenesis, A:80

fluid flow, A:84

organic matter, A:83

pore water, A:176

vs. depth, A:83, 144, 180; B:164

vs. sulfate, A:84

amphibole, turbidites, A:57–59, 111–112

amplitude logs

vs. depth, A:201

See also synthetic seismograms

amygdules, carbonate, photomicrograph, A:134

anisotropy, compressional wave velocity, A:156

aphanitic. See textures


alteration, A:74; B:123, 126

electron microprobe data, B:141–142

geothermometry, B:145

laser-ablation and ICP-MS data, B:145

massive alteration, B:129

petrography, B:119–148

photomicrograph, A:138; B:147–148

reduction, B:133

See also calcite; carbonate compensation depth; carbonate content; carbonates

aragonite, fibrous, textures, B:139

aragonite dissolution, vs. depth, B:98–102

Archaea, microorganisms, B:172

Astoria Canyon

dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62

sedimentation rates, B:52

Astoria Fan, dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62



fluid flow, B:4–5

reduction, A:135–137

sediments, B:161–165

vs. depth, B:163–164

See also microorganisms

barium, vs. depth, B:107–109, 111, 113, 115

Barkley–Nitinat Canyon network, sedimentation rates, B:52


alteration, A:70

basement, A:169–175

drilling, A:14, 19

geochemistry, A:70, 123–124, 126

lithologic units, A:113–114

microorganisms, B:167–174

modal mineral abundances in thin sections, A:66, 119, 172

petrography, A:127

petrology, A:114–123, 171

photograph, A:73

physical properties, A:15, 94, 141, 152

secondary clays, B:149–157

secondary minerals, A:72, 128

See also ferrobasalts; pillow basalts; rubble

basalts, altered, photograph, A:117

basalts, aphyric

chilled margins, A:120, 122

photomicrograph, A:120, 122

basalts, aphyric massive, lithologic units, A:113–114

basalts, microcrystalline, photomicrograph, A:136

basalts, phyric, photomicrograph, A:121


alteration, A:70–77, 103, 124, 126–133, 162, 173–175

basalts, A:113–114

convection, B:4

fluid flow, A:137–138

heat flow, A:30–31

lithologic units, A:169–175

lithology, A:59–77, 113–133, 169–175

relief, A:9–10, 50–52

sealing, B:71

seismic profiles, B:14–15, 17–19

water/rock reactions, A:84–85

basement ridges, heat flow, A:52


hemipelagic mud, B:51

hydrothermal circulation, A:9

Rough Basement Transect, A:103

water circulation, A:50–52

biochronology, calcareous nannofossils, B:39–49

biogenic component, lithologic units, A:57


calcareous nannofossils, A:77–78, 133–134, 175; B:39–49

Sites 1023–1025, A:77–78

biotite, turbidites, A:57–59

bioturbation, lithologic units, A:57, 109–111, 167–169

blebs, pyrite, sketches, A:131

borehole positions, seismic profiles, A:105, 165

boron, vs. depth, B:107–110, 112, 114

botryoidal. See habit

Bouma sequences, lithologic units, A:57


microorganisms, B:167–174

petrology, A:114–115

breccia, basalt, photograph, A:117

breccia, basalt–hyaloclastite

lithologic units, A:113–114, 119, 131–132

photograph, A:117

photomicrograph, A:121, 138

breccia, hyaloclastite, glassy rims, B:126, 128

breccia, volcanic, fluid flow, B:4–5

British Columbia, sediment provenance, B:56

Brunhes/Matuyama boundary, magnetostratigraphy, A:175

Brunhes Chron, magnetostratigraphy, A:78

Bullard plot, heat flow, A:99, 157

Buried Basement Transect

basement, A:11–12

drilling, A:17–18

geochemistry, B:100–102

site description, A:161–212

stratigraphy, B:53



alteration, B:123, 126

diagenesis, A:80, 85

electron microprobe data, B:140, 142

laser-ablation and ICP-MS data, B:145

massive alteration, B:129

petrography, B:119–148

photomicrograph, A:137; B:147–148

sketches, A:131

vs. depth, A:61, 112, 170

See also aragonite; calcium carbonate; carbonate compensation depth; carbonate content; carbonates; veins

calcite, anhedral, glassy rims, B:126

calcite, blocky, textures, B:139

calcite, fibrous, photomicrograph, A:136

calcite, sparry radial, photomicrograph, A:134

calcite dissolution

vs. depth, B:98–102

vs. temperature, B:97


equivalent fraction, B:87–94

fluid flow, A:137–138

pore water, A:11, 83

reduction, B:133

vs. depth, A:83, 144, 181

water/rock reactions, A:84–85

See also magnesium/calcium ratio; strontium/calcium ratio

calcium, observed depletion, vs. predicted calcium depletion, A:84

calcium/cobalt ratio, carbonates, B:141

calcium/copper ratio, carbonates, B:141

calcium/iron ratio, carbonates, B:141

calcium/strontium ratio, carbonates, B:141

calcium/zinc ratio, carbonates, B:141

calcium carbonate

alteration, A:73, 173

diagenesis, A:80

secondary minerals, A:126

stability, B:95–103

See also calcite; carbonate content; carbonates

calcium oxide

altered glass, B:128

diabase, A:123

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125, 139

caliper logs, vs. depth, A:203–205

carbon, organic

bacteria, B:164

sediments, A:85, 139, 177

vs. nitrogen, A:84

carbon, total organic

vs. carbon/nitrogen ratio, A:147

vs. depth, A:86, 146, 185; B:164

vs. total nitrogen, A:86, 147, 185

carbon/nitrogen ratio

organic matter, A:83, 86, 140, 177

vs. total organic carbon, A:147

carbon dioxide

alteration, A:123

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125

carbonate compensation depth

nannofossils, B:47–48

temperature, B:97

See also aragonite dissolution; calcite dissolution; dissolution

carbonate content

nannofossils, B:45–46

turbidites, A:57, 111, 169

vs. depth, A:59, 111; B:46

See also aragonite; calcite


chemical composition, B:128, 139

composition variations in three generations across a vein, B:131

diffusion, B:131

photograph, A:118

photomicrograph, A:134–135; B:136, 147–148

textures, B:139

See also aragonite; calcite; magnesium carbonate; manganese carbonate; veins

Cascade Range, sediment provenance, B:58

Cascadia accretionary prism, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10

Cascadia Basin

hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10, 50

sediment provenance, B:58

Cascadia Basin NW

sediments, B:67–84

turbidites, B:51–65

Cascadia Channel, sedimentation rates, B:52

Cascadia subduction zone, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10

cation exchange, terrigenous component, B:87–94

cations, vs. iron, B:128

cavity linings, alteration, A:124


alteration, A:70, 72, 75, 77, 123–133; B:122, 127, 134

basalts, A:65

electron microprobe data, B:154–155

greenish to light gray zone, B:130–131

greenish red to green zone, B:130–131

massive alteration, B:129

photomicrograph, A:75, 132, 135; B:136

pillow basalts, A:172–174

reddish brown zone, B:130

reduction, B:131–133

secondary clays, B:150–151

sketches, A:131

X-ray diffraction data, B:123


calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139, 141


alteration, B:126

diabase, A:120

photomicrograph, A:68

channel-levee complexes, deposition, B:52

chilled margins, aphyric basalts, A:120, 122


vs. copper oxide, B:171

vs. depth, A:83, 145, 182

See also sodium/chlorine ratio


fluid flow, A:84

pore water, A:11, 136–137, 176–177

vs. distance from ridge crest, A:16


turbidites, A:57–59

vs. depth, A:113

chlorite + kaolinite, relative abundance vs. depth, B:60

chlorite/smectite minerals, alteration, A:72


microorganisms, B:171

saponite, B:154

chromium oxide, altered glass, B:128

clasts, altered glass, photomicrograph, A:138

clasts, basalt

petrology, A:119

photograph, A:117

photomicrograph, A:121

clasts, carbonate, photomicrograph, B:136

clasts, glassy, photograph, A:117

clasts, glassy rims, B:128

clasts, mud, lithologic units, A:110

clay, vs. depth, B:69, 73, 75–76, 78, 80–84

clay, silty, lithologic units, A:57, 167–169

clay, yellow, alteration, A:173

clay mineralogy

sand, B:55–56

strike-parallel changes, B:62

turbidites, A:112

clay minerals

alteration, A:70, 72, 173–175; B:121–122, 124

relative abundance, B:59

relative abundance vs. depth, B:60

secondary minerals, A:126

See also celadonite; chlorite; chlorite + kaolinite; chlorite/smectite minerals; iddingsite; illite; iron oxyhydroxides–clay minerals mixtures; saponite; smectite

clay percentage, sediments, B:69–71


geochemistry, B:149–157

iron–potassium–magnesium plot, B:134

microorganisms, B:170–171

photograph, A:118, 136

photomicrograph, A:135

provenance, B:59–61

veins, A:74–75

vs. feldspar, A:60

X-ray diffractograms, A:113

See also veins

clays, saponitic, photograph, A:117

clots, glomeroporphyritic

basalts, A:65

petrology, A:119

photomicrograph, A:124

phyric and aphyric basalts, A:122–123

pillow basalts, A:172–173

Coast Plutonic Complex, sediment provenance, B:56


carbonates, B:141

saponite, B:154

See also calcium/cobalt ratio


preservation, B:43–44

See also nannofossils

color bands, lithologic units, A:57, 167–169

Columbia River

dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62

sediment provenance, B:58–59

Columbia River estuary, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10

Columbia River valley, sedimentation rates, B:52

compressional wave velocity

anisotropy, A:156

sediments, A:87, 140–141, 179

vs. depth, A:89, 91, 93, 95–96, 149, 151, 155, 187, 189–192

contorted beds, lithologic units, A:110


basement, B:4

heat flow, A:30–31

convoluted beds, lithologic units, A:57, 167–169


calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139, 141

microorganisms, B:170–171

saponite, B:154

See also calcium/copper ratio

copper oxide

vs. aluminum oxide, B:171

vs. chlorine, B:171

vs. magnesium oxide, B:171

vs. silica, B:171

core–log correlation, hemipelagic marine sediments, B:21–35

cores, hemipelagic marine sediments, B:21–35

CORK experiments

Sites 1023–1025, A:97–98

Sites 1026–1027, A:153

correlation, Reticulofenestra spp., B:43

Costa Rica Rift, alteration, B:140

cracks, petrography, B:120–121

cracks, shrinkage, massive alteration, B:129, 134

cross-laminations, lithologic units, A:57, 168–169

crust, igneous, water circulation, A:50–52; B:3–5

crust, oceanic, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–21

cryptocrystalline. See textures

crystallinity, massive alteration, B:134

cyclic processes, lithologic units, A:57, 110


debris-flow deposits

lithologic units, A:109–111

vs. depth, A:110

See also gravity-flow deposits

demagnetization, vector end-point diagrams, A:79–80

demagnetization, alternating-field

Brunhes/Matuyama boundary, A:80

Sediments, A:78, 175


sediments, A:86–87

vs. depth, B:26–30

density, bulk

lithostratigraphic units, A:88, 90, 92, 148, 150, 186, 188

sediments, B:69–71

vs. clay content, B:70, 74–75, 77, 79–80, 82–84

vs. depth, A:190–192, 194

vs. mean grain size, B:70–71, 74–75, 77, 79–80, 82–84

density, grain

lithostratigraphic units, A:88, 90, 92, 148, 150, 186, 188

vs. depth, A:190–192, 194

density, GRAPE, vs. depth, A:154

density, GRAPE bulk

vs. index properties bulk density, A:95

vs. magnetic susceptibility, A:95

density, index properties bulk, vs. GRAPE bulk density, A:95

density logs, vs. depth, A:198 201

depletion, geochemistry, B:138–142


hemipelagic mud, B:52

sediments, A:103

detrital modes, comparison, B:62

deuterium, vs. depth, B:107–109, 111, 113, 115


lithologic units, A:113–114, 119–120

petrology, A:115

photograph, A:118

photomicrograph, A:122 136


calcareous nannofossils, B:39–49

geochemistry, B:99–105

inorganic matter, A:80, 83, 135–137

organic matter, A:80, 176

turbidites, A:83–84

See also recrystallization


alteration, B:131

methane, A:83


nannofossils, B:45–48

pore water, A:84

See also aragonite dissolution; calcite dissolution; nannofossil dissolution stages

distribution coefficients, carbonate veins, B:146


thermal waters, B:167–174

See also Archaea; microorganisms; nucleic acids

downhole measurements, A:180–181


elastic properties, hemipelagic marine sediments, B:21–35

equivalent fraction, vs. depth, B:93–94

Escherichia coli, microorganisms, B:169–172


correlation with sulfate, A:138–139

vs. depth, A:146

See also methane/ethane ratio

euhedral. See habit; zeolites


faults, block, basement, A:51

faults, normal, lithologic units, A:110–111


sand, B:54–56

See also phyllosilicates/feldspar ratio; plagioclase; potassium feldspar; quartz/feldspar ratio

feldspar, total

vs. depth, A:61, 112, 170

vs. total phyllosilicates, A:60, 111


grain size, A:67

lithologic units, A:59–70

petrography, B:120–121

photomicrograph, A:67

ferrobasalts, aphyric massive, lithologic units, A:61–65

ferrobasalts, oceanic, classification, A:70

fluid circulation

cation exchange, B:87–94

heat flow, A:30–31

fluid flow

basement, A:12–14

basement reactions, A:137–138

crust, A:9–10, 50–51

diagenesis, A:176–177

heat flow, A:30–31

temperature, B:47

fluid flow, long-distance, hydrothermal circulation, B:3–5

fluid geochemistry, Sites 1023–1025, A:79–85

fluid inclusions, aragonite, B:139, 145

fluorine, vs. depth, B:107–110, 112, 114

formation factor

sediments, A:94, 141, 179

vs. depth, A:89, 91, 93, 149, 151, 187, 189–192

Formation MicroScanner imagery, vs. depth, A:199, 203–204

formation water, energy dispersive chemical composition, B:171

fracture fillings, alteration, A:124


massive alteration, B:128–131

petrography, B:169

photograph, A:118

reducing alteration, B:131–133

See also microfractures

framboids, diagenesis, A:80

Fraser River delta, sediment provenance, B:59


gamma rays

lithostratigraphic units, A:88, 90, 92, 148, 150, 186, 188

vs. depth, A:154, 190–192

vs. distance from basement, A:193

gamma-ray logs, vs. depth, A:198, 203–210

gas vesicles. See vesicles

geochemical logs, vs. depth, A:211–212


basalts, A:70, 123–124, 126

clays, B:149–157

igneous rocks, A:59–77

pore water, A:81–82, 142–144, 183–184

terrigenous component, B:87–94

geochemistry, fluid

Sites 1026–1027, A:134–138

Sites 1028–1032, A:176–177

geochemistry, organic

Sites 1023–1025, A:85–86

Sites 1026–1027, A:138–140

Sites 1028–1032, A:177

geopetal. See textures

geopetal fills, petrology, A:65

geothermal gradient

basalts, A:95–96

basement, A:99, 158, 198

sediments, A:144

geothermometry, fluid inclusions, B:142, 145

glaciation, deposition, B:52

glass shards, photomicrograph, A:121

glauconite, electron microprobe data, B:154

globular. See habit

glomeroporphyritic. See clots; textures


alteration, B:122–123

massive alteration, B:129

reddish brown zone, B:130

grain size

ferrobasalts, A:67

photograph, A:64

sediments, B:69–71

grain size, mean, vs. depth, B:69, 73, 75–76, 78, 80–81, 83–84

gravity-flow deposits

lithologic units, A:110

See also debris-flow deposits

Grays Harbor estuary, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10

greenish red–green zone, oxidation halos, B:130–131

greenish–light gray zone, oxidation halos, B:130–131


basalts, A:116–119

lithologic units, A:60–70

pillow basalts, A:170, 172–173


habit, botryoidal, binocular microscope photograph, A:76

habit, euhedral crystals, petrography, B:121

habit, globular

binocular microscope photograph, A:76

photomicrograph, A:75

hafnium, saponite, B:154

heat flow

basalts, A:95–96

basement, A:11–12, 51–52, 99, 158, 198

Bullard plot, A:99, 157

sediments, A:180

seismic Layer 2a, A:52

temperature, B:47

vs. distance from ridge axis, A:11, 33, 99

heat flow, seafloor, FrankFlux studies, A:23–33


alteration, B:122–123

massive alteration, B:129

reddish brown zone, B:130

hemipelagic. See layers; mud


nannofossil events, B:43–44

Quaternary, A:175


physical properties, A:152

See also breccia


headspace composition, A:85, 146, 185

See also ethane; methane; propane

hydrocarbons, volatile, headspace composition, A:85, 137–138, 177

hydrogen, sediments, A:86, 139–140, 177

hydrogen, total, vs. depth, A:86, 146, 185

hydrogen index, vs. oxygen index, A:87, 147

hydrogen isotopes

vs. depth, B:107–109, 111, 113, 115

See also deuterium

hydrogen sulfide, diagenesis, A:80

hydrothermal chimneys, heat flow, A:30–31

hydrothermal circulation

carbonate veins, B:146

oceanic crust, A:7–21, 50

upper igneous crust, B:3–5

Hydrothermal Transition Transect

basement, A:10–11

drilling, A:14–17

geochemistry, B:99

modal point-count data of secondary minerals, A:73

secondary minerals, A:72

site description, A:49–100

stratigraphy, B:52

X-ray diffraction data, A:72

X-ray fluorescence data, A:71

hydroxyls, alteration, B:122

hyperthermophylic. See microorganisms



alteration, A:72, 75, 77, 173–175; B:122–123, 134

basalts, A:65

greenish red to green zone, B:130–131

greenish to light gray zone, B:130–131

massive alteration, B:129

photomicrograph, A:75, 132; B:136

reddish brown zone, B:130

reduction, B:131–133

secondary clays, B:150–151

secondary minerals, A:126, 129, 133

sketches, A:131

igneous rocks

basement, A:11–12

geochemistry, A:59–77

lithostratigraphic logs, A:62


relative abundance vs. depth, B:60

sand, B:55–56

turbidites, A:57–59, 111–112

illite/smectite mixed minerals, turbidites, A:112

index properties, sediments, A:140, 178–179

induration, lithologic units, A:110

inorganic matter, diagenesis, A:80, 83, 135–137

intergranular. See textures

intersertal. See textures

intraformational. See mud chips


microorganisms, B:171

reduction, B:131–133

vs. cations, B:128

vs. depth, B:107–110, 112, 114

vs. magnesium, B:126

See also calcium/iron ratio; magnesium/iron ratio

iron, total, vs. total magnesium, B:157

iron–potassium–magnesium plot, clays, B:134

iron/(iron + magnesium) ratio

vs. aluminum, B:154

vs. potassium, B:154

iron carbonate

calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139–142

iron oxide

altered glass, B:128

carbonates, B:144

diabase, A:123

reduction, B:131–133

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125, 139

See also goethite; hematite; maghemite; magnetite; titanomaghemite; titanomagnetite

iron oxide/(iron oxide + magnesium oxide) ratio, vs. potassium oxide, B:133

iron oxide ratio

alteration, B:121–122

vs. distance from ridge axis, B:122

iron oxyhydroxides

alteration, B:122–123, 134

glassy rims, B:126

reddish brown zone, B:130

reduction, B:131–133

secondary clays, B:150–151

iron oxyhydroxides–clay minerals mixtures, alteration, B:122–123

isotopes, pore water, B:105–115


Juan de Fuca Canyon, sedimentation rates, B:52

Juan de Fuca Channel

dispersal regional patterns, B:62

sedimentation rates, B:52

Juan de Fuca Ridge E

alteration, B:119–165

bacteria, B:161–165

biochronology, B:39–49

geochemistry, B:87–103, 105–115

hydrothermal circulation, A:7–21; B:3–4

microorganisms, B:167–174

pillow basalts, B:119–136

seismic profiles, B:9–19

turbidites, B:51–65

Juan de Fuca Strait, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10


kaolinite. See chlorite + kaolinite



lithologic units, A:57, 109–111, 167–169

See also cross-laminations


calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139, 141

layers, hemipelagic, fluid flow, B:47


calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139, 141

lithic fragments, sand, B:54–56

lithium, vs. depth, B:107–110, 112, 114

lithologic units

basalts, A:113–114

basement, A:169–175

petrography, A:63

Unit I, A:57, 109–110, 167–169

Unit II, A:57, 110, 167–169

Unit III, A:110–111

lithology, basement, A:59–77

lithostratigraphic logs, igneous rocks, A:62


Sites 1023–1025, A:57–59

Sites 1026–1027, A:109–113

Sites 1028–1032, A:166–169

loss on ignition

alteration, B:121–121

vs. distance from ridge axis, B:122


maghemite, petrology, A:118–119


carbonates, B:139, 141

equivalent fraction, B:87–94

pore water, A:11, 83, 135–136, 176

vs. depth, A:83, 144, 181

vs. iron, B:126

See also iron–potassium–magnesium plot; iron/(iron + magnesium) ratio

magnesium, total, vs. total iron, B:157

magnesium/calcium ratio, vs. depth, B:98–102

magnesium/iron ratio

celadonite, B:151, 154

saponite, B:151, 154

magnesium carbonate

calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139–142

magnesium number

alteration, B:120–121

saponite, B:154

vs. oxides, A:71, 125, 139

magnesium oxide

alteration, A:124

altered glass, B:128

carbonates, B:139, 144

reduction, B:131–133

vs. copper oxide, B:171

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125

See also iron oxide/(iron oxide + magnesium oxide) ratio

magnetic anomalies, hydrothermal circulation, A:8

magnetic declination, Brunhes/Matuyama boundary, A:80

magnetic inclination

Brunhes/Matuyama boundary, A:80

sediments, A:175

vs. depth, A:79–80, 177–179

magnetic period, vs. depth, A:177–179

magnetic polarity

age of transitions vs. distance from ridge axis, A:9

magnetostratigraphy, A:78

vs. depth, A:177–179

magnetic reversals, stratigraphic list, A:77

magnetic susceptibility

Brunhes/Matuyama boundary, A:80

lithostratigraphic units, A:88, 90, 92, 148, 150, 186, 188

sediments, A:86–87

vs. depth, A:95, 154, 190–192

vs. GRAPE bulk density, A:95


chilled margins, A:122

petrology, A:118–119

photomicrograph, A:68


cross-section, A:179

Sites 1023–1025, A:78–79

major elements, secondary clays, B:149–157


reduction, B:133

vs. depth, B:107–110, 112, 114

manganese carbonate

calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139–142

manganese oxide

carbonates, B:144

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125

marker species, coccoliths, B:43

Matuyama Chron

magnetostratigraphy, A:78

See also Brunhes/Matuyama boundary


alteration, A:73, 125–133

chilled margins, A:120, 122

lithologic units, A:60–70

petrology, A:119

photomicrograph, A:68–69

reddish brown zone, B:130

mesostasis, interstitial, photomicrograph, A:125


bacteria, B:164–165

correlation with sulfate, A:85, 138–139

diffusion, A:83

drilling, A:14, 19

sulfate, A:177

vs. depth, A:85, 146, 185; B:164

methane/ethane ratio, vs. depth, A:146


diagenesis, A:80

sulfate, A:85

mica, vs. depth, A:113

microbial activity, fluid flow, B:4–5

microbial floc, scanning electron microscope data, B:170

microbiology, microorganisms, B:169–172

microfractures, photomicrograph, A:74

microglomeroporphyritic. See textures

microlaths, basalts, A:65, 69


alteration, A:73, 116–129

petrology, A:65, 69


laser confocal image, B:173

thermal waters, B:167–174

See also Archaea; bacteria; DNA; Escherichia coli

microorganisms, anaerobic, vents, B:172

microorganisms, hyperthermophylic, vents, B:172


alteration, B:126

secondary minerals, A:128

mineralogy, pillow basalts, B:119–157

minor elements, carbonates, B:138–141, 144

mottling, lithologic units, A:110

mud, physical properties, A:94, 193

mud, hemipelagic

composition and provenance, B:51–65

lithologic units, A:57, 109–111, 167–169

nannofossils, B:44–45

petrography, B:56

mud chips, intraformational, sand, B:54–56

mudstone, turbidites, A:111

multisensor track data

physical properties, A:86–87

sediments, A:140, 178

muscovite, turbidites, A:57–59, 111–112