Leg 175 will drill at least eight sites as part of a latitudinal transect between 5°S and 32°S. Time permitting, ten or eleven sites will be attempted. Proposed sites are located in the Lower Congo Basin (LCB), Mid-Angola Basin (MAB), Southern Angola Basin (SAB), Walvis Basin (WB), Northern Cape Basin (NCB), Mid-Cape Basin (MCB), and Southern Cape Basin (SCB). To recover a complete stratigraphic sequence, we anticipate coring two or three holes with the APC at each site.


1. Lower Congo Basin (LCB)
Two LCB sites will sample a complex environment dominated by riverine input, seasonal coastal upwelling, and incursions from the southern equatorial counter current (Fig. 8). Whereas these two sites represent the same depositional environment, they are located at varying distances from the shelf break, in different water depths, and at different positions with respect to the river plume and Congo Canyon. Seismic lines and proposed drill sites are shown in Figure 15. Maximum penetration is 200 m, for Sites LCB-1 and LCB-4. Time permitting, Site LCB-3A will be attempted to 200 m, with double APC coring.

2. Mid-Angola Basin (MAB)
The MAB sites, off the bight of Angola near 12°S, were chosen to provide information on "most nearly normal" margin sedimentation, being influenced neither by riverine input, nor by sustained year-round upwelling. Upwelling is greatly influenced by variations in the Angola Thermal Dome. It is seasonal, and productivity is relatively weak compared to that of adjacent regions (Schneider, 1991). This setting allows maximum expression of a pelagic signal in the regional high productivity record. Proposed drill sites are located on seismic Line GeoB 93-015 (Fig. 16), because the southerly profile Line GeoB 93-017 is significantly influenced by slumping of shelf sediments and turbidity currents. Of the various sites proposed originally, the two shallow sites were determined to be feasible for drilling: Site MAB-1 for a maximum of 200 m, and Site MAB-2 for 120 m.

3. Southern Angola Basin (SAB)
The Southern Angola Basin sites are positioned to sample the northern end of the Angola/Namibia upwelling region. The transect should nicely complement previous results obtained from Walvis Ridge. This transect is important not only for the history of the Benguela Current and coastal upwelling migration, but also for its contribution to the climatic history of southern Africa. The Kunene River, reaching the coast at ~17°S, is at the climatological barrier between an illite zone in arid areas to the south and a kaolinite zone from tropical weathering areas to the north (Bornhold, 1973). The proposed sites are situated on a climatic boundary, and should sensitively reflect changes in the position of continental climatic zones. Suitable drill sites were identified from seismic lines in water depths between 2200 and 3000 m. The bathymetric survey confirmed the complex nature of the depositional environment. Although the survey was not sufficient to analyze all structures in detail, it is clear from the combined HYDROSWEEP and PARASOUND echosounder data set that few potential drill sites may be found in the area. Seismic Line GeoB 93 030 lies across proposed Site SAB-2 (Fig. 17). Stratigraphic data from two gravity cores (GeoB 1023-5, 17°09.4'5, 11°00.7'E, water depth 1918 m; GeoB 1024-2, 17°09.8'E, water depth 2799 m) show high Pleistocene sedimentation rates (10-50 cm/1000 yr) (Wefer et al., 1988; Schneider et al., 1992). We will attempt to drill to 600 m at Site SAB-2. Time permitting, Site SAB-1 will be drilled for double APC coring.

4. Walvis Basin (WB)
Sites WB-B and WB-C, together with DSDP Sites 532 and 362 at water depths of 1331 m and 1325 m, form a transect that is central to the reconstruction of the history of the Benguela Current (Fig. 18). The DSDP sites are seaward of the upwelling center, but contain an upwelling signal that was transported to this location by the Benguela Current and its filaments. At the other end of the transect, proposed Site WB-B will give a better record of the upwelling itself. Cores spanning the late Quaternary from nearby areas show a sedimentation rate of 4-7 cm/1000 yr (Schulz et al., 1992). We will attempt to drill to 600 m at Site WB-B. Time permitting, Sites WB-C and/or WB A will be drilled for double APC coring.

5. Northern Cape Basin (NCB)

The NCB site will help document the northward migration of the Benguela Current system from the Miocene to the Quaternary, as well as the shoreward/seaward migration of the upwelling center. This site will also provide a record of maximum productivity in the system. Previous work in this area (for a summary see Dingle et al., 1987) has documented anaerobic, in part varved, sedimentation in the upper margin regions. Phosphatic deposits also are abundant (Calvert and Price, 1983). Seismic lines and the proposed drill site are shown in Figure 19.

The results of Emery et al. (1975) and Austin and Uchupi (1982) show a thick hemipelagic wedge sitting on "rifted continental crust." Slumps would not seem to pose a major problem, although hiatuses are anticipated. Noteworthy is the confirmation of a thick sequence below the shelf region. A close tie-in between pelagic and terrigenous sedimentation is expected to be present within the slope record. During the SONNE Cruise SO-86, vertical profiles were shot over multichannel seismic (MCS) Line AM-1, which were collected by the University of Texas to obtain detailed data for the planned site. A first stratigraphy on an 11-m-long core taken in the high-production upwelling area off Namibia (GeoB 1711-4, 23°18.9'S, 12°22.6'E) from a depth of 1967 m indicated a sedimentation rate of 11 cm/1000 yr (Schulz et al., 1992). We will attempt to drill to 600 m at Site NCB-2B.

6. Mid- and Southern Cape Basin (MCB, SCB)
These sites are located in the southernmost area of the Cape Basin (Figs. 1, 20, 21). The sedimentary records will help in exploring the early history of the Benguela Current in the southern Cape Basin and in detecting possible Agulhas Current influences. The sites are located close to the continent to detect upwelling signals and signals from continental climates (pollen, clay minerals, and coarser terrigenous matter), as well as sea-level changes. South of the proposed transect, the margin becomes too steeply sloped to support undisturbed sediments. Site MCB-A is located along GeoB/AWI Line 96-009 (Fig. 20), Site SCB-1 is located along MSC Line AM-54, collected by the University of Texas and along profile GeoB/AWI 96-003 (Fig. 21). A sedimentation rate of about 5 cm/1000 yr was determined (Schulz et al. 1992) for an 11-m-long core collected from near the same water depth (GeoB 1719-7, 28°55.6'S, 14°10.7'E, water depth 1010 m), but ~150 miles to the north. Time permitting, Site MCB-A will be drilled for double APC coring, on the way to SCB. Site SCB-1 will be attempted to a depth of 600 m.

Site SCB-1, as the last site, could be deepened if time is available at the end of the leg. If it appears that time is indeed available, permission to deepen this hole beyond the 400 m now allowed should be sought promptly, to take account of recommendations by the Ocean History Panel (OHP). Alternatively, second priority sites (SCB-A, SCB-B, SCB-C) will be drilled for APC coring.

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