168 Subject Index

nannofossil dissolution stages, vs. depth, B:45–46

nannofossil events

depths, B:42

stratigraphic list, A:77, 140, 175

nannofossil group abundance, vs. depth, B:45–46

nannofossil overgrowth stages, vs. depth, B:45–46


lithologic units, A:57, 168–169

relative group abundance, B:44–46

transects, A:17, 19

turbidites, A:57, 111

See also coccoliths

nannofossils, calcareous

age profiles, A:77–78, 133–134

biochronology, B:39–49

biostratigraphy, A:133–134, 175

neutron porosity logs, vs. depth, A:205–206


calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139, 141

microorganisms, B:171

nickel oxide, altered glass, B:128

niobium, saponite, B:154

Nitinat Fan

regional dispersal patterns, B:62

sedimentation rates, B:52

See also Barkley–Nitinat Canyon network

Nitinat Valley, sedimentation rates, B:52


sediments, A:86, 139–140, 177

vs. depth, A:86

vs. organic carbon, A:84

See also carbon/nitrogen ratio

nitrogen, total

vs. depth, A:146, 185

vs. total organic carbon, A:86, 147, 185

nodules, pyrite, A:112–113

nucleic acids, microorganisms, B:171


oceanography, hemipelagic mud, B:51


alteration, A:73

basalts, A:116–119

chilled margins, A:120, 122

diabase, A:120

lithologic units, A:59–70

petrography, B:120–121

petrology, A:116–119, 123, 126

photomicrograph, A:137

reddish brown zone, B:130

Olympic Peninsula

dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62

sediment provenance, B:56

opaque oxides, petrology, A:118

ophitic. See textures


sediment provenance, B:59

See also Washington–Oregon shelf

organic matter

carbon/nitrogen ratio, A:177

diagenesis, A:80, 176

reduction, A:135–137

sediments, A:140

types, A:86

overconsolidation, basement, B:71

overgrowth, nannofossils, B:45–47


alteration, A:77, 132–133; B:119–136

photomicrograph, A:74

oxidation halos

massive alteration, B:129–131

photomicrograph, B:136

oxygen index, vs. hydrogen index, A:87, 147

oxygen isotopes, vs. depth, B:107–109, 111, 113, 115


packer experiments

Sites 1023–1025, A:96–97

Sites 1026–1027, A:146–147, 153

palagonite, glassy rims, B:126, 134


alteration, A:77

basement, A:12–14; B:4

heat flow, A:30–31

packer experiments, A:146–147, 153


alteration, B:119–136

basalts, A:127

calcite, B:119–148

lithologic units, A:63

sand, B:54–56

secondary clays, B:150–151


basalts, A:114–123, 171

pillow basalts, A:170–173

Sites 1023–1025, A:59–77


pore water, B:47–48

vs. depth, A:83, 145, 182; B:98–102


basalts, A:116–119

lithologic units, A:60–70

petrography, B:120–121

petrology, A:115

photomicrograph, A:137

pillow basalts, A:170, 172–173

plagioclase, A:119

phenocrysts, olivine, photomicrograph, A:67

phenocrysts, plagioclase, photomicrograph, A:67

phillipsite, alteration, B:126

phillipsite, fibrous, glassy rims, B:126


pore water, A:84, 176

water/rock reactions, A:84–85

phosphorus, vs. depth, A:83, 144

phosphorus oxide

vs. depth, A:180

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125, 139

photoelectric factor logs, vs. depth, A:205–206


turbidites, A:111–112, 169

vs. depth, A:61, 112, 170

See also clay minerals; mica; muscovite

phyllosilicates, total, vs. total feldspar, A:60, 111

phyllosilicates/feldspar ratio, turbidites, A:57–59

physical properties

basalts, A:94

drilling, A:19–20

mud and sand, A:94, 193

sediments, B:67–84

sediments and basalts, A:152

Sites 1023–1025, A:86–94

Sites 1026–1027, A:140–141

Sites 1028–1032, A:177–179

pillow basalts

alteration, B:119–157

basement, A:169–173

lithologic units, A:59–70, 113–114, 122

petrography, B:120–121

petrology, A:170–173

photograph, A:116, 130–131, 136

photomicrograph, A:124

See also basalts; ferrobasalts

pillow basalts, aphyric

lithologic units, A:65, 114, 116–117

petrology, A:172

photomicrograph, A:69

pillow basalts, holocrystalline, massive alteration, B:128–131, 134

pillow basalts, hypocrystalline, massive alteration, B:128–131, 134

pillow basalts, phyric

lithologic units, A:65–69, 117–119

petrology, A:172–173

photomicrograph, A:69


basalts, A:116–119

chilled margins, A:120, 122

petrography, B:120–121

petrology, A:116–119, 123, 126

phenocrysts, A:119

photomicrograph, A:137

pillow basalts, A:172–174

turbidites, A:57–59, 111–112, 169

plagioclase, aphyric, lithologic units, A:59–70

Pliocene, calcareous nannofossils, B:40–43

plumose. See textures

pore water

calcium carbonate, B:95–103

cation exchange, B:87–94

drilling, A:14

geochemistry, A:11, 81–82, 142–144, 183–184; B:47–48, 105–111

sediments, B:4

transects, A:18–19

See also formation water


core vs. log, B:29 34

massive alteration, B:134

vs. clay content, B:70, 74–75, 77, 79–80, 82–84

vs. depth, A:89, 91, 93, 96, 149, 151, 187, 189–192; B:26–29, 72

vs. mean grain size, B:70–71, 74–75, 77, 79–80, 82–84

vs. thermal conductivity, A:96, 155, 194

vs. velocity, A:155, 194; B:29, 34

See also void ratio

porosity, pseudo, vs. depth, B:31

porosity logs

vs. depth, A:201

See also neutron porosity logs


equivalent fraction, B:87–94

fluid flow, A:137–138

pore water, A:83, 135–136

reduction, B:131–133

vs. depth, A:83, 144, 155, 181

vs. iron/(iron + magnesium) ratio, B:154

See also iron–potassium–magnesium plot

potassium, interlayer, vs. tetrahedral aluminum, B:154

potassium feldspar, turbidites, A:57–59, 111–112, 169

potassium logs, vs. depth, A:207–210

potassium oxide

alteration, A:123–133

altered glass, B:128, 134

reduction, B:131–133

vs. iron oxide/(iron oxide + magnesium oxide) ratio, B:133

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125

precipitation, pore water, A:84

preservation, coccoliths, B:43–44


CORK experiments, A:97–98, 153

packer experiments, A:96–97, 146–147, 153

vs. time after gauge turned on, A:100, 159

propane, correlation with sulfate, A:138–139

provenance, hemipelagic mud, B:51–65

pseudomorphs, photomicrograph, A:125


alteration, A:73–75, 77, 112–113, 131–132, 173–174; B:126

diagenesis, A:80, 85

massive alteration, B:129

photograph, A:65

photomicrograph, A:134

secondary minerals, A:126, 128, 131

turbidites, A:57–59, 111–112

veins, A:74–75

vs. depth, A:61, 112, 170

pyrite, drusy, photomicrograph, A:74

pyrolysis, Rock-Eval, production index, A:87, 147


lithologic units, A:59–70

petrography, B:120–121

petrology, A:116–119, 123, 126

pillow basalts, A:172–174


alteration, A:74, 173–174; B:126

secondary minerals, A:128



alteration, A:73; B:126

sand, B:54–56

turbidites, A:57–59, 111–112, 169

veins, A:74–75

vs. depth, A:61, 112, 170

See also alpha-quartz

quartz, vuggy, binocular microscope photograph, A:77

quartz/feldspar ratio, turbidites, A:57–59


calcareous nannofossils, A:77–78, 175; B:39–49

lithologic units, A:57, 109–111, 167–169

Queen Charlotte Islands, sediment provenance, B:56

Queen Charlotte Sound, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10

Quinault Canyon

dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62

sedimentation rates, B:52


rare earths, saponite, B:154

recrystallization, nannofossils, B:47–48

reddish brown zone, oxidation halos, B:130–131


alteration, B:119–136

bacteria, A:135–137

diagenesis, A:80

regression plots, mean grain size, B:69–84

relative group abundance, nannofossils, B:44–46

remanent magnetization, natural

Brunhes/Matuyama boundary, A:80

Sediments, A:78, 175

resistivity logs, vs. depth, A:198, 203–204

rims, glassy, alteration, B:126, 128

Rough Basement Transect

basement, A:12–14

drilling, A:18–20

geochemistry, B:99–100

modal point-count data of secondary minerals, A:73

site description, A:101–160

stratigraphy, B:53

rubble, basalt, lithologic units, A:110


aragonite, B:126

carbonates, B:141

vs. depth, B:107–110, 112, 114


salts, photograph, A:131


composition and provenance, B:51–65

detrital sand modes, B:55

lithologic units, A:57, 167–169

petrography, B:54–56

physical properties, A:24, 193

physical properties vs. thickness, A:94

point-count data, B:55

vs. depth, B:69, 73, 75–76, 78, 80–81, 83–84

sand percentage, sediments, B:69–71

sand thickness

measurements, A:193

number of measurements, A:153

vs. depth, A:110, 168


alteration, A:70, 72, 74–75, 77, 116–119, 123, 126; B:122, 125

electron microprobe data, B:152–154, 157

greenish red to green zone, B:130–131

greenish to light gray zone, B:130–131

magnesium number, B:154

massive alteration, B:129

photograph, A:65

photomicrograph, A:75, 132, 135–136

pillow basalts, A:172–174

trace elements, B:154

vein geochemistry, B:156

saponite, cryptocrystalline, secondary clays, B:150–151

saponite, fibrous

basalts, A:65

photomicrograph, A:76, 132–134

secondary clays, B:150–151

sketches, A:131

saponite, iron-rich

alteration, B:122, 125, 134

diffusion, B:131

reduction, B:131–133

saponite, magnesium-rich

alteration, B:122, 125, 134

reduction, B:131–133

saponite, trioctahedral, X-ray diffraction data, B:151

saturation index, calcium carbonate, B:95–97

seafloor spreading, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–21

sealing, basement, B:71

secondary minerals

alteration, A:70–77, 125–133, 173–175; B:121–126

alteration halos, B:132

basalts, A:72, 128

modal point-count data, A:72, 129, 172

modal proportion in thin sections, A:129

photomicrograph, A:74

sediments, B:4

vs. distance from ridge axis, B:122

X-ray diffraction data, A:72, 128

sedimentary petrology, Sites 1023–1025, A:57–59

sedimentation rates

deposition, B:52

nannofossil events, B:43–44


alteration, A:112–113, 169; B:4

bacteria, B:161–165

basement, A:9–10

calcium carbonate, B:95–103

composition and provenance, B:51–65

deposition, A:103

dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62

physical properties, A:86–87, 94, 140–141, 152, 177–178; B:67–84

seismic profiles, B:14–15

transects, A:17

X-ray diffraction data, B:58

sediments, hemipelagic, terrigenous component, B:87–94

sediments, hemipelagic marine, core–log seismic integration, B:21–35

seepage, basement, B:71

segregation vesicles

petrology, A:62, 65

photomicrograph, A:62, 134

seismic Layer 2a, heat flow, A:52

seismic lines, location, B:9–13

seismic profiles

Hydrocell-95 and Hydrocell-96 seismic surveys, B:9–19

Juan de Fuca Ridge E, A:13, 25, 29–30, 33

Rough Basement Transect, A:104

Sites 1023–1025, A:51

Sites 1028–1032, A:163

structures, B:14–15

seismic reflection

basement, A:51

Sites 1023–1025, A:53

two-way traveltime, A:105, 164

seismic surveys, Hydrocell-95 and Hydrocell-96 seismic surveys, B:9–19

seismograms. See synthetic seismograms

sheaf-spherulitic. See textures

shear strength, vs. depth, A:89, 91, 93, 149, 151, 187, 189, 191


altered glass, B:128

basalts, A:123

pore water, A:83–84, 136

vs. copper oxide, B:171


lithologic units, A:57

provenance, B:56–59


diffusion, B:131

microorganisms, B:170–171

vs. depth, A:83, 145, 182

sills, diabasic, photograph, A:118

sills, photomicrograph, A:122


lithologic units, A:57, 109–111

nannofossils, B:44–45

vs. depth, B:69, 73, 75–76, 78, 80–81, 83–84

silt, clayey, lithologic units, A:167–169

silt, sandy

lithologic units, A:109–111

petrography, B:54–56

silt percentage, sediments, B:69–71

silt thickness, vs. depth, A:110, 168

Site 1023, A:49–100

operations, A:52

site description, A:49–100

Site 1024, A:49–100

operations, A:52, 54–57

site description, A:49–100

Site 1025, A:49–100

operations, A:52, 54–56

site description, A:49–100

Site 1026

bacteria, B:162

microorganisms, B:167–174

operations, A:103, 106–109

Site 1027

bacteria, B:162–164

operations, A:104, 106–107

Site 1028, operations, A:162, 164

Site 1029, operations, A:164–165

Site 1030, operations, A:165–166

Site 1031, operations, A:166

Site 1032, operations, A:166

site geophysics, A:161–212

Sites 1023–1025, A:49–100

age profiles, A:77–79

basement lithology, A:59–77

biostratigraphy, A:77–78

coring, A:55

CORK experiments, A:97–98

fluid geochemistry, A:79–85

lithostratigraphy, A:57–59

magnetostratigraphy, A:78–79

organic geochemistry, A:85–86

packer experiments, A:96–97

petrology, A:59–77

physical properties, A:86–94

sedimentary petrology, A:57–59

site description, A:49–100

thermal studies, A:94–96

Sites 1026–1027, A:101–160

age profiles, A:133–134

bacteria, B:161–165

basement petrology, A:113–133

coring, A:106

CORK experiments, A:153

fluid geochemistry, A:134–138

lithostratigraphy, A:109–113

organic geochemistry, A:138–140

packer experiments, A:146–147, 153

physical properties, A:140–141

site description, A:101–160

thermal studies, A:141–145

Sites 1028–1032, A:161–212

age profiles, A:175

basement lithology, A:169–175

coring, A:165

downhole measurements, A:180–181

fluid geochemistry, A:176–177

lithostratigraphy, A:166–169

organic geochemistry, A:177

physical properties, A:177–179

site description, A:161–212

thermal studies, A:179–180

skewness, graphical, vs. depth, B:69, 73, 75–76, 78, 80–81, 83–84


relative abundance vs. depth, B:60

sand, B:55–56

turbidites, A:57–59, 111–112

vs. depth, A:113

X-ray diffraction data, B:123

See also chlorite/smectite minerals; illite/smectite mixed minerals

smectite, cryptocrystalline, glassy rims, B:126, 134

smectite, detrital, ternary diagrams, B:62–63

smectite, magnesium-rich, glassy rims, B:126


equivalent fraction, B:87–94

fluid flow, A:137–138

pore water, A:135–136

vs. depth, A:83, 144, 181

sodium/chlorine ratio, vs. depth, A:83, 145, 182

sodium oxide

altered glass, B:128

diabase, A:123

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125, 139

sonic logs, vs. depth, A:198

sorting coefficient, vs. depth, B:69, 73, 75–76, 78, 80–81, 83–84

spherulites, petrography, B:120–121

spinels, secondary minerals, A:128

stability, calcium carbonate, B:95–103

Straight of Juan de Fuca, dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62

stratigraphic list, calcareous nannofossil events, A:77, 140, 175

stratigraphy, sediments, B:52–54


aragonite, B:126

carbonates, B:139, 141

saponite, B:154

vs. depth, B:98–102, 107–109, 111, 113, 115

See also calcium/strontium ratio

strontium isotopes, vs. depth, B:107–109, 111, 113, 115

strontium oxide, carbonates, B:139, 144

strontium/calcium ratio, vs. depth, B:98–102

structures, seismic profiles, B:14–15

subduction zones, hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10

subvariolites, petrography, B:120–121

subvariolitic. See textures


bacteria, B:164

diagenesis, A:80

fluid flow, A:84, 137–138

methane, A:85

pore water, A:18

vs. alkalinity, A:84

vs. ammonia, A:84

vs. depth, A:83, 85, 144, 180; B:164


alteration, A:73, 173–174; B:126

petrology, A:119

photomicrograph, A:74

secondary minerals, A:126, 128


sediments, A:86, 139, 177

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125

synthetic seismograms

sediments, A:181

vs. depth, A:201; B:33

See also amplitude logs

synthetic seismograms, amplitude, vs. depth, B:26–29



alteration, A:73, 173–175; B:126

binocular microscope photograph, A:76

diffusion, B:131

secondary minerals, A:126

veins, A:74–75


hydrothermal circulation, A:7–10

See also structures


CORK experiments, A:97–98, 100, 153, 159–160

fluid flow, B:47

fluid inclusions, B:142

heat flow, B:47

open-hole measurements, A:145

sediments, A:179–180

temperature tool, A:200

vs. calcite dissolution, B:97

vs. depth, A:157; B:164

vs. theoretical decay functions, A:98–99, 156, 195–196

vs. time, A:98–99, 156–157, 195–196

temperature, basement, vs. distance from ridge, A:11

temperature, equilibrium, vs. depth, A:99, 157, 196–197

temperature, extrapolated, basement, A:99, 158, 198

temperature, extrapolated equilibrium

basement, A:158

measurements, A:195

sediments, A:97

temperature, relative

vs. depth, A:27

vs. time, A:27

temperature, sediment, transects, A:18

temperature, sediment/basement contact, vs. distance from ridge crest, A:16

terrigenous component, geochemistry, B:87–94


carbonates, B:139

lithologic units, A:59–69, 113–123

photomicrograph, A:67

sediments, B:67–84

See also groundmass; microlites; spherulites; subvariolites; variolites

textures, aphanitic, pillow basalts, A:172–173

textures, cryptocrystalline, basalts, A:65

textures, geopetal, photomicrograph, A:68

textures, glomeroporphyritic, pillow basalts, A:172–173

textures, intergranular, photomicrograph, A:67

textures, intersertal

photomicrograph, A:67, 69

pillow basalts, A:172–173

textures, microglomeroporphyritic, lithologic units, A:116

textures, ophitic, diabase, A:120

textures, plumose

basalts, A:65

photomicrograph, A:69

textures, sheaf-spherulitic, photomicrograph, A:69

textures, subvariolitic

photograph, A:116

pillow basalts, A:172–173

textures, variolitic

basalts, A:116–119

petrology, A:65

photograph, A:116

thermal conductivity

lithostratigraphic units, A:88, 90, 92, 148, 150, 186, 188

sediments, A:87, 94, 96, 141, 179

vs. depth, A:27–28, 96, 157, 190–192, 194

vs. porosity, A:96, 155, 194

thermal conductivity, calculated, vs. depth, A:99

thermal studies

Sites 1023–1025, A:94–96

Sites 1026–1027, A:141–145

Sites 1028–1032, A:179–180

thermal transport, alteration, A:11

thermal waters, DNA, B:167–174


calcium carbonate, B:95–103

See also stability

thorium logs, vs. depth, A:207–210

titanium oxide

alteration, A:124

diabase, A:123

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125, 139

titanomaghemite, reddish brown zone, B:130

titanomagnetite, reddish brown zone, B:130

topography, seismic profiles, B:14–15

trace elements

carbonates, B:138–141

pore water, B:105–115

saponite, B:154, 157

secondary clays, B:149–157

transport, hydrothermal circulation, B:3–5

transport, sediment, provenance, B:61–62

traveltime, two-way

vs. age, B:88

vs. distance from ridge axis, A:33

turbidite matrix vs. hemipelagic mud, relative clay mineral abundance vs. depth, B:61

turbidite sand, polycrystalline grain modes, vs. depth, B:57–58

turbidite sand, total grain modes, vs. depth, B:57–58

turbidite thickness, vs. depth, A:59, 110, 168


composition and provenance, B:51–65

diagenesis, A:83–84

lithologic units, A:57, 109–111, 167–169

nannofossil events, B:43–45

water circulation, Hydrothermal Transition Transect, A:50



diagenesis, A:176–177

geochemistry, B:103

uranium logs, vs. depth, A:207–210


Vancouver Island

dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62

sediment provenance, B:56, 59

sedimentation rates, B:52

Vancouver Valley

dispersal regional patterns, B:62

sedimentation rates, B:52


glassy rims, B:126

petrography, B:120–121

See also subvariolites

variolitic. See textures

vein dips, histogram, A:76


alteration, A:74–75, 174; B:122–123

binocular microscope photograph, A:76–77

carbonates, B:139

massive alteration, B:128–129

petrology, A:130–131

photograph, A:130–131, 136

photomicrograph, A:136–137; B:136

veins, carbonate, photomicrograph, B:147–148

veins, clay–zeolite–calcite, photomicrograph, A:137

veins, composite, glassy rims, B:126

veins, concentric, massive alteration, B:129

veins, fibrous calcite–clay, photomicrograph, A:136

veins, irregular, massive alteration, B:129

veins, radial, massive alteration, B:129

veins, simple, glassy rims, B:126


core vs. log, B:29, 34

vs. depth, B:26–29

vs. distance from ridge, A:11

vs. porosity, A:155, 194; B:29, 34

velocity, pseudo, vs. depth, B:32

velocity logs, vs. depth, A:201, 203–204

vent waters, microorganisms, B:169–172

vesicle fillings

alteration, A:74, 174

petrology, A:129–130

photomicrograph, B:136


lithologic units, A:60–70

photomicrograph, A:68, 74–76, 132–135

reddish brown zone, B:130

sketches, A:131

See also segregation vesicles

vesicles, gas

petrology, A:65

pillow basalts, A:172–174


massive alteration, B:134

photograph, A:64

void fillings, miarolitic, reddish brown zone, B:130

void ratio

vs. clay content, B:70, 74–75, 77, 79–80, 82–84

vs. mean grain size, B:70–71, 74–75, 77, 79–80, 82–84

See also porosity

volcanic glass

alteration, A:174

petrography, B:120–121, 169

photomicrograph, A:74, 137

See also glass shards

volcanic glass, altered

chemical composition across layers, B:130, 134

chemical variations, B:128

volcanic glass, isotropic, glassy rims, B:128

volcanism, basement, A:12–14, 51


vugs, photograph, A:65


Washington–Oregon shelf, sediment provenance, B:59

water. See also vent waters

water content

altered glass, B:128

basalts, A:123

vs. clay content, B:70, 74–75, 77, 79–80, 82–84

vs. magnesium number, A:71, 125

vs. mean grain size, B:70–71, 74–75, 77, 79–80, 82–84

See also formation water

water/rock reactions, basement, A:84–85


hemipelagic marine sediments, B:21–35

shore-based processing, A:202

Sites 1028–1032, A:180–181

See also core–log correlation; density logs; downhole measurements; Formation MicroScanner imagery; gamma-ray logs; geochemical logs; neutron porosity logs; photoelectric factor logs; porosity logs; potassium logs; resistivity logs; thorium logs; uranium logs; velocity logs

Willapa Canyon

dispersal regional patterns, B:61–62

sedimentation rates, B:52


X-ray diffractograms, sediments, A:60


yttrium, saponite, B:154



alteration, A:73, 174; B:126, 134

petrology, A:65

photomicrograph, A:137

pillow basalts, B:123

secondary minerals, A:126, 132

See also phillipsite; veins

zeolites, euhedral, photomicrograph, A:76


calcite, B:126

carbonates, B:139, 141

saponite, B:154

See also calcium/zinc ratio

zirconium, saponite, B:154

Zoophycos, lithologic units, A:110–111, 168