Publishing Instructions for ODP Scientists
This section describes ODP style for terminology used in Proceedings manuscripts. The section
on biological names details ODP's taxonomic conventions.
ODP identifies cores, sections, and samples by sequences of numerals:
Core: leg number + site number + hole letter + core number + core-type letter.
For rock pieces:
Example: Core 101-626A-2R.
Section: leg number + site number + hole letter + core number + core-type letter + section
Example: Section 101-626A-2R-1.
Sample: above identifiers + interval from top of section in cm.
Example: Sample 101-626A-2R-1, 50-52 cm.
Interval that spans multiple pieces: leg number + site number + hole letter + core
number + core-type letter + section number + rock-piece number(s) in parentheses.
For the core catcher (CC):
Example: interval 173-1069A-17R-1 (Piece 14 through Piece 16).
Sample: above identifiers + interval from top of section in parentheses.
Example: Sample 173-1069A-17R-1 (Piece 16, 84-86 cm).
Note: Pieces are considered to be part of the section they came from. The centimeter range
should reflect the depth from the entire cored section
Section: leg number + site number + hole letter + core number + core-type letter +
Whenever numerical identifiers are used in text, they are preceded by the item they are
identifying. Examples: Leg 101; Hole 626A; Core 101-626A-2R; Section 101-626A-2R-1;
Sample 101-626A-2R-1, 50-52 cm. Numerals alone should occur only in tables and charts.
Example: Section 101-626A-2R-CC.
Sample: above identifiers + interval from top of CC in parentheses.
Example: Sample 101-626A-2R-CC (8-9 cm).
In descriptive or repetitive text we do not require use of the complete core, section, or sample
identifier where the context is clear and unambiguous. Give the complete identifier initially and
then use an abbreviated form where the meaning is unmistakable. Example: "Messinian
sediments were recovered from Sample 160-967A-13H-4, 109-111 cm, through 16X-1, 84-86
All ODP hole identifications include both the site designator and a qualifying letter. Example:
Hole 642A was the first hole drilled at ODP Site 642. In DSDP usage, however, the first hole
drilled at a site took only the site number. Example: Hole 436 was the first hole and 436A was
the second hole drilled at DSDP Site 436.
The term "interval" can be used to specify a length in centimeters other than a sample interval,
but, this term is informal and is not capitalized.
Site is used when referring to information derived from, or associated with, several holes
drilled while the ship was positioned over a single acoustic beacon. "Site" may also be used
loosely in generalizations about an area, regardless of the number of holes drilled there. When
referring to a site that has not been drilled yet, write "proposed" or "target" site.
Hole is used when referring to information derived from or associated with a particular drilled
hole. We drill holes, not sites.
The procedure for naming new minerals is outlined by the Commission on New Mineral
Names of the International Mineralogical Association. No new mineral names should be
submitted for publication unless they have been approved by the commission.
The Proceedings volumes are not primarily paleontological publications, and we discourage
monographic treatment of any fossil group. We recognize, however, that the paleontological
material derived from the Ocean Drilling Program is of immediate interest and that its publication
in the Proceedings volumes is a means of dispersing this new knowledge. Writers should take all
possible care in recording and presenting paleontological data, especially when naming and
describing new species. Follow as closely as possible the procedures outlined in the International
Code of Zoological Nomenclature (London, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature,
1964) and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Regnum Veg., 1983). Recent ODP
Proceedings should also prove helpful.
See examples of formatting for taxonomic notes and appendixes.
Paleontological Style and Naming Conventions
Paleontological Systematic Descriptions
- Carefully double-check the spelling of all names, in text and tables.
- Be sure that the name of a genus, species, subspecies, or variety is italicized in the text.
- Taxonomic categories above genus and other terms or punctuation marks should not be
capitalized. For example, when "sp.," "cf.," or "?" are used in conjunction with taxonomic
names, they should appear in roman (regular) type.
- The species name consists of the generic name and the specific name. Capitalize the generic
name and write it in full at its first mention. For subsequent occurrences the generic name may
be abbreviated to the initial capital followed by a period, provided no doubt can arise about
which genus is being referred to. When discussing several genera with the same first letter, give
the full name at least once on each page where the name is mentioned. The specific name is
always spelled out in lowercase italic letters without punctuation or diacritical (accent) marks.
- Include the name(s) of the author(s) of a species or subspecies at first mention in text.
Use no punctuation between the species name and that of its author.
The date of original publication of the name, if included, follows the author's name, separated
from it by a comma (e.g., Globorotalia lenguaensis Bolli, 1957).
Type the author's name in lowercase with an initial capital.
- If, as a result of taxonomic emendation, a species has been transferred to another genus
from the genus under which it was originally described, place the name of the original author
in parentheses. For example, "Globorotalia scitula (Brady 1884)," meaning the organism
was originally described as Pulvinulina scitula by Brady in1884.
- Note that provisional species (e.g., Dictyocha sp. A) have no standing in taxonomy and
therefore carry no authorial attribution. References of this type from previous descriptions
should be in the form Globorotalia sp. B of Jones (1973).
Paleontological Reference List Guidelines
- Systematic descriptions should be kept brief and limited to those species requiring
- Do not include well-known species or species that, at least from your point of view at the
time of writing, present no taxonomic difficulties and require no comment on your part.
- Although it is necessary to illustrate newly identified paleontological species, those that
have been well illustrated elsewhere should not be included.
- Be sure to give the location of deposition and catalog numbers of all type and figured
specimens. See Example 1. Paleontological description with the text.
Paleontological Terms and Usage
- Usually it is not necessary to include in the reference list all references noted in the taxonomic
section (e.g., those in the synonymy of previous names accorded a taxon). However, for all taxa
actively used by the author (e.g., those cited in range charts, tables, text [exclusive of
synonymies], etc.), or for any transfers or emendations, complete taxonomic names with
appropriate bibliographic references must be given somewhere in the manuscript so that readers
can trace the original citation for the names. Complete taxonomic names consist of the binomial
Latin name, name(s) of the original author(s), and the original date of publication
("Coccosphaera pelagica Wallich, 1877"). Where the species name has been transferred to
another genus, the name(s) of the author(s) and the publication date of the new combination
must be given. For example, "Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich, 1877) Schiller, 1930," means
the organism was transferred from Coccosphaera to Coccolithus by Schiller in 1930.
- The complete taxonomic names can be given in a taxonomic section or, perhaps more
conveniently, as a list in an appendix. Bibliographic references to taxa may be given in the
reference section of the paper or, if more convenient, by reference to a standard index, catalog,
or other comprehensive list published elsewhere that contains the bibliographic references (see
the Annotated Index and Bibliography of the Calcareous Nannoplankton, published by the
International Nannofossil Association or its predecessors). (See examples)
- Use common names of organisms in text; for example, "radiolarians," not "Radiolaria," and
"diatoms," not "Diatomaceae." The only exception is when the taxonomic category itself (the
Order Radiolaria, for example) is the subject under discussion.
- Correct usage of names in ODP publications:
nannofossil(s), radiolarian(s), diatom(s), silicoflagellate(s), foraminifer(s).
- Abbreviated forms like "foram," "nanno," or "nannooze" are not acceptable in formal
- The common names of organisms are used frequently as modifiers, in both their noun and
adjective forms, when naming sediments. If the fossil is the major component in the sediment,
the noun form is used, as in "diatom ooze." If the fossil is a relatively minor component but
still requires mention, then the adjective form is used, as in "diatomaceous clay." Note that
"radiolarian" and "nannofossil" serve as both nouns and adjectives.
Authors must prepare range charts electronically using word processing or spreadsheet
software. (See Table and Range Chart Formatting Specifications for more information.) If ODP
receives range charts in any other format, the range charts will either be sent back to the author
to be reformatted or be scanned by the ODP Publication Services Department. Please note that
the scanned product will only be as good as the original printout.
Depict preservation and abundance using a standard letter code or number; do not use
symbols. For example:
Preservation: Good (G), little fragmentation or etching of specimens; moderate (M),
fragmentation and etching of specimens obvious; poor (P), most specimens broken and
Abundance: Rare (R), <3%; few (F), 3%15%; common (C), >15%30%; abundant (A),
The methods section of the manuscript should state how abundance and preservation
assignments were determined (e.g., whether estimates were made or specimens were counted,
and if so, how many, etc.).
If many contiguous samples in a section are barren, state that fact in a footnote rather than
producing charts in which large areas are blank.
ODP follows the North American and International Stratigraphic Codes that draw a clear
distinction between time terms on the one hand and time-rock and rock terms on the other.
Time terms: Geologic time should be thought of as pure time that can be measured by a clock
or a calendar; therefore, the modifier "early" or "late" is appropriate. The adjectives "early,"
"middle," and "late" refer to geologic time.
Example: "The eruptive phase occurred in the late Eocene."
Time-rock units: The sediments or rocks deposited during a defined interval of time are
time-rock units (also called time-stratigraphic or, more appropriately, chronostratigraphic units).
For these, the terms "lower" and "upper" are appropriate. The adjectives "lower," "middle,"
and "upper" refer to the stratigraphic section.
Example: "Lower Miocene sediments were bioturbated."
Time-rock units (with the modifiers "upper" and "lower") are used if you are referring
to sediments, rocks, or fossils that you can hold in your hand or hit with your hammer (e.g.,
"this core/section/sample is upper Miocene").
If you refer directly to the "sediment," "core," "sample," or "section," use the modifier
"upper" or "lower" (e.g., "upper Miocene sediments"). Of course, they were deposited during
late Miocene time. So, if you use the words "age" or "in age" in your description, then only the
modifier "early" or "late" can be correct ("these cores are late Miocene in age" or "these cores
are of late Miocene age"). To look at it all another way, if you were late according to the clock
for a science meeting, you would never tell your co-chief scientist, "Sorry to be upper for the
meeting." Conversely, you would never say, "We stopped drilling in the late Paleocene."
See also Capitalization in Usage and Writing Style Guidelines section.
Indiscriminate informal naming of undersea features should be avoided.
If you are considering naming a feature, check existing gazetteers first.
One of the most comprehensive is the Gazetteer of Undersea Features (U.S. Defense
Mapping Agency, Washington).
You should also take into account the guidelines contained in Standardization of Undersea
Feature Names, published by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the
International Hydrographic Organization (IOC-IHO). This publication can be obtained free of
charge from IHB, BP 445, MC 98011 Monaco Cedex.
Any proposed new names should be submitted for clearance to appropriate national
authorities or to the IOC-IHO. For more information, see the internet pages for IOC
(http://www.unesco.org/ioc [leaving ODP web pages]) and IHO (http://iho.shom.fr [leaving
ODP web pages]).
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Modified on Friday, 13-Aug-2004 12:37:40 CDT.