We have not attempted to draw any conclusions regarding stratigraphic ranges of individual taxa since our findings are preliminary and too little is known about low-latitude taxa in general, high-latitude taxa in the Northern Hemisphere, and mid-latitude taxa in the Southern Hemisphere. And we know that many taxa are ubiquitous, with their stratigraphic ranges reflecting latitudinal control. It is imperative that we know which species are restricted to low, mid-, or high latitudes and which are more widespread but show latitudinal control on ranges. These insights should allow us to plot palinspastic reconstructions showing Late Cretaceous–Tertiary distribution patterns and help us define dinocyst paleoprovinces. We know that such paleoprovinces exist (Lentin and Williams, 1980), but we need to generate more precise biostratigraphic data before drawing conclusions. Moreover, we need to identify those taxa, such as Apectodinium, that are strong indicators of warmer-water conditions. Utilization of such knowledge will make fossil dinocysts both key biostratigraphic and critical paleoecologic indicators in shelfal- and deeper-water regions.